Revision Based on Chapter 25 Grade 11

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1 Revision Based on Chapter 25 Grade 11 Biology Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles is a. multicellular. b. heterotrophic. c. prokaryotic. d. eukaryotic. 2. A student looks at a slice of tissue on an unlabeled microscope slide. The student concludes the tissue is not from an animal because the cells in the tissue have a. membrane-bound organelles. b. nuclei. c. cell membranes. d. cell walls. Figure Look at the illustration in Figure 25 1 above. Which letter represents the hollow nerve cord? a. A b. B c. C d. D 4. Nerves branch in intervals from which of the following structures in a chordate embryo? a. tail b. pharyngeal pouches c. notochord d. hollow nerve cord 5. The notochord is responsible for which function in an embryo? a. processing wastes b. structural support c. respiration

2 d. processing nerve signals 6. Which chordate characteristic is visible on the outside of an adult cat? a. notochord b. hollow nerve cord c. pharyngeal pouches d. a tail that extends beyond the anus 7. All animals eat to obtain a. oxygen. b. ammonia. c. carbon dioxide. d. nutrients. 8. Animals have an excretory system that eliminates which type of waste? a. oxygen b. carbon dioxide c. ammonia d. nutrients 9. When an animal s environment changes, sexual reproduction improves a species ability to a. react to new stimuli. b. increase its numbers rapidly. c. adapt to new living conditions. d. produce genetically identical offspring. 10. The skeleton of a vertebrate is a. controlled by fluid pressure. b. made of muscle and very strong. c. internal and made of bones. d. surrounded by a hard shell. 11. One advantage of asexual reproduction is that animals can a. increase their numbers rapidly. b. increase their genetic diversity rapidly. c. adapt to environmental change rapidly. d. produce offspring that are not genetically identical to their parent. 12. A marine biologist discovers a new tiny aquatic invertebrate species that lacks gills.the most reasonable hypothesis would be that the animal gets oxygen through a. diffusion across its skin. b. extracellular digestion. c. cephalization. d. lungs.

3 Figure Look at the illustration in Figure This animal can be classified as a. an acoelomate. b. a coelomate. c. a pseudocoelomate. d. a chordate. Figure Look at the illustration in Figure Do you think that the bud on the side of the adult hydra is an embryo? Why? a. No, because budding is a type of asexual reproduction. b. No, because budding is a type of sexual reproduction. c. Yes, because budding is a type of asexual reproduction. d. Yes, because budding is a type of sexual reproduction. 15. An animal that has body parts that extend outward from its center shows a. radial symmetry. b. segmentation. c. several planes of symmetry. d. bilateral symmetry. 16. A blastula is a. a digestive organ. b. the innermost germ layer. c. a layer of embryological tissue. d. a hollow ball of cells in an embryo. 17. The difference between a protostome and a deuterostome is that

4 a. a deuterostome only has two germ layers. b. a protostome always develops into an acoelomate. c. the blastopore in a deuterostome develops into the animal s anus. d. only protostomes can develop into radially symmetrical adults. 18. Four types of animal tissue are a. epithelial, nervous, excretory, and muscle. b. muscle, nervous, reproductive, epithelial. c. nervous, epithelial, muscle, and connective. d. connective, muscle, reproductive, nervous. 19. The lungs develop from the a. coelom b. endoderm c. mesoderm d. ectoderm 20. Which of the following pairs of phyla are segmented protostomes with true coeloms? a. mollusks and arthropods b. annelids and arthropods c. annelids and mollusks d. arthropods and chordates 21. Which of the following variations would you expect to see in land vertebrates? a. varying numbers of limbs b. different types of symmetry c. varying shapes of forelimbs d. varying numbers of germ layers 22. Which of the following is a node that you would expect to find on the cladogram for animals? a. fur texture b. deuterostome development c. feather arrangement d. leg length 23. Body plans evolve as adaptations a. enable an individual to survive and reproduce. b. enable members of a phylum to survive and reproduce. c. occur randomly within a phylum. d. prevent members of a phylum from surviving and reproducing. Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. All animals are heterotrophs. 2. More than 95% of animals are invertebrates. 3. The notochord in a chordate embryo has nerves branching from it at intervals.

5 4. Many small aquatic animals rely on diffusion to transport oxygen, nutrients, and waste products into and out of their cells. 5. The circulatory system delivers metabolic wastes to the excretory system for processing and elimination. 6. Biologists have hypothesized that echinoderms are closely related to chordates because both groups are deuterostomes. Figure Study the illustration in Figure A lobster is considered bilaterally symmetrical because its right and left sides are mirror images of each other. 8. The ventral side of an animal is its upper side. Completion Complete each statement. 1. Animal bodies are, which means that they are composed of many cells. 2. Animals with backbones are called. 3. are not considered a clade because the organisms all lack a particular characteristic instead of sharing one. 4. Animals gather information using special cells called. 5. Sexual reproduction helps maintain diversity in populations. 6. Depending on the phylum, the develops into either the mouth or the anus of an animal. 7. occurs when segments specialize and fuse during development. 8. Different species within a phylum all have the same basic. Short Answer

6 1. What two fundamental characteristics distinguish animals from plants? 2. What is a heterotroph? 3. A biologist discovers a new species of animal. It does not have a notochord, but it does have a backbone. Can she classify it as a chordate? Explain your answer. 4. What is the purpose of feedback inhibition? Figure The graph in Figure 25 9 above compares an animal s body temperature to the outside temperature during the day. How does this graph illustrate that the animal s body is maintaining homeostasis? 6. What is an advantage of an animal with bilateral symmetry having sense organs and nerve cells concentrated at the anterior end of the body? 7. What determines whether or not a body system is likely to remain in a phylum over the course of evolution? 8. Why do you think that biologists use both the embryological development and the adult body plans to classify an animal? Science Skills Cnidarians Arthropods Roundworms Flatworms Levels of Organization tissues Body Radial Bilateral Bilateral Bilateral Symmetry Germ Layers Two Three Three Three Body Cavity Acoelom True coelom Pseudocoelom Acoelom Embryological Protostome Protostome Protostome

7 Development Segmentation Absent Present Absent Absent Cephalization Absent Present Present Present Annelids Mollusks Echinoderms Chordates Levels of Organization Body Bilateral Bilateral Radial Bilateral Symmetry (as adults) Germ Layers Three Three Three Three Body Cavity True coelom True coelom True coelom True coelom Embryological Protostome Protostome Deuterostome Deuterosome Development Segmentation Present Absent Absent Present Cephalization Present Present Absent (as adults) Present Figure Interpret Tables According to Figure 25 10, which phylum has specialized cells and tissues, but does not have organs? 2. Infer According to Figure 25 10, what other characteristic is shared by all phyla that have specialized cells, tissues, and organs? What conclusion can you draw about the relationship between this characteristic and organ development? 3. Form a Hypothesis Based on the information in Figure 25 10, what hypothesis could you form about the symmetry of young echinoderms? The cladogram below shows animal phyla in order of increasing complexity, along with some animal body plan characteristics.

8 Figure Interpret Visuals Examine Figure Are most of the phyla listed on the cladogram vertebrate or invertebrate phyla? Explain. 5. Compare and Contrast According to Figure 25 11, which characteristics are shared by cnidarians and echinoderms? Which characteristics are different? Explain. Figure 25 12

9 6. Interpret Visuals Study Figure Which tissue will become the digestive system in both types of animals? 7. Interpret Visuals Look at Figure Explain the steps of embryological development that are shown in structures A, B, and D. Does this series of steps illustrate the development of a protostome or a deuterostome? 8. Predict In Figure 25 12, which structure D or E would you expect to develop into an invertebrate with bilateral symmetry?

10 Revision Based on Chapter 25 Grade 11 Answer Section Biology MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. D 2. D 3. B 4. D 5. B 6. D 7. D 8. C 9. C 10. C 11. A 12. A 13. C 14. A 15. A 16. D 17. C 18. C 19. B 20. B 21. C 22. B 23. B MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE 1. T 2. T 3. F, hollow nerve cord 4. T 5. T 6. T 7. T 8. F, dorsal COMPLETION 1. multicellular 2. vertebrates

11 3. Invertebrates 4. receptors 5. genetic 6. blastopore 7. Cephalization 8. body plan SHORT ANSWER 1. Animal cells do not have cell walls as plant cells do, and all animals are heterotrophs, obtaining energy by feeding on organic compounds from other organisms. 2. A heterotroph is an organism that gets its nutrients and energy from other organisms. 3. Yes, she can classify it as a chordate because it has a backbone. This means that the animal is a vertebrate. All vertebrates are chordates. 4. Feedback inhibition occurs when a process or a product of a process limits the activity of the process itself. It helps regulate body processes to maintain homeostasis. 5. The animal s body is maintaining homeostasis because the animal s body temperature changes very little, even though the outside temperature changes rises and falls several degrees over the course of the day. The relatively flat line for the animal s body temperature shows feedback inhibition is working to keep its temperature within a very narrow range. 6. The anterior end of the body usually comes into contact with a new environment first in an animal with bilateral symmetry. A concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the anterior end enables the animal to respond effectively. 7. A body system most likely will remain in a phylum if animals with that system are able to survive and reproduce with that body system. 8. Biologists use both types of information because some characteristics of adult body plans are shared by multiple phyla. Embryological development patterns help further characterize an animal. SCIENCE SKILLS 1. Cnidarians 2. All phyla that have specialized cells, tissues, and organs also have three germ layers. An animal must need to have all three germ layers in order to form organs. 3. Young echinoderms do not have radial symmetry, and their sense organs are concentrated at one end (cephalization). 4. Most are invertebrate phyla because the characteristic farthest to the right is backbone. 5. Cnidarians and echinoderms both have radial symmetry and lack cephalization. However, cnidarians only have 2 germ layers while echinoderms have three cell layers. Also, echinoderms are deuterostomes, while cnidarians are neither deuterostomes nor protostomes. 6. endoderm 7. Structure A shows that the zygote has developed into a hollow ball of cells called a blastula. Structure B shows that cells in the blastula have differentiated into three types of cells: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. The opening and pocket formed by the endoderm is called the blastopore. Structure D shows the embryo after the second opening has developed, while the mesoderm has completely lined the interior of the endoderm and ectoderm layers. This series of steps illustrates the development of a deuterostome. 8. Structure E

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