Sponges. What is the sponge s habitat. What level of organization do sponges have? Type of symmetry?

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1 Sponges What is the sponge s habitat Marine (few freshwater species) What level of organization do sponges have? Cell level Type of symmetry? None Type of digestive system (none, complete or incomplete)? None Where does digestion occur in a sponge? In collar cells Gas exchange surface? Cell membranes Type of circulatory system? None

2 Observation 2 - Stinging cells of a sea anemone 1. Where are stinging cells located? On tentacles 2. How are stinging cells used by these animals? To capture prey

3 Hydrostatic Skeleton 2. Which muscles do sea anemones contract to extend its body (rings of circular muscles or the longitudinal muscles? Circular muscles 3. Which muscles contract to pull tentacles, the rings of circular muscles or the longitudinal muscles? Longitudinal muscles 4. How is this an example of opposing muscles? One set elongates and the other contracts the body 5. What are the muscles of a sea anemone contracting against? Hydrostatic Skeleton Water

4 Hydra Level of organization? tissue Type of symmetry? radial Type of digestive system (none, complete or incomplete)? incomplete

5 Observation 4 Coral 1. After coral dies, what remains? Calcium carbonate skeleton 2. How is the skeleton created? Secreted by individual polyps 3. Although coral is an animal, it only lives in relatively shallow water where there is light. Why is this? Photosynthesis; symbiotic algae

6 Flatworms Level of organization? organ Type of symmetry? bilateral Type of digestive system (none, complete or incomplete)? Incomplete Does flatworm digestion occur primarily within cells (intracellular) or outside cells (extracellular)? extracellular

7 Flatworms 5. Gas exchange surface? Body surface How does oxygen get from the flatworm s environment to the body cells? Direct diffusion How does the shape of a flatworm make the process of gas exchange more efficient? Large surface to volume ratio 6. Type of circulatory system? none 7. What are the distinguishing characteristics of the flatworms? Cephalized, incomplete digestive system, feed through pharynx 8. Flatworms live in freshwater ponds and streams and searches out decaying material to eat. Where are the sensory organs of the flatworm located? 1. In front of body (head region) What makes this body plan well-suited to this method of getting food? Can sense food and move toward it.

8 Class Gastropods: The Snails 1. Level of organization? organ 2. Type of symmetry? Bilateral 3. Type of digestive system (none, complete or incomplete)? complete What are advantages of a complete digestive system compared to an incomplete digestive system. More efficient feeding and digestion 4. Gas exchange surface? Terrestrial? Lungs (inside mantle) Marine? gills

9 Mollusks 6. What type of circulatory system is found in each mollusk class? Gastropod: Bivalve: Cephalopod: Gastropods and bivalve, open : cephalopods, closed What is the difference between an open and closed circulatory system? In closed; the fluid never leaves the vessels Why does the circulatory system differ among the classes of mollusks? (think: differences in lifestyle for each) Cephalopods swim fast Mussel and clams lifestyle are bivalves, what type of lifestyle do they have? How do they feed? Sedentary ( burrow in sand/mud and stay), Filter feeders 7. Unique or distinguishing characteristics? Mantle, foot, shell 8. What are two characteristics all of these animals have in common which places them in the phylum Mollusca? (Hint: remember, bivalves don t have a radula) a. foot b. mantle

10 Earthworm (Annelid) 1. Level of organization? organ 2. Type of symmetry? bilateral 3. Type of digestive system? complete 4. Gas exchange surface? Body surface 5. Type of circulatory system? closed 8. What metal is used in marine polycheate blood? Copper 9. What is the important ecological role of earthworms in terrestrial environments? Till, aerate and fertilize soil Hydrostatic Skeleton

11 Crayfish (Arthropods) 1. How many walking legs does the crayfish have? 8 2. Habitat? Aquatic 3. Level of organization? organ 4. Type of symmetry? Bilateral 5. Type of circulatory system? open 6. Gas exchange surface? Aquatic? Terrestrial? Aquatic Gills, book lung Insects also have an open circulatory system, but they can be very fast moving and expend a lot of energy. How might this be explained? Tracheal system

12 Arthropod Diversity Which arthropod class is most successful on earth? insects How are aquatic arthropods different from terrestrial arthropods? What kinds of adaptations (in terms of appendages or structures)? Gills vs tracheal system, swimming structures vs walking legs Give one example of an arthropod that goes from being aquatic to terrestrial. What changes (include gas exchange structures) occur that adapt them to each environment? Insects with aquatic larvae (e.g. dragonflies)

13 Phylum Chordates Be able to identify the members of the Chordates to class, and know their distinguishing characteristics. What is a vertebrate? Chordate with backbone, skull and jaw Level of organization? Organ Type of symmetry? Bilateral Type of digestive system (complete or incomplete)? Complete What type of gas exchange surfaces are found in each class (some use more than one)? Gills and lungs (skin in amphibians) Type of circulatory system? Closed Unique or distinguishing characteristics of the phylum Chordata? Notochord, dorsal nerve chord, pharyngeal gill slits, tail extending past anus

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