1 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Textbook Connection McDougal Littell Biology 1.1, , 18.5 Revised
2 Objectives: 1. Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 2. Describe the internal structure of eukaryotic cells. 3. Summarize functions of organelles in plant and animal cells. 4. Differentiae between unicellular and multicellular organisms.
3 Prokaryotic Cells (Bacteria) Prokaryotic Cells primitive, before kernal - NO NUCLEUS Lack internal membranes (no membrane-bound organelles) Genetic material: single, circular DNA molecule suspended in the cytoplasm Ex. Bacteria (such as Anthrax or E. coli) Microscopic, single-celled organisms
5 Prokaryotic Cells (Bacteria) Bacteria live on or in just about every material and environment on Earth from soil to water to air, and from your house to arctic ice to volcanic vents. Each square centimeter of your skin averages about 100,000 bacteria. A single teaspoon of topsoil contains more than a billion (1,000,000,000) bacteria. A shovel full has as many bacteria as there are people on Earth. crobes/bacterium1.asp
6 Prokaryotic Cells (Bacteria) This You Bacteria may is Streptococcus thrive find this in warm, one pyogenes appetizing!. moist which A environments. gram is of the the organism toxin from responsible this for organism Strep Wearing Throat, is a lethal headphones Rheumatic dose for for Fever just and 200,000 Impetigo one mice. hour (also will increase known as the FLESH A amount cup EATING of of this bacteria BACTERIA!). toxin in pure your form ear would by 700 be times. capable of It depopulating has been with the us entire for Earth. Ready centuries This to move organism and on?? looks is Clostridium like it will continue botulinum to, be, the organism but it not a major responsible concern for for Botulism. the entire human race as some of the tabloids might have you believe. The toxin, called botulin works like nerve gas causing respiratory failure, paralysis and death in as little as 4 hours. It can be found in improperly prepared canned foods. Information from
7 Beneficial Bacteria Not all bacteria are bad. Humans and Other Animals: More bacterial cells in us and on us than there are human cells. In the gut: Provide nutrients: break down food, make vitamins. Keep away harmful microbes by filling niches that would be filled by disease-causing bacteria. Help chemically beak down dairy products to yogurt and cheese, cucumbers to pickles, to make soy sauce and vinegar.
8 Beneficial Bacteria Ecosystems: Produce oxygen, recycle carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur. Helps make minerals in the soil for plant growth. Bioremediation: break down pollutants (ex. Oil) Recycling and composting: biodegradable often means it can be broken down by bacteria.
9 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Eukaryotic Cells (you-carry-ee-aht-ihk), true kernal contains a TRUE NUCLEUS Membrane bound (enclosed) organelles Genetic material: located in the nucleus. Multi-cellular and single-cellular organisms
10 What do YOU think? What characteristics are shared by most cells? In what ways are cells similar to atoms?
11 Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells
12 A Generalized Eukaryotic Cell Diagram although cells come in many shapes and sizes
13 Human cell size and shape comparison:
14 Types of Eukaryotic Cells: Animal Cells Plant Cells Both types have many of the same internal parts but there are also a few parts unique to either just plants or just animals. Lets start with the parts common to both types
15 Major Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell: Cell Membrane Nucleus Ribosomes Cytoplasm Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Vesicles Mitochondria Lysosomes Centrosome Cell Wall Chloroplast Water Vacuole
16 Cell Membrane: Security Gate Surrounds the cell Controls movement of materials into and out of cell
17 Cytoplasm: cyto =something belonging to a cell. Fills space between cell membrane and nucleus. Maintains cell structure Where many chemical reactions take place. Made up of 2 parts 1) Cytosol: the fluid environment Mostly water
18 2) Cytoskeleton: Network of protein fibers crisscrossing the cytoplasm that constantly change to meet the needs of the cell. Give shape of the cell Anchors its organelles and serves as a track for them to move on. Enable cells to move and divide. Help muscle cells contract and relax.
19 Organelles: subcellular structures Structures specialized to perform distinct processes. Most are surrounded by membranes
20 Organelles involved in making proteins Nucleus Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Vesicles Golgi Apparatus
21 Nucleus: Brain Controls the functions of the cell Stores and protects genetic info (DNA) DNA contains genes which are the instructions for making proteins. Includes the following: Nuclear Envelope (Membrane): Double membrane folded upon itself to create a space in between. It controls movement into and out of the nucleus Nuclear Pore: holes which allow movement between nucleus and cytoplasm.
22 Nucleus: Nucleolus: Dense region inside nucleus, where and ribosomes are assembled Chromatin: Genetic Material (DNA) which is organized into structures called chromosomes during cell division.
23 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): Highway Interconnected network of channels aids in movement of molecules inside the cell. Rough ER: Ribosomes found on surface. Proteins leave ribosome and enter into ER where they are modified. Smooth ER: No ribosomes on surface. Make lipids (fats) Break down drugs and alcohol.
24 Vesicles: Semi-Trucks Small membrane-enclosed sacs Transport molecules from place to place (ex. ER to Golgi Apparatus.
25 Ribosome: Factory Makes proteins and found in the cytosol (used for cell membrane or secreted) or on the ER (used in chemical reactions in cell). NOT Organelles
26 Golgi Apparatus (Complex): packaging and distributing center Stack of membrane-enclosed spaces. Process/Sorts/Packages protein/lipids for distribution within the cell and export out of the cell. Proteins/lipids come from endoplasmic reticulum.
27 What do YOU think? What is distinctive about the nuclear membrane? Why is it described as an envelope? Suppose a certain poison kills human cells by blocking pores in the nuclear membrane. Explain why it would or would not kill bacteria. Medicine, alcohol and many drugs are detoxified in liver cells. Why do you think the liver cells of some people who abuse alcohol and drugs have an increased amount of smooth ER?
28 Putting it all together Identify each of the following: A: B: C: D: E: F: A B F C D E
29 Part IV: Other organelles: Mitochondria Vacuole Lysosomes Centrosomes Cell wall Chloroplasts Central Water Vacuole
30 Mitochondria: Powerplant Provides energy for cell. Converts food to usable energy for cell. Have their own ribosomes and DNA.
31 Vacuole: Storage Tanks Fluid filled sack. Stores water, food molecules, ions and enzymes. Animal cells contain many small vacuoles. Plant cells contain a large central vacuole we will be talking about this more later
32 Lysosomes: Suicide Sacs/Recycling Centers Carry enzymes to destroy cellular waste. Break down damaged/worn out cell parts. Engulf/digest targeted molecules Defend cell from invading bacteria/viruses Once thought to be only in animal cells, but exist minimally in plant cells. Membrane protects cell from enzymes.
33 What do YOU think? How do vesicles and vacuoles compare?
34 Animal Cells contain all of the previous organelles plus: Centrioles: 2 cylindrical organelles (together called a centrosome) Formed by hollow protein fibers called microtubules (part of the cytoskeleton) Produce microtubules that aid in moving chromosomes during cell division. Found in animals and algae only but not in all animal cells. Video tour of cell
35 Plant Cells: contain all of the previous organelles (except centrioles) as well as: Cell Wall: Gives cells shape and support and provides protection. Found in algae, fungi and most bacteria too.
36 Plant Cells: contain all of the previous organelles (except centrioles) as well as: Chloroplast: (green) Changes sun s energy as well as CO2 and H2O into food. Also in green algae.
37 Plant Cells: contain all of the previous organelles (except centrioles) as well as: Central Water Vacuole: Single, large water filled vacuole in the middle of the cell. Strengthen cells and provide support for plant. Contains toxins to harm plant predators, waste products and pigment for color (petals).
38 Plant Cells: contain all of the previous organelles (except centrioles) as well as: Central Water Vacuole:
39 What do YOU think? Would it be accurate to say that a chloroplast makes energy for a plant cell? Explain. What are the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells? How do the parts of a cell make it function as a system?
40 Animal Cell
41 Plant Cell
42 Unicellular (one) vs. Multicellular (many) Unicellular: Single-Celled Most common forms of life on Earth. Carry out all functions of Life. Bacteria Amoeba Paramecium
43 Unicellular (one) vs. Multicellular (many) Multicellular Larger organisms. Different cells have specialized functions, together making a complete organism. Human Spider Jellyfish Visit a Tour of the Cell at: video
CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location is the material that contains the Carry genetic ALL CELLS information that determines material inherited characteristics.
and their organelles Discovery Video: Cells REVIEW!!!! The Cell Theory 1. Every living organism is made of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function. It is the smallest
NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components. Cell Part Cell Wall Centriole Chloroplast Cilia Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Endoplasmic
Mr. Ulrich Regents Biology Name:.. Cells and Their Organelles The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell
Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. They are identified by the presence of certain membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells have organelles too, but much fewer
7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells Clarifying Objective: 7.L.1.2 Compare the structures and functions of plant and animal cells; include major organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus,
7-1 Life Is Cellular CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Discovery of the Cell 1665: Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a thin slice of cork. Cork looked
Cell Structure and Function Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live Gas exchange CO 2 & O 2 Eat (take in & digest food) Make energy ATP Build
Basic Structure of a Cell Prokaryotic Cells No nucleus Archaea & Eubacteria One circular chromosome Extremely small Eukaryotic Cells Has a nucleus!!! Membrane-bound organelles Plants, Animals, Fungi, &
Tour of the Cell 1 Types of cells Prokaryote bacteria cells - no organelles - organelles Eukaryote animal cells Eukaryote plant cells Why organelles? Specialized structures u specialized functions cilia
Biology Name: Date: Period: Organelle Description Function Animal, Plant or CELL WALL Rigid, tough, made of cellulose Protects and supports the cell Plant CELL MEMBRANE Thin, covering, protects cells Protects
UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure Page CP: CHAPTER 3, Sections 1-3; HN: CHAPTER 7, Sections 1-2 Standard B-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells and their
Characteristics of Living Things Answer Activity No. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE The study of life Living things are known as organisms. The living world and the non-living world are mixed. As you look
http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html 4A: Students will compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Robert Hooke (1665) Used a compound microscope to look at thin slices of cork (oak
Cell Structure and Function Table of Contents Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Section 2 Introduction to Cells Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Section
Unit 4: Cells Review Guide LEARNING TARGETS Place a checkmark next to the learning targets you feel confident on. Then go back and focus on the learning targets that are not checked. Identify the parts
Table of Contents Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Section 1: Living Things 1- What is an organism? Any living thing is called an organism. Organisms vary in size: 1)one-celled or unicellular
Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Key learnings: Chapter Notes 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all
Cells Cytology = the study of cells What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to environment
What in the Cell is Going On? Robert Hooke naturalist, philosopher, inventor, architect... (July 18, 1635 - March 3, 1703) In 1665 Robert Hooke publishes his book, Micrographia, which contains his drawings
section 3.2 Eukaryotic Cells and Cell Organelles Teacher Notes and Answers SECTION 2 Instant Replay 1. Answers will vary. An example answer is a shapeless bag. 2. store and protect the DNA 3. mitochondria
Introduction to Cells- Stations Lab Station 1: Microscopes allow scientists to study cells. Microscopes: How do light microscopes differ from electron microscopes? (How does each work? How much can each
Class: Date: Ch 7 Review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Researchers use fluorescent labels and light microscopy to a. follow
Types of Cells Cells 1. I can explain the cell theory The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function. 3. Cells are produced
Chapter 5: The Fundamental Unit of Life Science 1 Who discovered cells and how? An English Botanist, Robert Hooke discovered cells In 1665, he used self-designed microscope to observe cells in a cork slice
T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23 A CELL IS THE SMALLEST LIVING UNIT KNOWN. IT IS OFTEN CALLED THE BUILDING BLOCK OF THE BODY, AND IS THE BASIC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF AN ORGANISM. CELL THEORY
Biology I Chapter 7 Interest Grabber NOTEBOOK #1 Are All Cells Alike? All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells. 1.
Cell Structure: Organelles Unit 3 --- Seventh Grade Cells are everywhere. Even though most cells cannot be seen with the naked eye, they make up every living thing. Your body contains trillions of cells.
The Cell The basic unit of all living things 1 Robert Hooke was the first to name the cell (1665) 2 The Cell Theory The cell is the unit of Structure of all living things. The cell is the unit of Function
Cell (Learning Objectives) 1. Understand & describe the basic components necessary for a functional cell. 2. Review the order of appearance of cells on earth and explain the endosymbiotic theory. 3. Compare
Biology Introduction to Cells Biology Biology is the study of life. In Biology, we are going to start small (the cell) and end with explaining a larger system (organisms) How small? http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/
CELL STRUCTURE What are the basic units of life? What are the structures within a cell and what are they capable of? How and why do cells divide? YEAR 8 BODY SYSTEMS Cells alive! Cells are the smallest
1 2 Flowers, like Roses, brighten up many gardens with green leaves and colorful blossoms. How do Roses carry out all the functions necessary to stay alive? To answer this question, you must look inside
Name Period Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry 1. The study of cells has been limited by their small size, and so they were
All cells must generate proteins. Cells make protein through a process called protein synthesis All living things are made of cells, Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms,
Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell The cell is the basic unit of life Although cells differ substantially from one another, they all share certain characteristics that reflect a common ancestry and remind us
Cell Structure Chapter 4 Cell Theory Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke. Early studies of cells were conducted by - Mathias Schleiden (1838) - Theodor Schwann (1839) Schleiden and Schwann proposed
Topic 1 http://bioichiban.blogspot.com Cellular Functions 1.1 The eukaryotic cell* An overview of the topic Key idea 1: Cell Organelles Key idea 2: Plasma Membrane Key idea 3: Transport Across Membrane
Name: Date: 1. Which structure is outside the nucleus of a cell and contains DNA? A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole 2. A potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the figure
BIOLOGY Cell Review Notes (source: SW Biology 11) CELL STRUCTURE, FUNCTION & PROCESS Both living and nonliving things are composed of molecules made from chemical elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Name Period Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry
How do we define what it means to be alive? Defining Life-7 Characteristics of Life There is no universal definition of life. To define life in unequivocal terms is still a challenge for scientists. Conventional
Cell Dairy Farm 1. Pens and corrals The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a series of interconnecting flattened tunnels which are attached to the outer membrane of the nucleus. The ER is the transport network
Unit 7: Cells and Life Name: Period: Test Date: 1 Table of Contents Title of Page Page Number Due Date VIRUS vs CELLS CHECKLIST 3 Warm-ups 4-5 Virus Notes 6-7 Viral Reproduction Notes 8 Viruses VS Cells
1 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CELL It was not until the mid-1600 s that scientists began to use microscopes to observe cells. In 1665, Englishman Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a slice
Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 4 Active Reading Guide A Tour of the Cell Section 1 1. The study of cells has been limited by their small size, and so they were not seen and described until 1665, when
Cell Biology A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells or composed of cells. 1 The interior contents
2 Eukaryotic Cells Key Concept Eukaryotic cells have organelles that perform important functions. What You Will Learn Eukaryotic cells have many parts such as cell s, a nucleus, and ribosomes in common.
Can You Identify This Object? CELLS Day 1: CELLULAR COMPONENTS & PROCESES What is a cell? Collection of living material enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from it s surroundings Basic Unit of
Principles of Cellular Biology آشنایی با مبانی اولیه سلول Biologists are interested in objects ranging in size from small molecules to the tallest trees: Cell Basic building blocks of life Understanding
CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION History of Cells Robert Hooke (1665) observed cork under a microscope Thought they looked like the rooms monks lived in called cells. History of Cells Antony Van Leeuwenhoek
Chapter 3: Cells Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College Learning Objectives Be able to describe: what a cell is & two main classes of cells. structure & functions of cell membranes. how
Eukaryotic Cells: The Inside Story Day 1 Objective 1. I will describe each part of a eukaryotic. 2. I will explain the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell. 3. I will describe the difference between
Eukaryotes Class Work 1. What does the word eukaryote mean? 2. What is the one major difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? 3. List the different kingdoms of the eukaryote domain in the order in
Directions for Plant Cell 3-Part Cards 1. Print out copy of 3 part cards and control cards Laminate for durability. Cut apart description and labels from 3 part cards. 2. As an introductory lesson, students
CHAPTER 2 Cell Structure and Function LESSON 2 The Cell What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree
Skills Worksheet Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS Complete each of the following sentences by choosing the correct term from the word bank. cell organ cell membrane prokaryote organelles eukaryote cell wall
Cell Organelles What are some of the differences you see between these two cells? A. Cell Theory 1. All organisms are made up of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of organization in an organism
1 (a) Table 6.1 gives the functions of certain organelles in a eukaryotic cell. Complete the table by stating the function associated with each organelle. The first row has been completed for you. Organelle
The Organization of Cells A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life Lecture Series 4 The Organization of Cells B. Prokaryotic Cells C. Eukaryotic Cells D. Organelles that Process Information E. Organelles that
Why? Eukaryotic Cell Structure: Organelles in Animal & Plant Cells Why are organelles important and how are plants and animals different? The cell is the basic unit and building block of all living things.
Biology Exam #1 Study Guide True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. F 1. All living things are composed of many cells. T 2. Membranes are selectively permeable if they allow only certain
Cell Structure, Function & Ultrastructure Learning Objectives 2.1.2 Components of the cell as seen under the light microscope and their functions. Cell Structure and Function 1. Plant cells: cell wall,
Cell organelles Cell Wall Plant cells have an outermost structure called a cell wall. A cell wall is a rigid structure that gives support to a cell. Plants and algae have cell walls made of a complex sugar.
Pre-lab homework Lab 4: The Cell Lab Section: Name: After reading over the lab and chapter 5 in your textbook, answer these questions to be turned in at the beginning of the lab! 1. Define organelle 2.
Name Date Class Cell Structure and Function Guided Reading and Study Looking Inside Cells This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria. Use Target Reading
Lab Section: Name: Pre-lab Homework After reading over the lab and the cell chapter in your textbook, answer these questions to be turned in at the beginning of the lab! 1. Define organelle : Two examples
BIO 2 GO! 3216a The Cell Organelles and Nucleus Function The cell is the smallest unit of life. Each living cell has a nucleus which functions to control the actions of the rest of the cell. Upon successful
1 Microscope History Robert Hooke First described cells in 1665. He viewed thin slices of cork and compared the boxy partitions he observed to the cells (small rooms) in a monastery. (1635 1702) 2 Microscope
What is a cell? Recall your work yesterday. When classifying cells, what are the two groups scientists separate cells into? Light Microscopes and Total Power Magnification We can use microscopes to observe
Name Cell Webquest MAKE SURE YOUR COMPUTER SOUNDS ARE OFF BEFORE STARTING!!! http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_st ructure.htm 1. What are the three basic
Chapter 2 Cells: The Basic Unit Of Life A Joke Why did the chicken cross the playground? To get to the other slide!! 1 Can you name the world s largest cell???? It s the yolk of the ostrich egg. It s the
Cell structure and function Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, write the word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. Prokaryotes were the first cells to evolve
2.3.d Cell Structures and Organelles functions within the cell. Eukaryotic cells contain organelles that allow the specialization and the separation of Real-World Reading Link Suppose you start a company
1 BASIC BIOLOGY I. Multiple choice questions: Tick mark ( ) the correct choice. 1. Cell was discovered by (a) Robert Brown (b) C. Linnaeus (c) Robert Hooke (d) C. Darwin Ans. (c) 2. Each cell has a (a)
Chemistry of Life Cells & Bioprocesses CRT Review Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life macromolecules - The four types of macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins Types of Macromolecules
NAME: PERIOD: The Cell and Its Functions Directions: Using your notes and book as a guide, complete the following questions to review everything we have learned about cells, their parts, and any functions
Chapter 3: Cells The smallest part of you Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College Learning Objectives Describe what a cell is and the two general types of cells. Describe the structure
Question 1: Which of the following is not correct? (a) Robert Brown discovered the cell. (b) Schleiden and Schwann formulated the cell theory. (c) Virchow explained that cells are formed from pre-existing
Ch 7: Cell Structure and Functions AP Biology The Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. New cells come from existing cells. 3. Cells are the basic units of structure and function of living
Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Sections 1-6 4.1 Food For Thought E. coli O157:H7A, strain of bacteria that causes severe illness or death, occasionally contaminates foods such as ground beef and
Worksheet:List of Cell Organelles and Functions Instructions: After watching the video, complete the following table http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1gqycijata&feature=related Organelle Location Function
Science Class 8 (CBSE) Page: 1 Mention the layer outside the plasma membrane of a plant cell. Cell wall is the layer outside the plasma membrane of a plant cell. Name the outermost layer of an animal cell.