1 Overview of the main nano-lithography techniques Soraya Sangiao
2 Outline Introduction: Nanotechnology. Nano-lithography techniques: Masked lithography techniques: Photolithography. X-ray lithography. Nanoimprint lithography. Maskless lithography techniques: Electron beam lithography. Ion beam lithography. Scanning probed based lithographies. Summary.
3 Introduction: Nanotechnology What is Nanotechnology? The study of the controlling of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometer in at least one dimension. Nanotechnology involves developing or modifying materials or devices within that size. With 15,342 atoms, this gear is one of the largest nanomechanical devices ever modeled in atomic detail.
4 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Michael Faraday discovered ruby gold colloid.
5 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Erwin Müller invented the field emission microscope.
6 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Bardeen, Shockley and Brattain discovered the semiconductor transistor.
7 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Erwin Müller pioneered the field ion microscope.
8 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Jack Kilby built the first integrated circuit.
9 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Richard Feynman gave the first lecture on technology and engineering at the atomic scale.
10 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Gordon Moore described a trend in electronics known as Moore s law.
11 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Norio Taniguchi coined the term Nanotechnology.
12 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Binnig and Rohrer invented the scanning tunneling microscope.
13 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Discovery of the Buckminsterfullerene (C 60 or buckyball).
14 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: : Binnig, Quate and Gerber invented the atomic force microscope.
15 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: Eigler and Schweizer demonstrated the atomic manipulation.
16 Introduction: Nanotechnology Some key dates in Nanotechnology: s 1990s: Consumer products making use of nanotechnology!
17 Introduction: Nanotechnology How small is Nano? Water Glucose Antibody Virus Bacteria Cancer cell A period Tennis ball Size (nm) Nanodevices
18 Nanolithography techniques Nanolithography: Branch of nanotechnology concerned with the study and application of fabricating nanoscale structures, i.e. patterns with at least one dimension between 1 and 100 nm. Why do we need Nanolithography? We want to do nanopatterning and fabricated useful devices with nanometric dimensions. Even though nature provides a few nanometric systems, in general we need to create them artificially.
19 Nanolithography techniques Approaches to control matter at the nanoscale Top-down approach Thin film deposition techniques + Lithography J. V. Barth et al., Nature 437, 671 (2005). Bottom-up approach Self assembly, self organization
20 Nanolithography techniques Resolution for micro- and nano- fabrication: 10-4 m 10-5 m Micrometric range ( m) 10-6 m 10-7 m 10-8 m Nanometric range ( m) Optical lithography Electron-beam lithography (EBL) Ion-beam lithography (IBL) Nanoimprinting (NIL) Scanning Probe Lithography (SPL-AFM)
21 Nanolithography techniques Possible classification of nanolithography techniques: Masked lithography techniques: Photolithography. X-ray lithography. Nanoimprint lithography. UV light Mask Resist Sample Substrate Mould Maskless lithography techniques: Electron beam lithography. Ion beam lithography. Scanning probed based lithographies. Resist Sample Electron beam Resist Sample Substrate
22 Photolithography Schematically: 1) Exposure The resist becomes sensitized UV light Mask Resist Sample Substrate 2) Development Immersion in developer fluid. 4) Resist removal 3) Etching Dry or wet etching. Typically acetone Courtesy of J. M. De Teresa, ICMA-Unizar Result: Sample with the same pattern of the mask
23 Photolithography Going over that a little more slowly: - Photolithography masks: UV light Cr alignment crosses (for subsequent steps) Cr motifs (stopper of UV light) Courtesy of J. M. De Teresa, ICMA-Unizar Quartz support (transparent to UV light)
24 Photolithography - Photolithography masks: Cr motifs (stopper of UV light) Quartz support (transparent to UV light) 5 by 5 in area 0.25 in thickness Courtesy of J. M. De Teresa, ICMA-Unizar
25 Photolithography - Photolithography masks: Cr motifs (stopper of UV light) Cr alignment crosses (for subsequent steps) Final sample: (Optical microscope image ) Courtesy of J. M. De Teresa, ICMA-Unizar 4 µm
26 Photolithography - Resists (Photoresists): Viscous fluid formed by a polymer, a photosensitive component and a solvent. Polymer: It provides the properties of viscosity, adherence and resiliance to chemical etching. Solvent: It permits to keep the polymer in solution, allowing its application on the sample. Its concentration changes the viscosity/final thickness. Photosensitive complex: It provides the sensitivity to the UV radiation. This molecule is able to change the solubility of the polymer in the developer.
27 Photolithography - Two types of photoresists: Negative photoresist - Exposure to UV light causes it to polymerize and thus be more difficult to dissolve. Positive photoresist - Exposure to UV light makes it more soluble in the developer. - Developer removes unexposed resist. - Exposed resist is washed away by developer so that the unexposed sample remains. - It results in a pattern supplementary to that of the mask. - It results in an exact copy of the original design.
28 Photolithography - Two types of photoresists: Negative photoresist + Mask #1 Positive photoresist + Mask #2 (supplementary to mask #1) Courtesy of J. M. De Teresa, ICMA-Unizar
29 Photolithography - Spin coating Spin speed: usually in the range rpm Final resist thickness: t 2 η s η = viscosity. s = spin speed.
30 Photolithography - Real equipment for spin coating: -Soft-bake step: Heating at T around 100ºC to eliminate the solvent.
32 Photolithography - Exposure modes: Contact: Proximity: Projection: Mask in contact with the photoresist film (gap ~ 0 µm) Gap ~ 10 µm between mask and photoresist. Imaging optics in between the mask and the wafer
33 Photolithography - Exposure modes: Resolution Contact: Proximity: Projection: Depth of focus: σ=kλ/(na 2 ) Resolution: 2 bb mmmmmm = 3 λλλλ/2 2 bb mmmmmm = 3 λλλλ bb mmmmmm = kkλλ/(nnnn) Example: d=1 µm, λ=365 nm b min 640 nm s =10 µm, λ=365 nm b min 2866 nm k=0.45, λ=248 nm, NA=0.7 b min 160 nm
34 Photolithography - Mask aligner: Exposure source. Exposure sources (UV): -Xe arc lamps: Near continuuos spectrum in the visible nm with Xe lines above 800 nm. -Hg arc lamps: High energy output in the UV with intense lines between nm. -Hg-Xe arc lamps: Combination of the spectra from Hg and Xe (Xe gas improves start-up and extends operating life).
35 Photolithography - Mask aligner: Exposure source. Exposure sources (DUV): By 1996, transition from an I- line Hg arc lamp to deep-uv excimer laser KrF (248 nm). The physics of excimer laser allows scaling to higher powers, narrower spectral widths and shorter wavelengths.
36 Photolithography - Etching process: Wet etching: By means of reactive liquids Resist Sample Substrate Dry etching: By means of physical etching (sputtering/ionic bombardement) or chemical etching (plasma / RIE). Comparison: Property Wet Dry Anisotropy - + Resolution - + Homogeneity - + Reproducibility - + Profile - + Risk of burns - + Isotropic etching profile Courtesy of J. M. De Teresa, ICMA-Unizar Anisotropic etching profile Cost + -
37 Photolithography - Lift-off process: (positive resist). 1) Exposure UV light Mask Resist Substrate 2) Development 4) Resist removal 3) Sample growth Sample Courtesy of J. M. De Teresa, ICMA-Unizar Result: Sample with pattern supplementary to that of the maks, without etching!
38 Photolithography - Lift-off process: Real example. Mask: + Positive resist. After growing the sample and removing the resist: Courtesy of J. M. De Teresa, ICMA-Unizar
39 Photolithography - Photolithography in IC industry: Stepper.
40 X-ray lithography - X-rays: - Shorter wavelength than UV light Little diffraction effects. - Fine features with vertical sidewalls. - Very large depth of focus Non-flat wafer is OK. - No optics needed: Just an x-ray source, an x-ray resist and an x-ray mask.
41 X-ray lithography - X-ray source: Requirements: Strong, stable, collimated, single frequency Synchrotron radiation: Electromagnetic radiation emitted when charge particles are radially accelerated. High cost!! But - Extremely high intensity. - Tunable. - Very low divergence.
42 X-ray lithography X-ray mask: - Mask substrate: Low atomic number thin membrane. - Absorber: High attenuation, stability under radiation, low microstructural defect density: Au, W, Ta, alloys.
43 X-ray lithography - X-ray resist: - Absorption of x-ray does not produce resist modification. - Photelectrons and Auger electrons are responsible for resist modification. - Any resist for electron beam lithography (PMMA) can be used. Exposure to x-ray (that generates Auger electrons ) cut the PMMA chains, leading to smaller molecular weight that dissolves faster in developers.
44 X-ray lithography - Basic process: Ideal to pattern high resolution and high aspect ratio nanostructures! Development
45 X-ray lithography - Examples: 50 nm lines R. Waser (ed.), Nanoelectronics and Information Technology
46 Nanoimprint lithography - Basic process: - Much simpler in comparison to alternatives! - High throughput. - Low cost for a next-generation technology. Mechanical deformation of the imprint resist. High resolution + high throughput + low cost!! L. Jay Guo, Adv. Mater. 19, 495 (2007).
47 Nanoimprint lithography - Improved process: Step-and-flash imprint lithography (SFIL). L. Jay Guo, Adv. Mater. 19, 495 (2007). Candidate technology for future IC production.
48 Nanoimprint lithography - NIL molds: Fabrication: Material requirements: - Sufficient Young s modulus. - High strength and durability. SEM micrograph: L. Jay Guo, Adv. Mater. 19, 495 (2007).
49 Nanoimprint lithography - NIL resits: Material requirements: - Young s modulus lower than that of the mold. - Sufficiently low viscosity. T > T g Resist cured by UV light. - Good mold-releasing properties. L. Jay Guo, Adv. Mater. 19, 495 (2007). - Good plasma-etching resistance.
50 Nanoimprint lithography - Large area Roll-to-Roll and Roll-to-Plate NIL: High-Throughput application of continuous NIL S. Hyun Ahn and L. Jay Guo, ACS Nano 3, 2304 (2009).
51 Nanoimprint lithography - Large area Roll-to-Roll and Roll-to-Plate NIL: High-Throughput application of continuous NIL 300 nm linewidth, 600 nm height with greatly enhanced throughput. S. Hyun Ahn and L. Jay Guo, ACS Nano 3, 2304 (2009).
52 Ion beam lithography - Ion beams: Interaction with matter Focused ion beam (around 30 kev): - Slow heavy atoms: Sputtering of atomic and molecular species from the surface. Focused ion beam lithography: - Direct writing lithography! (No mask) - Sub-100 nm resolution. I. Utke et al., Int. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1197 (2008).
53 Ion beam lithography - Focused Ion Beams sources: High brightness Cryogenic temperature. Less brighter but robust. FIB profile: (spatial distribution) 30 kev Ga+ 1 pa I. Utke et al., Int. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1197 (2008).
54 Ion beam lithography - FIB processes: Nanorotor produced by FIB. A. Santos et al., Nanotechnol. 26, (2015). X. Wang et al., Chem. Mater. 25, 2819 (2013).
55 Summary A. Pimpin et al., Enginner. J. 16, 37 (2011).
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