Choanoflagellates. Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones) Acoela (acoels)

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1 Choanoflagellates Fungi Choanoflagellates ANIMALIA Porifera (sponges) ANIMALIA Multicellularity Ctenophora (comb jellies) Diploblasty Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones) Acoela (acoels) Triploblasty Protostome development LOPHOTROCHOZOA Rotifera (rotifers) Loss of coelom Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Segmentation Annelida (segmented worms) Mollusca (snails, clams, squid) ECDYSOZOA Nematoda (roundworms) PROTOSTOMES BILATERIA Cephalization, CNS, coelom Segmentation Arthropoda (insects, spiders, crustaceans) Deuterostome development DEUTEROSTOMES Radial symmetry Echinodermata (in adults) (sea stars, sand dollars) Segmentation Chordata (vertebrates, tunicates) DEUTEROSTOMES

2

3 A ctenophore, or comb jelly Phylum Ctenophora

4 Ctenophore

5 Cnidarians: Hydrozoans (top left), jelly (top right), sea anemone (bottom left), coral polyps (bottom right)

6 General Cnidarian characteristics Radially Symmetric Diploblastic (epidermis, gastrodermis) No cephalization, No central nervous system No special respiratory, excretory or circulatory organs Primarily Carnivores Polyp and Medusa body forms

7 Polyp and medusa forms of cnidarians sessile pelagic

8

9 Have no separate gut, (just GV cavity/body wall) and only one body opening. This has several consequences: Food and undigested waste pass through same opening in different directions Movements of body cause distortion of GV cavity GV cavity serves for both circulation and digestion Gametes and embryos must be released through the same opening

10 The Hydrostatic Skeleton Uses fluid (water) in a body compartment for support and transmission of muscular forces Fluid is incompressible, force generated by displacement of fluid in one region, can be used to do work in another

11 Figure

12 Figure

13

14 Figure

15 Epithelio-muscular cells (longitudinal) Nutritive-muscle cells (circular) 15

16 Many Cnidarians have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) within their cells very important mutualism! Sea anemone

17 Coral polyps with endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (algae)

18 Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) inside jellyfish cells

19 Hydra with endosymbiotic green algae

20 Almost all Cnidarians have cells called Cnidocytes which have organelles called nematocysts.

21 A cnidocyte of a hydra

22 22

23 Some Nematocyst types

24 Hydra capturing Daphnid Ingestion and Digestion

25 Cnidarian Nerve Nets

26 Mostly non-polar synapses, so impulses can travel in either direction Signal diminishes with distance 26

27 Nerve cells in epithelial tissue of Velella

28 28

29 Phylum Cnidaria Subphylum Medusozoa Class Scyphozoa Class Cubozoa Class Hydrozoa Subphylum Anthozoa (used to be Class) Subclass Hexacorallia Subclass Octocorallia

30 Class Scyphozoa Jelly medusa

31 Purple striped jelly, Pelagia panopyra

32

33 Gastric filaments on the gonads secrete enzymes and then phagocytize partially digested food. Digestion occurs intracellularly within food vacuoles.

34 Scyphozoan Rhompalia

35 Figure 6.9 Senses light Balance organ 35

36 Class Scyphozoa Most Scyphozoans are Dioecious Aurelia life cycle Strobila

37 Class Cubozoa Highly Toxic Nematocysts

38 Class Hydrozoa

39 Hydromedusae velum Scyphozoan medusae

40 Hydra: an atypical Hydrozoan

41

42 Thecate hydroid Athecate hydroid

43 Class Hydrozoa Obelia colony ephyra

44 Colonial Hydroid

45 Figure 33.7 The life cycle of the hydrozoan Obelia (Layer 1)

46 Figure 33.7 The life cycle of the hydrozoan Obelia (Layer 2)

47 Figure 33.7 The life cycle of the hydrozoan Obelia (Layer 3)

48 Physalia, Portugese man-of-war Order Siphonophora

49

50 Subphylum (class) Anthozoa Coral polyps Sea anemones

51 Anthozoan polyps are larger and more complex than Hydrozoan polyps No Medusa stage

52 Pharynx with siphonoglyphs GV cavity has mesenteries Cross section

53 A variety of Anthozoans

54 Subclass Octocorallia Have 8 pinnate tentacles Some are called Gorgonians (sea fans, sea whips)

55 Subclass Octocorallia Sea Fan, a gorgonian Sea Pens, a soft coral

56 Coral Polyps are often retracted in the daylight Renilla, the sea pansy

57 Subclass Hexacorallia Many tentacles, in multiples of 6 Scleractinian corals may build reefs

58 Secrete CaCO 3 at the base

59 Subclass Hexacorallia Anemone Shrimp Papua New Guinea

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