Are these organisms. animals or not?

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2 Are these organisms animals or not?

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4 Typical Animal Characteristics Eukaryotic Multicellular Ability to move Reproduce Obtain food (heterotrophic) Protection Cell adaptations Tissues, organs, nerves, muscles

5 Comparative Anatomy Comparing and contrasting body structures between animals in order to classify them Compare and Contrast the characteristics of an apple and an orange Similarities Differences 1. Both grow on trees 2. Both are types of fruit 3. Both contain seeds 1. Apples can grow in BC; oranges cannot 2. Apples have brown seeds, and oranges have white seeds

6 Structure/Function Relationships Determining how the parts of an organism are related to their function Describe the structures and functions of a human hand 1. Skin 2. Muscles 3. Finger nails 4. Bones Structure Function 1. Acts as a barrier 2. Allow finger manipulation 3. Protect nerve endings 4. Give the hand support and shape

7 Kingdom Animalia Organization 1. Invertebrates No backbone Exoskeleton; endoskeleton 95% of all animal species Ex: Jellyfish, crabs, ants, earthworms 2. Vertebrates Backbone (vertebral column) Endoskeleton 5% of all animal species Ex. Humans, frogs, fish, cats, elephants

8 Life Functions Feeding: A. Herbivore B. Carnivore Respiration: A. Diffusion (i.e. across the cell membrane; no lungs) B. Internal transport (i.e. circulatory system; lungs) Movement: A. Sessile (don t move around) B. Motile (moves around)

9 Symmetry 1. Asymmetry No symmetry; irregular shape Cannot be divided into equal pieces Difficulty moving in any direction Often sessile Live in water (suspends the organism; abundant food available) Developed from ectoderm Ex: sponge

10 Symmetry 2. Radial Symmetry Can be divided along any vertical plane through a central axis into equal pieces Has a top and bottom; no left or right Allows animals to detect and capture prey in any direction Developed from ectoderm and endoderm (2-layer body) Ex: jellyfish

11 Symmetry 3. Bilateral Symmetry Can be divided down its length into two equal halves Has right and left sides Ex. Butterfly, humans

12 Key Concept: Anatomical Terms Posterior Dorsal Anterior Ventral

13 Anatomical Terms Anterior front(head) region Lateral side region Posterior end region Dorsal top(back) region Ventral bottom region Cephalic head region Caudal tail region

14 Anatomical Terms Posterior (Caudal) Dorsal Ventral (belly) Anterior (Cephalic)

15 Stages of Growth and Development 1. Zygote: fertilized egg 2. Embryo: the zygote divides by mitosis (8 cells) 3. Morula: a solid mass of cells 4. Blastula: a cell-covered, fluid-filled ball; 5. Gastrula: the cells on one side indent to form an opening at one end; gives rise to specific tissue layers in the adult

16 Cell Layers 1. Ectoderm: the outer layer of cells of the gastrula; outside of the body (hair, nails, feathers, scales) and nervous system 2. Endoderm: the layer of cells lining the inner surface; lining of the gut 3. Mesoderm: the layer between the ectoderm and endoderm; develop into the muscles, circulatory system, excretory system, respiratory system

17 Body Forms Further classified into: 1. Coelomates: have a fluid-filled space between the gut and body wall lined with mesoderm specialized organs and organ systems coelom cushions and protects internal organs, provides room for growth ex: earthworms, humans, fish, insects

18 Bilaterally Symmetrical Life Forms Further classified into: 2. Acoelomates: no body cavity simple organs probably evolved first ex: flatworms

19 Bilaterally Symmetrical Life Forms 3. Pseudocoelomates: false-coelom have fluid-filled body cavity partly lined with mesoderm enables fast movement due to the muscles bracing themselves against the fluid-filled cavity ex: roundworms

20 Body Cavity Gut: cavity used for digestion (A) Simple gut: pouch-like one opening ex: jellyfish, sea anemone, flatworm (B) Complex: two openings, a mouth an anus ex: birds, reptiles, mammals

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