Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 07 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida ANIMALIA. (More Similar to Fungi than Plants)

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1 Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 07 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida ANIMALIA (More Similar to Fungi than Plants)

2 ANIMAL SIMILARITIES PLANTS FUNGI Cell Walls - Immobile - Often need - substrate - Heterotrophs - Not photosynthetic

3 Important things to remember from Dr. Polcyn s talk: GERM LAYERS and SEGMENTATION

4 Eumetazoa has: Germ Layers Endoderm Ectoderm Tissues

5 Segmentation: an example: A simplified arthropod larva with multiple segments, each with appendages, or the genetic ability to develop appendages.

6 Different kinds of arthropods can elaborate upon different segments and appendages. This provides an enormous versatility.

7 Choanoflagella Porifora Placozoa Ctenophora Cnidaria Protostomia Animalia (What of this do I need to know?!?) Pterobranchia Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata

8 Animalia Choanoflagella

9 Choanoflagellates have no fossil record. It is likely that choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans. Choanoflagellates are almost identical in shape and function with the choanocytes or collar cells of sponges; these cells generate a current that draws water and food particles through the body of a sponge, and they filter out food particles.

10 Animalia Multicellular heterotrophs

11 Choanoflagella Porifora Metazoa

12 Porifera (Sponges): Known as far back as PreCambrian 600 million years ago.

13 Example: Porifora (Sponges): No true tissues

14 Choanoflagella Porifora Placozoa

15 Placozoa: Only one species: Trichoplax adhaerens

16 Choanoflagella Porifora Placozoa Ctenophora Cnidaria Eumetazoa

17 Eumetazoa Germ Layers Endoderm Ectoderm Tissues

18 Ctenophores and Cnidarians Two germ layers Only one opening into gut.

19 Ctenophores and Cnidarians Known as far back as PreCambrian Ediacarian Faunas.

20 Cnidaria: Corals

21 Cnidaria: Anenomes

22 Cnidaria: Jelly fish

23 Ctenophora (Comb Jellies)

24 Choanoflagella Porifora Placozoa Ctenophora Cnidaria Protostomia Bilateralia

25 Bilateralia Bilaterally symmetrical at some point during ontogeny ( Ontogeny = lifecycle from conception to death)

26 Bilateralia Includes two great groups of animals: Protostomia (means 1 st mouth) Deuterostomia (means 2 nd mouth)

27 Protostomia includes many phyla, including: Arthropoda Mollusca Annelida (segmented worms) Many others

28 Choanoflagella Porifora Placozoa Ctenophora Cnidaria Protostomia Pterobranchia Deuterostomia (We ll do these later.)

29 PROTOSTOMIA Bilateralia Part 1

30 Choanoflagella Porifora Placozoa Ctenophora Cnidaria Protostomia Animalia Pterobranchia Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata

31 Recall : Bilateralia Includes two great groups of animals: Protostomia (means 1 st mouth) Deuterostomia (means 2 nd mouth)

32 Protostomia includes many phyla, including: Arthropoda Mollusca Annelida (segmented worms) Many others

33 Ecdysozoa Others Lophotrochozoa Platyhelminthes Mollusca Annelida

34 Ecdysozoa Others Lophotrochozoa Platyhelminthes Mollusca Annelida

35 Platyhelminthes flatworms thought to be a primitive member of this grouping. Lack a coelom a fluidfilled space between gut tube and body wall.

36 Ecdysozoa Others Lophotrochozoa Platyhelminthes Mollusca Annelida

37 Annelid Worms: Annelid-like organisms are known from PreCambrian (over 600 million years old) Edicarian Faunas. Key Innovation: Segmentation

38 Annelid worms thought to be possibly primitive to Mollusca.

39 MOLLUSCA Most groups known back to Cambrian or PreCambrian Includes: Polyplacophora (chitons) Bilvavia Cephalopoda Gastropoda

40 Features of MOLLUSCA Four key synapomorphies: Shell Mantle (secretes shell) Radula (feeding appraratus) Muscular foot

41 POLYPLACOPHORA Chitions Molluscs with segmented shells

42 BIVALVES Two shells joined by strong adductor muscle (closing muscle)

43 Gastropods: All gastropods have some degree of TORSION (twisting).

44 Cephalopoda includes: Nautiloids Ammonoids* Cuttlefish Squid Octopi *found by Mary Anning

45

46

47 Ecdysozoa Others Lophotrochozoa Platyhelminthes Mollusca Annelida

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