Classification. The three-domains. The six-kingdom system. The traditional five-kingdom system. Bacteria Archaea Eukarya

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1 Classification The three-domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya The six-kingdom system Bacteria Archaea Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia The traditional five-kingdom system Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia

2 (Forams and Radiolarians) Rhizarians Rhodophyta Alveolates Stramenopile CHLOROPHYTA AMOEBOZOANS Euglenozoa

3 Evidence indicates that animals evolved from choanoflagellates (protists) ~ 570 mya Single cells Often clonal Heterotroph No specialization or coodination between cells

4 Animal Classification 1. DNA sequencing 2. Body Symmetry 3. Presence or absence of body cavity 4. Embyonic Development

5 Symmetry

6 Body Cavity Most bilateral animals have body cavities Body cavities are fluid-filled cavities between the digestive tube and the outer body wall Functions: skeleton, providing support for the body and a framework against which muscles can act protective buffer between the internal organs and the outside world They can allow organs to move independently of the body wall

7 Body Cavity? epidermis gut cavity A No coelom (acoelomate animal) organs packed between gut and body wall Fig. 25-4a, p. 405

8 Body Cavity? epidermis gut cavity B Pseudocoel (pseudocoelomate animal) unlined body cavity around gut Fig. 25-4b, p. 405

9 Body Cavity? epidermis gut cavity C Coelom (coelomate animal) body cavity with a lining (dark blue) derived from mesoderm Fig. 25-4c, p. 405

10 Protostomes Embryonic Development Blastopore forms mouth first Deuterostomes Blastopore forms anus first

11

12 Porifora - sponges Sessile (Larva motile) No true tissues or organs Exhibit asymmetry or radial symmetry Filter feeders

13 Sponge Anatomy (water flow out of the sponge) epithelial cell pore spicules (water flow into the sponge) amoeboid cell pore cell collar cell (water flow) Fig. 23-5

14 Sponge filtration/feeding Collar Cell Collar Cell watch?v=t7e1rq7zhlc&feat ure=player_embedded =29W77870BgE&list=PLVN5247pO BYcE1Mn_pWHIL9l0sMIx19TI

15 Figure 23-4 The diversity of sponges Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

16

17 Cnidaria Sea Anemone Radial symmetry Two tissue layers Filled with water supports body Nerve net Nematocysts -stinging organelles that release toxins

18 Cnidarian Weaponry: The Cnidocyte trigger filament trigger nuclei (b) Cnidocytes Fig. 23-8

19 Cnidaria: Symbiosis Coral is a mutualism between photosynthetic dinoflagellates (protist) and a cniderian (animal) Algae in coral called zooxanthelle

20 In many coral species polyps form colonies Cnideria video Colonial polyps secrete a hard external skeleton of calcium carbonate The skeleton remains after the polyp dies New polyps build on the skeletal remnants of earlier generations

21 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-6a Anemone

22 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-6b Sea jelly

23 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-6c Coral

24 Figure 23-7a Polyp mouth lining of gastrovascular cavity body wall tentacle gastrovascular cavity (a) Polyp foot Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Medusa lining of gastrovascular cavity gastrovascular cavity body wall tentacle (b) Medusa mouth Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

26

27 Nematoda - round worms Exoskeleton (molts) Unsegmented Psuedocoelom (false body cavity) Bilateral worms 3 tissue layers Parasites and decomposers

28 A freshwater nematode posterior end intestine anterior end ovary vagina eggs mouth cuticle Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

30

31 Platyhelminthes - flatworms Bilateral symmetry 3 tissue layers Cephalization (nerve mass) True organs and organ systems Aceolomate (no body cavity) Parasitic forms but some free living

32 Figure 23-9 Flatworm diversity Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

33

34

35 Figure The exoskeleton allows precise movements Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 Figure The exoskeleton must be molted periodically Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 antennae abdomen thorax head compound eye mouth parts wing Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

39 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-21a Aphid

40 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-21b Ant

41 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-21c Beetle flying

42 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

43 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

44 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

46 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The diversity of myriapods

47 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-24c Hermit Crab

48 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-24d Barnacles

49 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-24b Sowbug

50

51 Annelida - segmented worms Polychaetes- many hairlike chetae 12,000 species Mostly marine Oligochaets- few or no chetae Earthworms 10,000 species Aquatic or terrestrial decomposers Hirudinia- leeches 700 species

52 coelom intestine nephridia excretory pore ventral nerve cord anus coelom brain mouth pharynx ventral vessel hearts esophagus crop gizzard intestine ventral nerve cord Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Diverse annelids

54

55 Mollusca (clams, snails, slugs, octopuses & squids) unsegmented bilateral symmetry coelomates aquatic & terrestrial possess all organ systems

56 Figure The diversity of gastropod mollusks Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 The diversity of bivalve mollusks Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-16a Octopus

59 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Squid

60 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-16c Nautilus

61

62 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-27a Sea cucumber

63 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-27b Sea urchin

64 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23-27c Sea star

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