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1 Chapter 32 Intro to Animals Image from:

2 Animals Invertebrates (animals without a backbone) Porifera Cnidaria Worms Mollusks Echinoderms Arthropods

3 Animals Vertebrates- Animals with backbones Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

4 Animal Groups Image from:

5 Characteristics of ALL Animals: 1. Are cells have nucleus & membrane bound organelles 2. Are get food from consuming other organisms 3. Are made of many cells 4. Show different kinds of cells do different jobs

6 Characteristics of ALL Animals: 5. (at some point in life cycle) for food, find mates, escape danger 6. Contain which carries the genetic code 7. Make offspring Most have sexual reproduction (few asexual)

7 10 Body Systems : 1. OUTSIDE BODY COVERING (fur, skin, scales, feathers) Covers and protects, ID, prevents heat & water loss Orangutan image from: Fish image from: Frog image from: Cardinal image from:

8 10 Body Systems : 2. Breaks down food to obtain nutrients & gets rid of undigested waste Image from:

9 NO OPENINGS: Food enters through skin

10 Images from: Only one opening: FOOD IN and WASTE OUT through same opening

11 Image from: Two openings: FOOD IN at one end (mouth) WASTE OUT at other end (ANUS)

12 Image from: Two openings: Most efficient If food flows only one direction it allows for organ specialization (Different parts can start to do different jobs)

13 10 Body Systems : 3. Transports nutrients/oxygen to body cells Carries carbon dioxide/nitrogen waste away from cells Circulatory fluid can be: inside blood vessels = loose inside body spaces = Image from:

14 10 Body Systems : 4. Exchange gases with the environment take in oxygen get rid of waste gases (CO 2 &/or ammonia) Image from:

15 10 Body Systems : 5. Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells Help with HOMEOSTASIS by maintaining water/ion balance ( )

16 NITROGEN WASTE : Most TOXIC Must be removed QUICKLY Needs MOST water to dilute Made from ammonia by liver Less toxic than ammonia Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs less water to dilute than ammonia) LEAST TOXIC Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs LEAST amount of water to dilute

17 NITROGEN WASTE

18 ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME! WHERE ITS MADE? Body system used? DIGESTIVE WASTE left over from undigested food Handled by digestive system NITROGEN WASTE made by cells from break down of proteins Handled by excretory system In what form? Feces (poop) ammonia, urea, or uric acid

19 10 Body Systems : 6. Framework to support body/protection Skeleton on inside = Skeleton on outside = Walking skeleton image from: Insect lefg image from:

20 Image from: 10 Body Systems : 7. Locomotion- move body itself OR move substances through body (EX: food through digestive system; blood through vessels)

21 10 Body Systems : 8. - Produce offspring by combining genetic material from 2 parents = Produce offspring using genetic material from only 1 parent = Family image from: Planaria animation:

22 10 Body Systems : DEVELOPMENT immature LARVA looks different than adult Metamorphosis image from: Frog image from: DEVELOPMENT young are smaller versions on adults Image from:

23 Sperm and egg join outside female s body = Sperm and egg join inside female s body = Animation from:

24 9. Receive sensory info about environment & send response signals

25 10. Make hormones that regulate other body systems (only in higher animals) Image from:

26 Kinds of Symmetry No symmetry Radial symmetry Bilateral symmetry

27 No symmetry Doesn t matter how you cut it; you never get 2 identical halves. Image from:

28 Symmetry Jelly fish image: Image from: Get 2 identical halves in several directions.

29 Symmetry If divide animal down the middle you get 2 mirror images Image from: BUT only divides equally in ONE direction

30 3. EMBRYOLOGY Image from: 1. Where does BLASTOPORE end up? 2. What do embryos look like as they divide? 3. When do cells decide what they will be?

31 EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Image from: Becomes digestive system

32 1. Where does BLASTOPORE end up? Images modified from:

33 What do embryos look like as they divide? SPIRAL CLEAVAGE RADIAL CLEAVAGE Images from:

34 When do cells decide what they will become? Image from:

35 Cells decide early Cells decide later Removing cell causes death Removing cell OK Images modified from:

36 THAT S WHERE TWINS COME FROM!

37 ANIMALS PROTOSTOMES Blastopore becomes MOUTH Decide very early (DETERMINATE) SPIRAL cleavage ALL INVERTEBRATES except ECHINODERMS DEUTEROSTOMES Blastopore becomes ANUS Decide later (INDETERMINATE) RADIAL cleavage ALL VERTEBRATES (Fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals) plus ECHINODERMS

38 EMBRYOLOGY are the exception to the rule! They are INVERTEBRATES but their embryos act like Image from:

39 EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Image from: Becomes digestive system

40 All animals except sponges, jellyfish, anemones have 3 germ layers in their embryos Endoderm Digestive system, respiratory Mesoderm Ectoderm Muscle, excretory, bones, circulatory Outer skin, brain, nervous system

41 Types of Coeloms (See-Lums) No cavity (space) around organs Image from: ACOELOM = without space

42 FLATWORMS are ACOELOMATES!

43 Types of Coeloms (See-Lums) Space around organs but only lined with mesoderm on one side (lines body wall BUT NOT around gut) Image from: PSEUDOCOELOM

44 ROUND WORMS are PSEUDOCOELOMATES!

45 Kinds of Coeloms (See-Lums) EUCOELOM: Body cavity (space) lined on BOTH sides by mesoderm Image from: EUCOELOM = TRUE COELOM = COELOM

46 EUCOELOMATES ALL VERTEBRATES & SOME INVERTEBRATES ALL ANIMALS you will dissect this year are EUCOELOMATES!

47 3 Types of Coeloms ACOELOM ectoderm mesoderm endoderm PSEUDOCOELOM EUCOELOM Image from:

48 Advantages of having a COELOM (body space): Provides space for internal organs In animals without a skeleton- Fluid in coelom space can act as a HYDROSTATIC skeleton In animals without blood vessels- Fluid in coelom space can circulate nutrients and oxygen to cells

49 WHY is a EUCOELOM the best? Digestive organ muscles and body wall muscles come from MESODERM in different places so organism can digest food and move at same time. Images from:

50 Which way is up? Image from:

51 Concentration of nervous tissue and sensory organs in anterior end of an organism (head area)

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