CURRENT STATUS OF NANOIMPRINT LITHOGRAPHY DEVELOPMENT IN CNMM

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1 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 1 CURRENT STATUS OF NANOIMPRINT LITHOGRAPHY DEVELOPMENT IN CNMM February 17 th 2005 Eung-Sug Lee,Jun-Ho Jeong Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials

2 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 2 Outlines I. PROCESS TECHNOLOGY Single Step UV-NIL UV-NIL using an Elementwise Patterned Stamp (EPS) in a Low Vacuum or Atmospheric Environment High Throughput Step-and-Repeat UV-NIL using a Large Area Stamp II. APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY Nano Wire Grid Polarizer Photonic Band Gap Device III. TOOL TECHNOLOGY UV-NIL for Uniform and Minimum Residual Layer Step and Repeat UV-NIL Single-Step UV-NIL Tool IV. SUMMARY

3 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 3 Process technology Single step UV-NIL UV-NIL using a elementwise patterned stamp (EPS) in a low vacuum environment

4 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 4 Schematic of UV nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) press stamp stamp UV curable resin substrate cure illuminate with UV light remove stamp RIE

5 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 5 Characteristics of UV-nanoimprint lithography Resin Thermal type NIL Thermoplastic polymer UV type NIL UV curable resin Stamp material Processing temperature Processing pressure Silicon, Nickel > T g (glass transition temperature) High ( ~ 30 bar) Quartz, glass (transparent) Room temperature Low (~ 1 bar) Advantages for mass production, multi-layer process, and step & repeat process

6 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 6 Recent studies on NIL 5 Nanoimprint lithography- Prof. Chou, Princeton University, 1995 Imprint (Press stamp) Heating (150 o C-250 o C) Stamp Resist Substrate Remove stamp Imprint mold with 10nm diameter pillars 10nm diameter holes imprinted in PMMA RIE 10nm diameter metal dots fabricated by NIL

7 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 7 UV Light Recent studies on NIL 5 UV-Imprint lithography Self-leveling flexure Template (contains circuit pattern) Wafer UV curable solution dispensed by drops University of Texas at Austin (Sreenivasan et al.), 1999 Molecular Imprints Inc. Step & Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL) 13 mm or 25 mm UV blanket expose Quartz Template Release Layer Planarization Layer Substrate HIGH resolution, LOW aspect-ratio relief Residual Layer Monomer HIGH resolution, HIGH aspect-ratio feature

8 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 8 Motivations Step & repeat type UV-NIL using a small area ( 1 in.) stamp Low-throughput (The imprint time is 2-3 minutes for each field and minutes for a 4 in. wafer) Single step UV-NIL using a large-area stamp in a medium/ highvacuum environment requires a vacuum-compatible system and UV curable resin For high-throughput manufacturing We have developed new UV-NIL processes using a large-area stamp in a low-vacuum or atmospheric environment

9 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 9 Elementwise patterned stamp In a low vacuum-pressure or atmospheric environment Single-step UV-NIL using a large area flat stamp Step-and and-repeat UV-NIL using a small stamp Advantages - High-throughput UV-NIL using EPS Elements with nanopattern Advantages - Low-cost stamp - Prevention of air entrapment -Easy release Channel - Precise alignment for each field

10 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 10 Elementwise patterned stamp Element stamp Stamp A A Nanostructues Channel Element Cross section AA

11 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 11 UV-NIL process using EPS Step I: Multi-dispensing Nozzle Step II: Pressing EPS Droplets Patterned elements at top Turning EPS round Press Wafer below stamp EPS Patterned elements at bottom Producing vacuum (air out) Step IV: Releasing EPS Separate Step III: UV exposure UV Wafer Imprinted element

12 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 12 UV-NIL process using EPS Equipment- EVG620-NIL - Use 4 in. wafer - Vacuum hard contact mode UV lamp Microscope Pressure Exposure time Parameters 800mbar 60 sec Wafer chuck Exposure intensity 36 mw/cm 2 Alignment stage UV curable resist - PAK01(viscosity = 7 cps) Anti-vibration table

13 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 13 UV-NIL process using EPS 4 in. wafer with 9 successfully imprinted elements Residual layer thickness (RLT) distribution 13 mm C A B A A: nm C B B B C B: nm A B A C: nm C Droplets Air flow direction c b a: nm b a b b: nm Planarization layer Imprinted element c c: nm 10 mm

14 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 14 UV-NIL process using EPS Imprint results 70 nm lines 50 nm lines

15 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 15 Process Technology Single Step UV-NIL UV-NIL using EPS and Additive Pressurization in an Atmospheric Environment

16 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 16 Single-step UV-NIL in an atmospheric environment Elementwise Patterned Stamp (EPS): avoid air entrapment Additive Pressurization: uniform residual layer thickness element (field) dispenser EPS pressurization 5 droplets/field air out air pressure

17 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 17 Single-step UV-NIL in an atmospheric environment Dispensing secondary resist flow Press additive pressurization 1 st pressurization 2 nd pressurization Air pressure

18 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 18 Imprint results nm nm nm residual layer thickness planarization layer (60 nm) 50 nm lines

19 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 19 Process Technology Step and Repeat UV-NIL High Throughput Step-and and-repeat UV-NIL using a Large Area EPS

20 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 20 Step-and-repeat UV-NIL in an atmospheric environment Effective elements Imprint I Imprint II Imprint IV Imprint III Air Patterned elements at bottom Selectively dispensing Step-and-repeat imprint

21 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 21 Step-and-repeat UV-NIL in an atmospheric environment Step I Wafer chuck Transparent backplate Wafer EPS Resin droplet Dispensing nozzle Step IV UV Gas Step II Press Step V Imprinted element Step III Chamber Press Step VI Gas

22 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 22 Step-and-repeat UV-NIL in an atmospheric environment 50 nm lines 80 nm lines with a 110 nm pitch 80 nm lines with a 110 nm pitch Residual layer Planarization layer 8 in. 80 nm lines with a 110 nm pitch 80 nm lines with a 110 nm pitch 50 nm lines

23 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 23 Application Technology Nano Wire Grid Polarizer

24 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 24 Nanoimprint Lithography Advantages of Nanoimprint Lithography High resolution High throughput Low tool cost Simple process Process Flow (Nano Wire Grid Polarizer) Aluminum Deposition Resist Coating Imprint (Heat & Pressure) Demolding Residual Layer Removing Aluminum RIE

25 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 25 Nanoimprint Lithography Development - Nano Wire Grid Polarizer S-polarized Light Unpolarized Light Projection TV Pitch P-polarized Light 50 nm Half- Pitch Stamp Imprinted Polymer Pattern Contrast Ratio > 2,000, Transmission > 83 % at λ= 470 nm

26 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 26 Application Technology Photonic Band Gap Device

27 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 27 Nanoimprinting of Photonic Crystal Waveguides Future vision of hybrid optical integration of an optical transceiver with silicon photonic components and conventional CMOS drivers <SEM Image of Master> Dimension r = 150 nm a = 400 nm <SEM and AFM Images of Nanoimprinted Photonic Crystal Waveguide> Dimension r = 160 nm a = 405 nm Height = 335~340 nm

28 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 28 Completed Photonic Crystal Waveguide Dimension : 7.7 X 13.5 μm <Near Field Pattern of Photonic Crystal Waveguide>

29 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 29 Tool Technology Single-step UV-NIL tool

30 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 30 UV-based Nanopatterning Equipment - CNMM Area : 4 inch Wafer Min. Feature Size 100 nm Chip-size Multi-Head Imprinting Controller Nano-Precision Stage: 3nm 3-Axis Nano Leveling Overlay & Alignment UV UV Light Source Vibration Control Flexure stage X-Y stage for parallelization NanoImprint Equipment UV System Imprinting Head XYZ Stage Vibration Isolator 100nm 86nm

31 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 31 Summary NIL has several advantages over optical lithography High resolution (feature size 10 nm) low cost Challenging issues Minimizing defects Residual layer thickness control 1 stamp inspection and cleaning 10 nm scale overlay alignment

32 U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 32 Thank You!

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