Unit 10: Animals Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total)

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1 Name: AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 7th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity 1. Define the following terms: a. Cleavage Unit 10: Animals Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) b. Blastula c. Gastrula d. Larva e. Metamorphosis 2. Label the diagram below of early embryonic development. 3. What is believed to be the common ancestor of living animals? 4. What are two hypotheses for the Cambrian Explosion? Page 1 of 19

2 5. Define the following terms with regard to animal body plans. a. Grade b. Body plan c. Radial symmetry d. Bilateral symmetry e. Dorsal f. Ventral g. Anterior h. Posterior i. Cephalization j. Germ layers k. Endoderm l. Ectoderm m. Archenteron n. Diploblastic o. Triploblastic p. Mesoderm q. Body cavity r. Coelom s. Pseudocoelomate t. Coelomate u. Acoelomate Page 2 of 19

3 6. Color and label the following diagram. 7. Color and label the diagram below to compare and contrast the development of protostomes and deuterostomes. 8. What is the difference between determinate cleavage, radial cleavage and indeterminate cleavage? 9. What are the 5 points of agreement on animal phylogeny? Page 3 of 19

4 AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 10. Study the two phylogenic trees above (Figures & 32.11). What is their basic disagreement? A. The tree on the left includes ctenophores and cnidarians in the same clade, while the tree on the right separates them into different clades. B. The tree on the left indicates that sponges are the oldest animal group, while the tree on the right indicates that cnidarians are the oldest animal group. C. The tree on the left divides the bilaterians into two clades based on modes of development, while the tree on the right divides the bilaterians into three clades based on molecular evidence. D. The tree on the left indicates that all animals are descended from an ancient colonial flagellate, while the tree on the right indicates that only the eumetazoans are descended from a colonial flagellate. Chapter 33 - Invertebrates 1. Use the diagram below to label the anatomy of a sponge. Page 4 of 19

5 2. Label the diagram below representing the life cycle of Obelia and answer the question below. Question: What is the difference between a polyp and a medusa? 3. Label the diagram below of a planarian. 4. Describe the life cycle of the blood fluke. 5. List and describe the three main parts of a mollusk. Page 5 of 19

6 Using figure 33.2 and 33.3 on pages and the information in the text, list the relative diversity, distinguishing characteristics and examples of each major invertebrate phylum. Phylum Relative Diversity Characteristics Examples 6. Porifera 7. Cnidaria 8. Placozoa 9. Platyhelminthes 10. Rotifera 11. Mollusca 12. Brachiopoda 13. Annelida 14. Nematoda 15. Arthropoda 16. Tardigrada 17. Hemichordata 18. Echinodermata 19. Chordata Page 6 of 19

7 AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 20. Which of the following combinations of phylum and description is incorrect? A. Nematoda-roundworms, pseudocoelomate B. Porifera-gastrovascular cavity, coelom present C. Cnidaria-radial symmetry, polyp and medusa body forms D. Platyhelminthes-flatworms, gastrovascular cavity, acoelomate Chapter 34 - Vertebrates 1. What are the four characteristics of the Chordates? 2. Describe an example of an invertebrate chordate. 3. What characterizes the subphylum Vertebrata? 4. In the evolution of vertebrates, identify the significance of being tetrapod. 5. Identify the significance of the amniotic egg and the amniote. Page 7 of 19

8 Using Table 34.2 on page 672 as well as the information in the text, outline the key characteristics that distinguish the major branches of the Subphylum Vertebrata identified on the diagram. Include examples of organisms in each class. Exclude the subphyla Urochordata and Cephalochordata. Divisions of Subphylum Vertebrata Characteristics Examples 6. Myxini 7. Cephalospidomorphi 8. Chondrichthyes 9. Actinopterygii 10. Actinista 11. Dipnoi 12. Amphibia 13. Reptilia 14. Mammalia Page 8 of 19

9 AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 15. According to this phylogenetic tree, the animals most closely related to mammals are. A. reptiles B. amphibians C. ray-finned fishes D. sharks, rays, and chimeras Chapter 41 - Animal Nutrition 1. Define the following types of animal feeding mechanisms and give an example of an animal that uses each mechanism: a. Suspension b. Substrate c. Fluid d. Bulk Page 9 of 19

10 2. Complete the diagram below concerning animal homeostasis and blood sugar regulation. 3. How do hormones regulate appetite in humans? 4. Define the following terms: a. Ingestion b. Digestion c. Enzymatic hydrolysis d. Absorption e. Elimination Page 10 of 19

11 5. Contrast intracellular and extracellular digestion. AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 6. What is different about a ruminant s digestive system that allows it to survive on cellulose? A. Ruminants produce large amounts of cellulase, the enzyme required for digesting cellulose. B. The stomachs of ruminants have unique grinding structures that function to break down plant material. C. Ruminants feed their microbial symbionts and then obtain nourishment from the products of that microbial fermentation. D. A ruminant s intestine is much longer than most other animals, allowing more time for the digestion and absorption of cellulose. Chapter 42 - Circulation and Gas Exchange 1. What are the limits to diffusion as a means of transport for living organisms? Considering the rate of diffusion, why is it essential for respiratory surfaces to maximize surface area? 2. Compare and contrast open and closed circulatory systems. Be certain focus on advantages of each. 3. Contrast the vertebrate circulatory systems of fish, amphibians, non-avian reptiles and mammals/birds. What is the advantage of double circulation? 4. Why is gas exchange essential to all living organisms? Page 11 of 19

12 AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 5. Most of the oxygen in the blood that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues. A. by water B. by the trachea C. dissolved in blood plasma D. combined with hemoglobin Chapter 44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion 1. Define the following terms: a. Osmoregulation - b. Excretion - c. Osmolarity - 2. What are the three forms that animals use to dispose of nitrogenous waste? 3. Use the diagram on the right to label and define filtration, reabsorption, secretion and excretion be very clear on their meanings. a. Filtration - b. Reabsorption - c. Secretion d. Excretion - Page 12 of 19

13 AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 4. Which of the following is the most accurate and comprehensive description of the function of kidneys? A. production of urine B. filtration of the blood C. the excretion of wastes D. the regulation of body fluid composition Chapter 45 - Hormones and the Endocrine System 1. What is a hormone? What are the three major classes of molecules that function as hormones in vertebrates? 2. What constitutes the endocrine system and what are its functions? What are endocrine glands? 3. Describe the mechanism of hormonal signaling for water-soluble hormones and for lipid-soluble hormones. 4. What is special about the structure of growth hormone? Give examples of physiological responses to overproduction and underproduction of growth hormone. Page 13 of 19

14 5. Label the diagram below to review basics of signal transduction pathways and answer the question that follows. Question: How can one chemical signal molecule cause multiple effects? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 6. Which of the following is not an accurate statement? A. Hormones are often regulated through feedback loops. B. Hormones of the same chemical class always have the same function. C. Hormones are secreted by specialized cells usually located in endocrine glands. D. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel to target cells through the circulatory system. Page 14 of 19

15 Chapter 48 - Nervous Systems 1. How does the organization of the nervous system of a compare with the organization of the nervous system of a? a. Hydra Insect b. Hydra Flatworm c. Leech Salamander 2. What are the functions of the following? a. Sensory Neurons b. Interneurons - c. Motor Neurons - d. Effector Cells - 3. Label the diagram of neurons below and explain why myelin is important in nerve conduction. Explanation: Page 15 of 19

16 4. Describe the following systems: a. Central Nervous System - b. Peripheral Nervous System - c. Somatic Nervous System - d. Autonomic Nervous System - 5. Label the diagram below concerning the generation of an action potential. Page 16 of 19

17 6. Label the diagram below demonstrating the conduction of the action potential. AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 7. An action potential is a A. a sudden reversal of the sodium-potassium pump. B. a sudden increase in speed by the sodium-potassium pump. C. a traveling wave of depolarization in the neuron membrane. D. a brief neutralization of the charges on sodium and potassium ions. Page 17 of 19

18 Chapter 49 Sensory and Motor Mechanisms 1. Describe a hydrostatic skeleton. 2. Contrast an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton. What function(s) does the skeleton fulfill for land animals? 3. Briefly describe how the muscular system interacts with the skeletal system to create movement. 4. Describe the structure of vertebrate muscle. In general, how does vertebrate muscle work? 5. Distinguish between smooth and cardiac muscle. Page 18 of 19

19 6. Label the following diagram to explain muscle contraction from the nerve all the way to the roles of actin and myosin. AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 7. Why is having a hydrostatic skeleton, rather than an internal skeleton, more advantageous to an earthworm? A. Actually, earthworms do not have a skeleton. B. Having a hydrostatic skeleton means that having muscles is not a requirement for movement. C. Having an internal skeleton would not allow the fine movements an earthworm uses when it moves. D. Having a hydrostatic skeleton allows the earthworm to use peristaltic motion to move over the substrate. Page 19 of 19

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