Name: Date: ID: 3. What are some limitations to scientific models? - Most models include simplifications, approximations, and/or lack details

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1 Name: Date: ID: 2 ND 9-WEEKS STUDY GUIDE Shared Answers Communication Skills 1. Define the term Scientific Model in your own terms. - A description of a system, theory, or phenomenon 2. List 5 things we use models for: 1) Simplify complex ideas 2) Help in understanding and communication 3) Gathering data 4) Explaining things we can t directly observe 5) Predict future events 3. What are some limitations to scientific models? - Most models include simplifications, approximations, and/or lack details Characteristics / Classification of Living Things 4. List and briefly describe the 6 characteristics of living things. 1) Metabolism acquiring and using materials; getting rid of wastes. 2) Homeostasis maintaining a stable internal environment 3) Growth and development life cycles 4) Responding to stimuli reaction to a change (internal or external) 5) Reproduce sexual or asexual 6) Complex organizational made of at least one cell 5. List the 8 levels of classification in the modern classification system. 1)Domain 2)Kingdom 3)Phylum 4)Class 5)Order 6)Family 7)Genus 8)Species 6. Write a mnemonic to help you remember these 8 levels in order. Dear King Phillip Come Over For Grandmas Soup 7. Which 2 levels do we list when giving the scientific name of an organism? Genus species

2 8. Describe the following domains and kingdoms of organisms. Domain/Kingdom Description ARCHAEA Single-celled; make own food (not photosynthesis); no nucleus or other organelles; live in extreme conditions EUBACTERIA Single-celled; no nucleus or other organelles; feed by photosynthesis or absorption PROTISTA Single celled; usually move on own; has nucleus; feed by photosynthesis or ingestion FUNGI Multi-cellular; cell wall; feed by absorption; have nucleus; can t move on their own; no chloroplast PLANTAE Multi-cellular; cell wall; feed by photosynthesis; have nucleus and chloroplasts; can t move on their own. ANIMALIA Multi-cellular; no cell wall; no chloroplast; feed by ingestion; can move on own 9. Identify the following Phyla of the Animal Kingdom: 1) 5 part radial symmetry; internal skeletal system; tube feet; coelom; digestive tract with 2 ends. - Echinodermata 2) No symmetry; specialized cells but no tissues or organs; no coelom; filter feed - Porifera 3) 2 tissue layers, have stinging cells; digestive tract with 1 opening; have muscles and nerves - Cnidaria 4) Bilateral symmetry with head and tail; central nervous system but no circulatory system or skeleton; 3 tissue layers - Platyhelminthes 5) Bilateral symmetry; segmented bodies; digestive tract with 2 ends; complete circulatory system - Annelida 6) Hard exoskeleton; varying appendages; jointed limbs; segmented bodies; coelom - Arthropoda 7) Bilateral symmetry; radula; hard shell (most); muscular foot; coelom - Mollusca 8) Dorsal nerve cord; brain, jaws and skull; bony skeleton; coelom; digestive tract with 2 ends - Chordata

3 Can t We All Just Get Along 10. Define the following terms: a. Population all the members of one species in an ecosystem b. community the biotic parts of an ecosystem; all the populations c. ecosystem biotic and abiotic parts of an area; community + abiotic factors 11. Explain how the following types of organisms get their energy: a. Producers make own food b. Primary consumers eat producers c. Secondary consumers eat other consumers d. Decomposers feed off of remains of dead organisms 12. In the food web shown, identify: a. A producer terrestrial and salt marsh plants; aquatic plants and algae b. A primary consumer insects; small fish; snail c. A secondary consumer Frog; rat, big fish d. A tertiary consumer snake; crane; duck 13. Why are there always fewer organisms as you move up an Energy Pyramid? Rule of 10 only about 10% of the energy at one level gets passed on to the next 14. State the BIG IDEA from our notes on Interactions Among Living Things. Organisms have unlimited demands for a limited amount of resources

4 15. Give an example of each of the following interactions: a. Interspecific competition bobcat and cougar competing for territory b. Intraspecific competition 2 deer fighting over a mate c. Predation hawks eating snakes d. Symbiosis Mutualism birds on elephants that eat the parasites e. Symbiosis Commensalism small birds nesting beneath the hawks nest f. Symbiosis Parasitism tapeworm in a dog; ticks In your own words (not copied straight out of the notes or book), define the following terms: a. Limiting factor anything that restricts the population size b. Biotic potential how large the population would be if conditions were perfect (no limiting factors) c. Carrying capacity largest population size the ecosystem can support d. Exponential growth rapid growth e. Overshoot going over the carrying capacity; overpopulation 16. Which would be higher for a population: the biotic potential or the carrying capacity? WHY??? Biotic potential would be higher because it does not include the limiting factors 17. What must happen when the population gets bigger than the carrying capacity? Crash or recovery members of population are dying or moving off 18. List 4 examples of limiting factors. At least one has to be something not mentioned in the notes. Food; space; water; oxygen; predators; shelter

5 19. Draw a sample graph showing the normal population growth pattern. Be sure to label initial growth, exponential growth, carrying capacity, and overshoot, crash and recovery. 20. State the law of conservation of matter. MATTER CANNOT BE CREATED OR DESTROYED; IT CAN ONLY CHANGE FORMS/LOCATION 21. How does the amount of matter on Earth change over time? It doesn t the Earth is a closed system (pretty much) in terms of matter 22. Define the following: a. Bio life b. Geo earth c. Chemical atoms and molecules d. Cycle continuing process e. Biogeochemical cycle continuing process of atoms and molecules moving back and forth between the earth and the living things on earth

6 23. Identify the sphere of earth described in each of the following: a. The body of air that surrounds the Earth atmosphere b. The solid rocky crust and top section of mantle covering the Earth s surface lithosphere c. The living organisms on the Earth biosphere d. The water on or near the Earth s surface hydrosphere 24. List the big six cycling elements. Carbon; Oxygen; Sulfur; Hydrogen; Nitrogen; Phosphorus 25. Identify at least 2 reservoirs in the diagram of the carbon cycle above. For each reservoir, tell what sphere the reservoir is in. Limestone & Dolomite - Lithosphere Biomass - Biosphere CO 2 Atmosphere; Hydrosphere; Biosphere; Lithosphere 26. Identify at least 2 pathways in the diagram of the carbon cycle above. For each pathway, tell what spheres the pathway goes from. Diffusion From the Atmosphere to the Hydrosphere Calcareous Sediments From the Hydrosphere to the Lithosphere Photosynthesis From the Atmosphere to the Biosphere Respiration From the Biosphere to the Atmosphere

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