What defines the zygote, the blastula, and the gastrula? Draw pictures.

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1 What makes a multicellular organism multicellular? a) Multiple cells b) Multiple cells that work together c) Specialized cells d) Multiple specialized cells that work together What defines the zygote, the blastula, and the gastrula? Draw pictures. If a doctor makes an incision on a personʼs leg that reaches all the way to the bone, which germ layers have been violated? What body plan is least advanced? What layer surrounds the coelom in diploblastic organisms? Name two advantages of coeloms applicable to humans. The digestive tract is lined with and in protostomes originates at the in the stage. In deuterostomes it is lined with and originates at the end in the stage. T/F The endoderm of a sponge is called the choanocyte. What is the first (least evolved) group in eumetazoa? With what group do we begin to see organs? Give an example. What body characteristic is a direct result of bilateral symmetry? Tubellarians mimic what organism? T/F Parasites generally kill the final host, but canʼt kill the intermediate host or they wouldnʼt survive.

2 A parasite without a protective camouflage covering would be unsuccessful because: a) Adverse conditions within the host could kill the parasite. b) Host environment is usually toxic to parasites without protection c) The covering allows the parasite to attach to the host. It would be excreted without it. d) The host immune system would find and attack the parasite. e) C and D f) A and D Reproduction of parasitic organisms occurs a) Within the final host only b) Within the intermediate host only c) Both, but asexual reproduction in final host and sexual reproduction in intermediate host d) Both, but asexual reproduction in intermediate host and sexual reproduction in final host How are parasites spread? Which methods are controlled by the parasite and which are by chance? Which is not a function of a skeleton in animals? a) Attachment of muscles for movement b) Protection c) Provide structure d) Attachment of internal organs Draw a generalized schematic of an open and a closed circulatory system.

3 What do the following words mean? Gastropoda - Arhtropoda - Eumetazoa - Prometazoa - Protostomata - Deuterostomata -! Echinoderm -! Gnathostomes -! Tetrapoda - Give an example of a human disease caused by nematodes. Explain how they cause it. T/F The nerve cord in chordates is always dorsal and hollow. T/F T/F Arthropods have highly developed sensory systems. Insects are found in every major environment on Earth. What are the four characteristics of chordates? T/F If you kept frogs in an extremely humid environment such that they didnʼt lose water from their skin, they would be able to perform all life functions normally. If false, explain why. The following are characteristics of all vertebrates except: a) Dorsal hollow nerve cord b) Bone c) Pharyngeal slits d) Jaws e) B and D f) All of the above Pseudocoelomates a) lack a fluid filled cavity b) have a fluid filled cavity completely lined with mesoderm c) have a fluid filled cavity partially lined with mesoderm

4 d) have a fluid filled cavity not lined with mesoderm e) have an air filled cavity partially lined with mesoderm Parasites have a high reproductive effort. This means that: a) They mate often b) They have to put a lot of energy into the process of reproduction c) Much of their body is devoted to reproductive structures d) They have young which must be cared for to survive Schistosomiasis is a human disease caused by a) Parasites b) Lophotrocozoans c) Blood flukes d) Acoelomate worms e) All of the above f) None of the above Molluscs have each of these body parts except: a) Foot b) Mantle c) Shell d) Gill e) Molluscs have all of these parts Molluscs generally move using their a) Radula b) Foot c) Mantle d) Shell A complete digestive system refers to a) A more extensive breakdown of food b) Two distinct openings to the digestive system c) Having a stomach d) A digestive system lined by endoderm Briefly describe the life cycle of the unionoid bivalve. It is generally accepted that animals evolved from protists. On what evidence do scientists base this argument?

5 The first group of, organisms with tissues, are the. They display body forms, the and the, both of which are symmetrical. T/F All cnidarians display both life stages at some point throughout their life. Plants are held together by cell walls made of cellulose. Fungi are held together by cell walls made of chitin. What animal cell wall material holds them together? a) Animal cells are advanced, so they are held together by cell interactions. b) A protein called collagen provides the structure. c) Animals donʼt have a cell wall. d) A and C e) B and C T/F The notochord carries nervous system signals in insects, but not in chordates. Why are tunicates classified as chordates when the only characteristic they display is pharyngeal slits? What additional characteristics (beyond four chordate characteristics) describe vertebrates? What chordate structure gives rise to gills and jaws? Amniotic eggs are important because a) Embryo has no reliance on water b) Embryo can hatch on land c) Embryos within amniotic eggs become mammals d) A and B e) All of the above Which is not an adaptation of flight? a) Single organs b) Hollow bones c) Feathers d) Beak Which is not a characteristic of all mammals? a) Milk producing glands b) Hair

6 c) Specialized teeth d) Live birth e) C and D How many mammalian groups give birth to fully formed young? List them next to the number Arthropoda means and this phylum is the largest and most successful animal phylum. Arthropods are characterized by an exoskeleton made of, appendages, a body, and a well developed with organs. Their body allows them to divide labor between segments with functions. The hard exoskeleton protects the organism, prevents loss, and allows movement by providing. Their appendages and highly developed systems allow them to perform functions within their habitat. Which group of arthropods have 2 body regions? a) Chelicerata b) Crustacea c) Insecta d) A and B e) All of the above List one helpful and one harmful quality of insects as they relate to humans. You are trying to identify an animal. It is triploblastic, it has a dorsal hollow nerve cord, and post anal tail. You found it sitting on a nest of eggs near a river. It seems to have nipples along its belly. This animal is a... a) Reptile b) Mammal c) Monotreme d) Eutherian e) B and D f) B and C

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