Tuesday February 26, 2013 Invertebrate Animals Animals: Multicellular, no cell wall or chlorophyll, eukaryotic, heterotrophs

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1 Name: Class: Biology Weekly Packet February 25 th - March 1 st, 2013 Monday February 25, 2013 Catalyst Tuesday February 26, 2013 Invertebrate Animals Animals: Multicellular, no cell wall or chlorophyll, eukaryotic, heterotrophs

2 Body Symmetries: - Asymmetrical: bodies do not have any certain shape - Radial symmetry: bodies are arranged around a central point (can cut it any way and the two halves are mirror- images of each other) - Bilateral symmetry: can divide the animal lengthwise into two equal halves Phylum Porifera: Sponges. Attached to a surface, many holes in their bodies called pores, filter food and oxygen from the water as it moves through their bodies. Asymmetrical. Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfish, sea anemone, coral. Radial symmetry. Carnivores- eat zooplankton (little baby animals in the water). Mouths at the center of their bodies surrounded by tentacles that have special stinging cells called cnidocytes. If you touch the stinging cell, a tiny stinger called a nematocyst shoots out and paralysis the victim. Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms (planarians, tapeworms). Bilateral symmetry. Free living or parasitic. Simple nervous system (can respond to stimuli using eye spots). Regeneration: re- grow damaged body parts. Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms (heartworm, hookworm). Free living or parasitic (mostly parasitic). Complete digestive system. Bilateral symmetry. Phylum Annelida: Segmented worms (earthworm, leach). Bilateral symmetry. Body divided into ring- like segments. Blood contained in blood vessels, good nervous system. Can be filter- feeders or carnivores. Phylum Echinodermata: Sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers. Spiny- skinned. Radial symmetry. Move by using tube feet. Have a water vascular system they to power movement, respiration (breathing) and circulation (moving things through the body). use Phylum Mollusca: soft body and muscular foot. - Gastropods: snails and slugs. May or may not have a shell. Use their file- like tongue (radula) to scrape food. Move on slime trail they produce. - Bivalves: clams and oysters. Two shells, use their foot to help them dig into the ground. Filter feeders. - Cephalopods: Squids and octopus. Well developed brain, squid have an internal shell (pen), many can change color to blend in or communicate with each other and squirt ink to run away from predators. Phylum Arthropoda: segmented bodies, exoskeleton made of chitin, jointed appendages. Must molt (shed their old skeleton) to grow- leaves them vulnerable until the new shell hardens because it starts off soft. - Crustaceans: lobster, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, barnacles. Often have ten legs. Have two sets of antennae and set of chewing mouthparts called mandibles. - Arachnids: Eight legs. Spiders can t chew food so they liquefy it and then drink it. Scorpions have a venomous stinger and their claws are modified mouth parts. - Millipedes and centipedes: Lots of legs. Centipedes are carnivores and have one set of legs per body segment. Millipedes are herbivores and have two sets of legs per body segment. - Insects: six legs. Three body segments (head, thorax, abdomen). Go through metamorphosis to grow. Phylum Chordata: At some point in their lives, they have 1) a spinal cord 2) a notochord (usually turns into a backbone) 3) Gills 4) a tail.

3 The non- vertebrate chordates are called tunicates and sea squirts Vertebrate chordates are defined by having a backbone that contains the spinal cord. All have bilateral symmetry. Catalyst

4 Wednesday February 27, 2013 Catalyst Weekly Vocabulary Circulation- moving or flowing in a circle Cnidocyte- the stinging cells of jellyfish and their relative Molt- to shed or cast off the outer covering (skin, feathers, exoskeleton) Pores- holes Regeneration- the ability to re- grow lost body parts Respiration- breathing, inhaling and exhaling Weekly Objectives Monday: SWBAT apply their knowledge of plants and plant structures in a lab. Tuesday: SWBAT explain the distinguishing features of invertebrates. Wednesday: SWBAT explain the distinguishing features of invertebrates. Thursday: Discovery Test Friday: Finish Discovery Test & Scientific Literacy Day

5 Homework Monday February 25, 2013 All flowering plants have the same general body plan: roots, stems and branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Complete the table below by describing the function for each plant part. Plant Part Leaves Function Stems and Branches Fruits Roots Over the last million years of angiosperm evolution natural selection has resulted in many different variations on this basic form and not all of the parts are where you might expect them to be. For example, much of a tulip s belowground energy storage is not in roots like most plants but in an underground stem surrounded by fleshy leaves, a bulb. Humans began domesticating plants over 12,000 years ago. During domestication, plants (and animals) undergo evolution by selection as farmers choose which individuals in the population will reproduce. When this human preference is the environment that exerts a selective force on a population, we call the selection artificial selection. By only allowing plants with traits we enjoy, like larger and sweeter fruits, to reproduce, humans, like nature, have caused many changes in plant form. In today s lab your goal is to identify which part (root, stem, leaf, flower, or fruit) of a domesticated plant we eat. Before you start it will be helpful to review the structure of flowers and the meaning of the word fruit. Sometimes, a plant organ that is biologically a fruit is called a vegetable in everyday English. This is because these fruits have lower amounts of the sugar fructose and are used in savory rather than sweet cooking.

6 Examine the eatables given to your group. First, write down a quick hypothesis for each one without discussing it with your group. Then examine each with your group and complete the chart below. Name of food Hypothesis (fruit or veggie) Results (fruit or veggie) Evidence/Further information Is this called a fruit or vegetable in everyday English?

7 Homework Tuesday February 26, 2013 Over the course of the week, we are going to learn about nine of the major phyla of animals and the big groups of the vertebrates. For each of the groups listed below, you are going to create a page for your Zoobook. The point of this Zoobook is to give you an easy tool to review and study the major animal groups. Invertebrate Groups Phylum Porifera Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Platyhelminthes Phylum Nematoda Phylum Annelida Phylum Mollusca Phylum Arthropoda Phylum Echinodermata For each of the invertebrate groups, your Zoobook page should include the following things: Title of the phylum across the top Picture of an animal in the group Common name of this group Symmetry of the group Key characteristics of that group (key three features) How they get their food (carnivores, herbivores, parasites, ect.) Vertebrate Groups Class Osteichthyes Class Chondrichthyes Class Amphibia Class Reptilia Class Aves Class Mammalia For each of the vertebrate groups, your Zoobook page should include the following things: Title of the class across the top Picture of an animal in the group Common name of this group (and some animals in the group) Key characteristics of that group (key three features) How they get their food (carnivores, herbivores, parasites, ect.) Homework Thursday February 28, 2013 What three things define an animal? What are the three body plans and how is each different?

8 What is the body plan of a sponge? How does it get food? Can it move? What do we call the holes in it? What is the body plan of a jellyfish? How does it get food? What are its stinging cells called? What are the body plans of all three worm groups? What is regeneration? What are the scientific and common names of all three worm groups? What makes an annelid different from a nematode? What type of body plan does a sea star have? How does it move? What does its skin feel like? What are the main two features of phylum Mollusca? What class do the snails and slugs belong to? What class do the clams and oysters belong to? What class do the octopus and squid belong to? How many shells do bivalves have? What do they use their foot for? How do squid communicate? What do they do when they run away from predators? What are the three main features of arthropods? What do they have to do to grow? Ph.D. Extra Credit Summarize the following article for extra credit points. Summarize in your words:

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