Characteristics of Animals

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1 Characteristics of Animals Multicellular Cellular Organization What is this? Heterotrophic Adaptations CHAPTER 9 Cellular Organization 4 Major Functions of Animals Obtain food and water Sustain metabolism Homeostasis Regulate internal environment Reproduction Asexual or sexual Fertilization Movement Need to travel Sessile vs Motile

2 Symmetry What is symmetry? What are the symmetric (capital) letters in the alphabet? Bilateral Symmetry One line that divides something in half The two sides are reflections of one another Examples? Bilateral Animals Larger and more complex Front and back ends Quick and efficient motion Important organs in the front Face Radial Symmetry More than one line of reflection that goes through a central point All points are equal from center Examples Bike wheel

3 Radial Animals No front or back end Less complex Kingdom: Animalia Anywhere from 9 to 12 phyla Next level of classification below kingdom Taxonomy of Animals What are the main groups of animals? What are these?

4 Phylum: Porifera (Sponges) Body Structures Having pores Invertebrates No symmetry No tissue or organs No mouth, stomach, nerves, etc Sessile pore Pores Choanocytes (Collar Cells) Flagellated cells that move to pump water into and out of the sponge. Traps unicellular organisms Holes all over surface to allow water flow Can filter 1000 s of liters of water a day Water flows in through pores Water flows out through osculum

5 Spicule (Spikes) Mesohyl (Jelly-Like Cells) Support and protect the sponge Made of Calcium carbonate or silica Much like glass Food & Respiration Recall Cellular Respiration Filter feeder - Filters thousands of liters of water each day. Choanocytes trap unicellular organisms The mesohyl cells break down and digest the organisms Respiration (O2 in and CO2 out) Gases are directly exchanged between sponge s cells and the surrounding water Made of protein called collagen Digests and distributes food Removes waste Forms sperm and egg cells What cell organelle performs cellular respiration? What is the cellular respiration equation? What is the most important product of cellular respiration? (Hint: Its not CO2) What is this product used for?

6 Asexual Reproduction Budding from existing Budding: When a new organism grows out of its structure parent. Why is water important to sponges? For food For oxygen For waste For reproduction For Transporting larva Sexual Reproduction Meiosis occurs in Mesohyl Sponges are hermaphroditic Sperm is released Travels to egg Develops into larva Larva finds suitable location to grow into new sponge Larva: An immature form of an animal that looks very different from the adult. How do currents move?

7 Cnidarian Body Structure Polyp (Hydras, corals, and sea anemones) Anatomy of Cnidarians Sessile Produces medusa during reproduction Medusa (Jellyfish) Motile structure Cnidarian Food Capture Nematocysts - Stinging Cells Thread like structure that shoots out (some have venom) Trigger initiates stinging Tentacles pull prey into mouth Digest in gastrovascular cavity Cnidarian Nervous System

8 Cnidarian Muscle System Cnidarian Reproduction Cnidarian muscles - various functions, such as feeding, escape, locomotion and defense Works with nervous system Cnidarian Reproduction Sexual - Asexual - Budding & regeneration Coral Colonies of polyps Coral reefs form when polyps secrete calcium carbonate

9 Portuguese Man o War Not a jellyfish Floating colony of polyps (1000 or more individuals) Stings can leave whip-like wounds Coral Reef Destruction Climate Change Overfishing Land Based Pollution Coral Bleaching Porifera Changes in conditions such as temperature, light, or nutrients, they push out the symbiotic algae living in their tissues, causing coral to turn completely white Platyhelminthes Cnideria Mollusca Nematoda Annelida Arthropoda Chordata Echinodermata Which phyla are annelids most closely related to? Ancestral Protist

10 Worms Characteristics of Worms Worm Nervous System Nervous system Brain sense organs at the front Invertebrates Bilateral symmetry Tissues, organs, and organ systems Flatworms (platyhelminthes) Roundworms (nematoda) Segmented worms (annelida) Worm Reproduction Primarily Sexual Reproduction Worms are typically hermaphroditic Join at clitellum and exchange sperm Clitellum pushes sperm to ovaries for fertilization

11 Phylum - Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) Parasitic or free-living Free living = does not live in or on another organism Planarian regeneration 2 Types of Platyhelminthes 1. Planarians Scavengers Inserts feeding tube into food source and releases digestive enzymes, then sucks up partially digested food Eye spots detect light Olfactory cells detect odors 2 Types of Platyhelminthes 2. Tapeworms Parasites that live in host s digestive system. Absorb digested food through their cuticle (skin).

12 Tapeworm Phylum - Nematoda (Roundworms) Phylum - Annelida (Segmented Worms) Segmentations called septa Organs distributed by segment Closed circulatory system - blood flows through vessels How is this different from an open circulatory system? One way digestive system Eat decaying matter More advanced than platyhelminthes Defined digestive system Lack a circulatory system Many are parasitic

13 Review What are the three phyla of worms. What are the two types of platyhelminthes? How are they different? How are they different? Which organism, from Ch 9, has the most complex organ systems?

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