3 Size Constraints Imposed by Animal Body Plans Exchange of substances with the environment (diffusion, separation of alimentary and excretory pores) Movement/Locomotion Feeding and Foraging Habitat/Environment
4 Physical laws constrain animal form Physical requirements constrain what natural selection can invent, including the size of single cells. This prevents an amoeba the size of a pro wrestler engulfing your legs when wading into a murky lake. An amoeba the size of a human could never move materials across its membrane fast enough to satisfy such a large blob of cytoplasm. In this example, a physical law - the math of surface-to-volume relations - limits the evolution of an organism s form.
5 Body size and shape affect interactions with the environment An animal s size and shape have a direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings. As a requirement for maintaining the fluid integrity of the plasma membrane of its cells, an animal s body must be arranged so that all of its living cells are bathed in an aqueous medium. Exchange with the environment occurs as dissolved substances diffuse and are transported across the plasma membranes between the cells and their aqueous surroundings.
6 For example, a single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume because it is so small. A large cell has less surface area relative to its volume than a smaller cell of the same shape. These considerations place a physical constraint on cell size.
7 Aggregate Body Plans Porifera (Sponges) (9000 species mostly marine, 100 species in fresh water)
8 Sponges are sessile with porous bodies The germ layers of sponges are loose federations of cells, which are not really tissues because the cells are relatively unspecialized. Sponges are sessile animals that lack nerves or muscles. Individual cells sense and react to changes in the environment. The body of a simple sponge resembles a sac perforated with holes. Water is drawn through the pores into a central cavity, the spongocoel, and flows out through a larger opening, the osculum.
9 Nearly all sponges are suspension feeders, collecting food particles from water passing through food-trapping equipment. Flagellated choanocytes, or collar cells, line the spongocoel (internal water chambers) create a flow of water through the sponge with their flagella, and trap food with their collars.
10 The body of a sponge consists of two cell layers separated by a gelatinous region, the mesohyl. Wandering though the mesohyl are amoebocytes. They take up food from water and from choanocytes, digest it, and carry nutrients to other cells. They also secrete tough skeletal fibers within the mesohyl. In some groups of sponges, these fibers are sharp spicules of calcium carbonate or silica. Other sponges produce more flexible fibers from a collagen protein called spongin. We use these pliant, honeycombed skeletons as bath sponges.
12 Constraints Imposed by Aggregate Sessile (immobile) Body Plan Size limitation (I cm to 2 m for Sponges) No separation of consumption and excretion Little opportunity for specialization of functions Restricted to Aquatic/Marine Environment
14 Multicellular animals are composed of microscopic cells, each with its own plasma membrane that acts as a loading and unloading platform for a modest volume of cytoplasm This only works if all the cells of the animal have access to a suitable aqueous environment. For example, a hydra, built on the blind sac plan, has a body wall only two cell layers thick. Because its gastrovascular cavity opens to the exterior, both outer and inner layers of cells are bathed in water.
15 Phylum Cnidaria: radial symmetry and a gastrovascular cavity The cnidarians (hydras, jellies, sea anemones, and coral animals) have a relatively simple body construction. They are a diverse group with over 10,000 living species, most of which are marine. The basic cnidarian body plan is a sac with a central digestive compartment, the gastrovascular cavity.
16 This basic body plan has two variations: the sessile polyp and the floating medusa. The cylindrical polyps, such as hydras and sea anemones, adhere to the substratum by the aboral end and extend their tentacles, waiting for prey. Medusas (also called jellies) are flattened, mouth-down versions of polyps that move by drifting passively and by contacting their bell-shaped bodies.
17 Muscles and nerves exist in their simplest forms in cnidarians. Cells of the epidermis and gastrodermis have bundles of microfilaments arranged into contractile fibers. True muscle tissue appears first in triploblastic animals. When the animal closes its mouth, the gastrovascular cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton against which the contractile cells can work. Movements are controlled by a noncentralized nerve net associated with simple sensory receptors that are distributed radially around the body.
18 The three cnidarian classes show variations on the same body theme of polyp and medusa.
19 Corals, Anenomes, Hydroids and Jelly Fish - Phylum Cnidaria
20 Phylum Ctenophora: Comb jellies possess rows of ciliary plates Comb jellies, or ctenophores, superficially resemble cnidarian medusas. However, the relationship between phyla is uncertain. All of the approximately 100 species are marine. Some species are spherical or ovoid, others are elongate and ribbonlike.
21 Ctenophora means comb-bearer and these animals are named for their eight rows of comblike plates composed of fused cilia. Most comb jellies have a pair of long retractable tentacles. These tentacles are armed with adhesive structures (colloblasts) that secrete a sticky thread to capture their food.
22 Comb Jellies Phylum Ctenophora
23 Another way to maximize exposure to the surrounding medium is to have a flat body. For instance, a tapeworm may be several meters long, but because it is very thin, most of its cells are bathed in the intestinal fluid of the worm s vertebrate host, from which it obtains nutrients. While two-layered sacs and flat shapes are designs that put a large surface area in contact with the environment, these solutions do not lead to much complexity in internal organization.
24 Planarians and other flatworms lack organs specialized for gas exchange and circulation. Their flat shape places all cells close to the surrounding water and fine branching of the digestive system distributes food throughout the animal. Nitrogenous wastes are removed by diffusion and simple ciliated flame cells help maintain osmotic balance.
25 Planarians move using cilia on the ventral epidermis, gliding along a film of mucus they secrete. Some turbellarians use muscles for undulatory swimming.
27 Constraints Imposed by Blind Sac Size Limited locomotion Body Plans No Separation of Consumption and Excretion Restricted to Aquatic or Marine environment, or as an internal parasite of terrestrial animals
28 Tube within a tube Body Plans Acoelomate Pseudocoelomate Coelomate
29 Advantages of Tube within a Tube Body Plans Separation of feeding and excretory pores Specialization of tissues for different functions Development of true muscle tissue permitting greater movement
30 Segmented Body Plans Annelida Arthropoda
31 The coelom of the earthworm, a typical annelid, is partitioned by septa, but the digestive tract, longitudinal blood vessels, and nerve cords penetrate the septa and run the animal s length.
36 Evolution of the Exoskeleton Calcareous or chitinous plates that provide protection and rigid structure against muscles can do work Mollusca Calcium carbonate Arthropoda - Chitin
37 Molluscan Body Plan
38 Arthropod Body Plan
39 The diversity and success of arthropods is largely due to three features: body segmentation, a hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. Groups of segments and their appendages have become specialized for a variety of functions, permitting efficient division of labor among regions.
40 Echinoderm Body Plan Radially Symetrical (pentameric) Endoskeleton (calcium carbonate) Slow moving, bottom dwelling
Characteristics of Animals Multicellular Cellular Organization What is this? Heterotrophic Adaptations CHAPTER 9 Cellular Organization 4 Major Functions of Animals Obtain food and water Sustain metabolism
KINGDOM ANIMALIA CHARACTERISTICS EUKARYOTIC MULTICELLULAR HETEROTROPHIC (by ingestion) MOVE AT SOME POINT IN LIFE (not all - sponges are sessile) DIGEST FOOD TO GET NUTRIENTS LACK CELL WALLS CHARACTERISTICS
An Introduction to the Invertebrates, Part One Phyla Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora Reference: Chapter 33.1, 33.2 Overview: Life Without a Backbone v Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone
The Evolution of Animal Diversity Dr. Stephen J. Salek Biology 130 Fayetteville State University Create your own animal? Start with a basic plant. Make the plant into a simple animal such as a worm. Consider:
1 Animal Diversity I: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Annelida Objectives: Be able to distinguish radial symmetry from bilateral symmetry. Be able to identify which of the phyla
Name Period Chapters 31, 32, and 33 should be considered as a single unit, and you should try to put all of them together in a single conceptual framework. Due to the scope of our course, you are likely
Learning Objectives The Animal Kingdom: An Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 29 What characters are common to most animals? Advantages and disadvantages of different environments Searching for relationships
I. Phylum Porifera (sponges; pore bearer ) A. General characteristics 1. simplest animals 2. asymmetric 3. aquatic habitats a. typically marine 4. live alone or in colonies a. often members of reef habitats
COMPARISON BETWEEN PORIFERA AND CNIDARIA Colwyn Sleep INTRODUCTION Porifera Cnidaria Porifera and Cnidaria are organisms which share similar characteristics with one another. -They are both multicellular,
Name Period Date Sponge and Cnidarian Review Matching On the lines provided, write the letter of the definition that matches each term. 1. Invertebrate 2. Filter feeder 3. Asymmetry 4. Radial 5. Medusa
I. Animal Diversity 1. What are some basic characteristics of the animal kingdom? What characteristics make them different from plants? - Eukaryotic, heterotrophic (we don t make our own food), we store
Chps 23-26: Animals Chps. 23-27: Animals Characteristics of kingdom Animalia: Multicellular Heterotrophic Most are motile Possess sense organs Animal Characteristics Forms of symmetry: Radial Bilateral
INVERTEBRATE DIVERSITY 1 INVERTEBRATES Animals that lack a backbone Invertebrates 2 1 ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT Meiosis Egg Sperm Zygote Adult Blastula hollow ball of cells in a developing animal Gastrula Stage
Classification The three-domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya The six-kingdom system Bacteria Archaea Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia The traditional five-kingdom system Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia
Invertebrate What is a Cnidarian? 9000 species of jellyfishes, corals, sea anemones, hydras Mostly marine animals Radially symmetrical One body opening Two layers of cells organized into tissues with specific
Learning Outcome G2 Analyse the increasing complexity of the Phylum Porifera and the Phylum Cnidaria Learning Outcome G2 Phylum Porifera & Phylum Cnidaria Student Achievement Indicators Students who have
Introduction to Animal Kingdom Invertebrates and Vertebrates Introduction To Animals Vertebrate animal with a backbone. Invertebrate animal without a backbone; includes more than 95% of all animal species
Biology 11 The Kingdom Animalia Objectives By the end of the lesson you should be able to: Describe the 5 ways we classify animals Symmetry Germ layers Body plan Segmentation Animal Evolution Hank Video
Introduction to Animals Moving Forward Quizlet Each section we cover, 1 group will go to our class on Quizlet and create 20 flash cards on the topic (/5mks) If I warn you about talking while I m talking,
College Biology - Problem Drill 15: The Evolution of Animal Diversity Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which is not a feature of the phyla porifera- sponges? Question #01 (A) Most are marine animals. (B) They have
Animals What are they? Where did they come from? What are their evolutionary novelties? What characterizes their diversification? What synapomorphies unite Animals Multicellular Heterotrophs (Metazoans)?
Porifera Sponges The Phylum Porifera consists only of sponges, which is unique since these animals are entirely aquatic; with 98% found only in marine environments and a small percentage found in freshwater
Module 4: Marine Invertebrates I Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Animalia Contains the largest number of species We will split them into 2 large groups Invertebrates- Animals w/o a backbone Vertebrates- Animals
Chapter 8 Key Concepts Sponges are asymmetric, sessile animals that filter food from the water circulating through their bodies. Sponges provide habitats for other animals. Cnidarians and ctenophores exhibit
Sponges What is the sponge s habitat Marine (few freshwater species) What level of organization do sponges have? Cell level Type of symmetry? None Type of digestive system (none, complete or incomplete)?
Delivered 2/20 and 2/22 Lecture XII Origin of Animals Dr. Kopeny Origin of Animals and Diversification of Body Plans Phylogeny of animals based on morphology Porifera Cnidaria Ctenophora Platyhelminthes
Introduction The study of animal form and function is integrated by the common set of problems that all animals must solve. These include how to extract oxygen from the environment, how to nourish themselves,
What is an animal? Introduction to Animals Multicellular chemoorganoheterotrophs Eukaryotes that lack cell walls and chloroplasts Have mitochondria Are motile at some point in their lives Contain collagen
What is an Animal? Kingdom Animalia Main Characteristics Members of the Animal Kingdom are: Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophic Have cells with membranes BUT NO cell wall Animals contain specialized
23.1 Animal Characteristics EQ Although diverse, what common characteristics do all animal share? Sea Slug 23.1 Animal Characteristics Animals are the most physically diverse kingdom of organisms and all
basal animalia porifera, cnidaria PHYLUM PORIFERA porifera Sponges, no tissues or organs, cellular level of organization outer layer is made of cells called pinacocytes choanocytes (collar cells) Flagella
What Is an Animal? What characteristics do all animals have? Animals come in many shapes, forms, and sizes. Scientists estimate that there are between 1 and 2 million species of animals! Some, like whales
What Is an Animal? Section 25.1 Typical Animal Characteristics Biology II Mrs. Michaelsen I. Characteristics of Animals A. All animals are eukaryotic, multicellular, have ways of moving to reproduce, obtain
Chapter 9 (multicellularity) I. Similarities A. cells are grouped B. groups of cells are specialized for various functions C. All cells in an organism is interdependent. II. Multicelled life appeared ~
The Diversity of Animals 1: invertebrates Chapter 23 Animals are in Domain Eukarya Immediate ancestors are a type of Protista Key features Multicellular Kingdom Animalia Heterotrophic: gain energy by consuming
Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 23.1, 23.2 and additional 1 Think of an Animal... Does your choice have hair or fur? Does it have a skeleton? Over a million species of animals described 95% have
Chapter 8-9 Intro to Animals Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html Zoology Definition: the scientific study of the behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution
Biology 211 (1) Exam 2 Worksheet Chapter 33 Introduction to Animal Diversity Kingdom Animalia: 1. Approximately how many different animal species are alive on Earth currently. How many those species have
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 9 Architectural Pattern of an Animal Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity Zoologists recognize
Kingdom Protista A polyphyletic group containing: Unit 2 Polyphyletic- The Protozoans (Unicellular - can be very complex) Individuals may group together to form colonies Colony Specialized organelles Pellicle
1 Animal Diversity I: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, and Lophotrochozoa Objectives: Be able to distinguish radial symmetry from bilateral symmetry. Be able to identify which of the phyla
Animals Chapters 32-35 Exam November 22, 2011 Overview of Animals Chapter 32 General Features of Animals and Evolution of the Body Plan General Features of Animals Heterotrophs Multicellular No Cell Walls
Chapter 32: An Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 32: An Introduction to Animal Diversity Name Period Concept 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from
STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER Sponges, Cnidarians, and Unsegmented Worms Section 26-1 introduction to the Animal Kingdom (pages $55-560) SECTION REVIEW With this section you began your study of the animal kingdom.
Classification Grouping & Identifying Living Things Classifying Living Things We put livings things into three Domains Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Which are divided into 6 Kingdoms Plant Animal Fungi Protist
Animal Diversity Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers Nutritional mode Ingest food and use enzymes in the body to digest Cell structure and
Biology 4B Laboratory Invertebrates I: Porifera, Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes Objectives To understand the basic differences among the invertebrate animal phyla To investigate and learn the obvious external
Kingdom Animalia: Phyla Porifera and Cnidaria Essential Question(s): What are key characteristics to the animal kingdom? Objectives: 1. Students will be able to distinguish essential characteristics in
Characteristics of Echinoderms Adult echinoderms have a body plan with five parts organized symmetrically around a center Does not have an anterior nor posterior end or a brain Most echinoderms are two
Kingdom Animalia Zoology the study of animals Summary Animals are multicellular and eukaryotic. consume and digest organic materials thereby being heterotrophs. Most are motile at some time in their lives.
Revision Based on Chapter 25 Grade 11 Biology Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
CLADE METAZOA Phylum Porifera Hickman Chapter 12 The Origins of Multicellularity Phylum Porifera: Sponges Characteristics of Phylum Porifera (page 248) Figure 12.2 (page 248) Form and Function Figure 12.5
Evolution and Biodiversity Laboratory Identifying Microorganisms in Aquatic Samples Being able to identify organisms is important if you wish to discover what is already known about their natural history,
Quiz 1. What does porifera mean? 2. Class Hexactinellida's skeletal structure is made out of what material? 3. Characterized as large openings where water comes out 4. Cells responsible for the circulating
Chapter 33 Protostome Animals - insects the phylum Arthropoda include the insects, crusraceans and myriapods and make up 40% of the total mass of organisms present 33.1 An Overview of Protostome Evolution
Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 07 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida ANIMALIA (More Similar to Fungi than Plants) ANIMAL SIMILARITIES PLANTS FUNGI Cell Walls - Immobile - Often need - substrate - Heterotrophs
Geol G308 Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Name: Lab 4 Identifying metazoan phyla and plant groups The objective of this lab is to classify all of the fossils from your site to phylum (or to plant group)
Chapter 8 Sponges, Cnidarians, Comb Jellies, and Marine Worms Cnidarians: Animals with Stinging Cells Phylum Cnidaria Includes hydroids, corals, and sea anemones Coelenterate: synonym Named for their cnidocytes
Chapter 32: An Overview of Animal Diversity 1. General Features of Animals 2. The History of Animals 1. General Features of Animals General Characteristics of Animals animals are multicellular eukaryotic
CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick A Kingdom of Consumers
Simplest metazoan (multi-cellular) Lecture 5 - Sponges! Metazoan origins unicellular ancestors Originated during the Precambrian (1.2 billion - 670 million years ago) From what? Two hypotheses: Multinucleated
Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions
Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 13 Radiate Animals Position in Animal Kingdom Both phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora make up the radiate animals.
31.1 What Evidence Indicates the Animals Are Monophyletic? What traits distinguish the animals from the other groups of organisms? In contrast to the Bacteria, Archaea, and most microbial eukaryotes, all
Chapter 32 Introduction to Animal Diversity Welcome to Your Kingdom The animal kingdom extends far beyond humans and other animals we may encounter 1.3 million living species of animals have been identified