Architectural Pattern of an animal. Chapter 9

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1 Architectural Pattern of an animal Chapter 9

2 What is an animal?

3 Levels of organization and organismal complexity 5 major levels of complexity Unicellular Metazoan? Tissue Organ Organ systems

4 Levels of organization and organismal complexity Protoplasmic Found in unicellular organisms Life functions are confined to a single cell Contains organelles with specific functions Cellular Cell aggregations with functional differentiations Division of labor; nutrition, reproduction Not yet tissues! Ex. volvox

5 Protoplasmic Euglena Paramecium

6 Levels of organization and organismal complexity Cell-tissue Similar cells are found in layers sponges/ jellyfish Contains organelles with specific functions Ex. Cnidarian nerve net ( functions in coordination) Tissue-organ More than one tissue type working together to have a more specialized function Flatworms Ex. Eyespots/ reproductive system

7 Cell-tissue Jelly fish Sponges

8 Tissue-organ Three Basic Tissues ectoderm mesoderm endoderm epidermis ectoderm parenchyma mesoderm muscle layers mesoderm ciliated epidermis ectoderm pharynx nerve cord ectoderm gut endoderm

9 Levels of organization and organismal complexity Organ-system Organs work together to perform some function Organ systems Ex circulation, respiration Most animal phyla

10 Organ Systems of an Earthworm

11 Organ system

12 Organ system pierce-&-suck carnivores - chelicera are poison fangs

13 Animal tissue types What is a tissue? A cooperative unit of many very similar cells that perform a specific function. Examples Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous

14 Epithelial tissue Covers and lines the body and its parts One surface free, the other bound to basement membrane Tissues are named by Shape of cells Number of layers of cells

15 Epithelial tissue Hickman Fig 9.3 Simple= single layer Stratified = multiple layers Squamous = flat (tiles) Cuboudal = like dice Columnar = like bricks

16 Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Hickman Fig 9.4 In the kidney tubules Lines the lungs

17 Stratified Squamous Epithelium Hickman Fig 9.4 Lines the esophagus

18 Ciliated columnar epithelium Hickman Fig 9.5 Lines the air ways in the respiratory system

19 Connective tissue Binds other tissues an provides support matrices Few cells in a nonliving matrix (ground substance) Three fiber types Collagen fibers Elastic fibers Reticular fibers Fibroblasts - cells that produce connective

20 Loose connective tissue (Areolar) Campbell Fig 20.5A Holds other tissue in place A binding material

21 Other Connective tissues Hickman Fig 9.6 Loose Fibrous connective Adipose Cartilage Blood Bone

22 Bone Tissue Osteocytes Haversian canal Lamelle (matrix) Campbell Fig 20.5D

23

24 Bone Development

25 Muscle tissue Functions in movement Bundles of long cells ( muscle fiber= muscle cell) Skeletal muscle Attached to bones by tendons, produces voluntary movement Striated unbranched Smooth muscle Found in walls of digestive tract, produces involuntary movements Unstriated, spindle shaped Cardiac Muscle Striated, branched, produces heartbeat

26 Smooth muscle Muscle tissue Campbell 20.6 Cardiac muscle Skeletal muscle

27 Nervous Tissue Responsible for coordinating body activties Neurons are nerve cells Motor neurons are nerves that activate muscles Compsed of cell body and dendrites Supported by glial cells Hickman Fig 9.8

28 Nervous Tissue Hickman Fig 9.8

29 Types of animal symmetry Radial Bilateral Apparent bilateral

30 Apparent Radial Symmetry compare Hickman Fig like spokes of a wheel sea star

31 Bilateral symmetry cephalized sensory organs concentrated in head body directions:

32 Radial symmetry Radial symmetry- Mirror images around a central axis Figure 9.10

33 Body Cavities Groupings according to presence or type of body cavity Coelom - major innovation in bilaterally symmetric animals Tube within a tube arrangement

34 Body Cavities Advantages Flexibility for crawling and burrowing Independent growth of organs from the body wall Cushioning Skeletal function Circulation of nutrients and wastes

35 acoelomate pseudocoelomate (muscles, not peritoneum) eucoelomate peritoneum Eucoelomate Body Design compare Hickman Fig and 9.13 ectoderm mesoderm endoderm Coelom: fluid-filled cavity between gut and body wall that is lined with mesodermal cells (peritoneum).

36 Most animals have a body cavity Solid, no body cavity except for gastro vascular cavity flatworms, cnidaria Pseudocoelomate- internal space in contact with digestive tract, roundworms True coelom - internal space lined by tissue - all other animals

37 Metamerism/Segmentation Hickman Fig 9.14

38 Metamerism/Segmentation Serial repetition of similar body segments Each segment is called a metamere or somite True metamerism is found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Chordata

39 Metameres in Polychaeta metamere = segment, or repeating body unit

40 Arthropod Tagmata tagmata = metameres fused into functional units; singular is tagma 3 basic tagmata in all arthropods: head, thorax, abdomen head + thorax = cephalothorax thorax + abdomen = trunk

41 Segmentation and Metameres of an insect Anatomy 6

42

43 Summary

44 Pop quiz What are the 3 types of body cavity organization mentioned in chapter 9? List the 4 basic animal tissue types.

1/30/2009. Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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