Nonvascular Plants mosses, liverworts and hornworts are nonvascular plants. These lack vascular tissue which is a system of tubes that transport

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2 Nonvascular Plants mosses, liverworts and hornworts are nonvascular plants. These lack vascular tissue which is a system of tubes that transport food, water and minerals throughout the plant. Water and nutrients travel from cell to cell by osmosis and diffusion. As a result, nonvascular plants are extremely short and are limited to moist habitats. Also called bryophytes.

3 Vascular Plants Able to live in a variety of habitats because of vascular tissue. In addition to transporting materials through the plant, vascular tissue provides strength and stability to the plant. Xylem carries water from roots to rest of plant Phloem carries food (glucose) and nutrients from leaves to rest of plant

4 Seedless Vascular Plants Reproduce by spores Ex. ferns

5 Gymnosperms a seed plant that produces cones. Many gymnosperms have needle-like or scale-like leaves. Male cones produce pollen. Female cones contain ovules. During pollination, pollen falls from a male cone to a female cone and fertilization occurs. The ovule will develop into a seed on the scale of a female cone. When the seed is mature, the scales open up so that the wind can shake the seeds from the cone and carry them away. Ex. Conifers, cycads

6 Angiosperms a seed plant that produces flowers. The beautiful colors of flowers depend on the leaflike petals. Within the petals are the flower s reproductive parts: Male parts = stamen Anther top part that produces pollen Filament skinny fiber that supports the anther Female parts = pistil Stigma sticky tip of the pistil Style connects stigma to the ovary Ovary contains eggs and protects them as they develop Pollen can be carried by the wind or by animals that travel from one flower to another. If the pollen lands on the stigma of a similar flower, fertilization can occur. Once fertilization occurs, the ovary changes into a fruit such as an apple or lemon. Angiosperm seeds are dispersed through fruits.

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8 Annelids invertebrates with long, segmented, narrow bodies without legs. Circulation closed circulatory system with blood contained in blood vessels. An earthworm s blood is circulated by a series of blood vessels that surround the segments in the anterior end of the worm called aortic arches. Digestion earthworms have two special organs that aid in digestion of their food: Crop adds moisture to the food and stores it Gizzard grinds food before entering intestine Reproduction earthworms are hermaphroditic, but must exchange sperm with another worm.

9 Arthropods an organism with a segmented body, a tough exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. Insects arthropods that have three body sections (head, thorax and abdomen), six legs, one pair of antennae and usually two pairs of wings. An exoskeleton is a tough outer covering that supports and protects the body and is made of protein and the carbohydrate chitin. Metamorphosis insects go through incredible changes from egg to adult.

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11 Amphibians an amphibian is a vertebrate that is ectothermic. One of only vertebrates that undergoes metamorphosis from egg to larva (tadpole) to adult frog. Respiration Larvae obtain oxygen from water passing over gills. Adult amphibians use lungs to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood. Gases are also exchanged through the thin, moist skin of adult amphibians. Circulation three-chambered heart. The three chambered heart is needed because walking on land requires a great deal of energy from food and oxygen for aerobic respiration. Homeostasis An amphibian is an ectotherm which means that it is cold-blooded. When a region becomes too hot or too cold for a part of the year, many amphibians become dormant by burrowing into the mud and staying there until suitable conditions return.

12 Mammals Feeding mammals have several types of glands that secrete fluids: saliva, sweat, oil, hormones and milk. Mammals feed their young from mammary glands that produce milk rich in fat, sugar and protein. Once mammals can eat solid food, they take advantage of specialized teeth Respiration and Circulation mammals have a fourchambered heart to ensure a good supply of nutrients and oxygen delivered to cells. Mammals use lungs to breathe. A large muscle called the diaphragm forces air into and out of the lungs. Homeostasis mammals are endotherms (warm-blooded). Energy required to maintain temperature comes from metabolism. Nervous system mammals use 5 major senses to gather information: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.

13 Mammals Reproduction Placental Mammals give birth to young that have developed inside mother s uterus until body systems are functional. Marsupials short period of development within mother s body, after which they continue development in pouch made of hair and skin outside of mother s body. Monotremes mammals that lay eggs.

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