Biology Test Review Science 8

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1 Biology Test Review Science 8 Introduction to Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems Explain structural and functional relationships between and among cells, tissues, organs and systems in the human body Compare the early idea that living organisms were made of air, fire and water with the modern cell theory 1. What elements were people believed to be made of in the past? Aristotle (born in 384 B.C.), a philosopher and scientist of the ancient times thought that all substances were compounds of four elements: earth, water, air and fire. He thought for instance that humans were made of earth, which gave material strength and weight; fire, which provided warmth; water, which accounted for blood and other bodily fluids; and air, which filled the lungs and provided the breath of life. Of course, some people were more earthly, fiery, airy, or watery than others. 2. What do we now know that living things are made of? We now know that living things are made of cells. 3. What is cell theory? The idea that cells are the basic unit of structure of every living thing. (All living things are made of cells, cells are the basic unit of structure and function, and all cells come from existing cells). 4. What is a cell? Cells are the smallest independent units of life, and all life depends on the many activities of that cells perform. 5. What are tissues? Tissues are made up of many similar cells that perform a specific function. 6. What are organs? Organs are a collection of two or more kinds of tissues that work together to perform a certain function. 7. What are organ systems? A group of organs that work together to perform a major function. 8. Name two systems and what they do. 9. What are the basic materials that cells need to stay alive? Food, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Water Characteristics of Living Things Illustrate and explain that the cell is a living system that exhibits all the characteristics of life What are the six characteristics of life? 1. Living things are made up of cells 2. Living things reproduce, grow, and repair themselves. 3. Living things require and use energy. 4. Living things respond and adapt to their environment. 5. Living things have a life span. 6. Living things produce waste. 2. What is the function of a cell? A cell takes in fuel and builds material, transforms energy, grows and reproduces.

2 3. When do organisms grow? Organisms grow when they eat more food than their body needs for energy. Their body then may change its form by increasing in size, weight or shape. 4. Where do plants get energy? Animals? Plants get energy from the sun (photosynthesis) and animals get energy from eating plants and other animals. 5. Why do living things have a lifespan? Old age brings with it certain conditions that vary with each individual. One thing that happens is our immune systems get weaker. 6. What kind of waste does your body produce? The breakdown of substances in the body are eliminated through the excretory system (urine). 7. What are the important differences between living and non-living things? 8. Are volcanoes living things? Explain. 9. Name at least one characteristic of living things that is shown in each of the following examples: a. A plant bends towards the light. b. A tadpole develops into a frog. c. Human lungs breathe out carbon dioxide. d. A blue jay feeds on sunflower seeds. e. A cat gives birth to kittens. 10. Give an example of a non-living (abiotic) thing that has one of each of the six characteristics of living things. 11. How do scientists determine whether to consider something as an organism? So, what is a cell anyway? Work co-operatively with the members to develop and construct models of cells Distinguish between plant and animal cells Explain that is important to use proper terms when comparing plant and animal cells 1. What are the parts of cellular systems called? The parts of the cellular system are called organelles. 2. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus or organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotic cells have organelles that are surrounded by membranes. Each organelle does a specific cell function. 3. What are Organelles? Organelles are a specialized subunit within a cell that have specific functions, and are usually enclosed in a membrane. 4. What is the nucleus? A membrane-enclosed organelle. It contains most of the cell's genetic material (information that comes from your mom and dad). Genetic material is organized as DNA which make up chromosomes. 5. What is the cell membrane? A biological membrane that separates the inside of all cells from the outside.

3 6. What is the Cell Wall? It is the tough, usually flexible layer that surrounds some types of cells. It is located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection. 7. What is a Vacuole? Membrane-bound organelle found mainly in plant cells, but also in some animal cells. They are like storage bubbles found in cells. They store nutrients and waste products and help keep the shape of the cell. 8. What are Ribosomes? The part of the cell that helps to make proteins 9. What is the Golgi Apparatus? An organelle that packages proteins and fats before they get shipped off to their destination 10. What is the Chloroplast? Organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that perform photosynthesis (take energy from the sun, water and carbon dioxide and make sugar and oxygen). 11. What is the Cytoplasm? A thick liquid residing between the cell membrane holding all organelles, except for the nucleus. 12. What are Mitochondria? Membrane-enclosed organelle. Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of energy. 13. What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum? The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum makes proteins. The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum makes fats, steroids, and breakdowns sugars. 14. What are Lysosomes? An organelle that breaks down waste material in the cell. 15. How do cells move? Some cells have tails called flagellum. Flagellum is a whip-like tail that helps some cells move. Other cells move with cilia. Cilia are tiny hairs surrounding the cells. These short hairs moving together allow the cell to move around. 16. What are the differences between plant and animal cells? Cell Growth explain that growth and reproduction depend on cell division Use a light microscope or micro-viewer correctly to produce a clear image of cells 1. What is Cell Division? The process by which two cells are formed from one. 2. What is mitosis? Mitosis is also known as cell division. It is basically, when one cell becomes two. We grow and replace dead cells by making more cells through mitosis. Mitosis is the reproduction of skin, heart, stomach, cheek, hair cells, etc. 3. What is Meiosis? All cells in the body are made by mitosis except sperm cells and egg cells. Sperm and eggs are known as gametes or sex cells and are special because they only have half the information of other cells. When a sperm and egg come together they have the information of a normal whole cell.

4 Comparing a Cell to the Human Body 1. Be able to give a body part that has a similar function to an organelle. Nucleus/Brain - The brain is the control center of the body. The nucleus is the control center of the cell. Cytoplasm/Blood - Blood cells carry information. Cytoplasm also carries information. It s a jelly like substance. Cell Membrane/Bones - The cell membrane holds the cell together and somewhat protects the cell. Also, the bones hold the human body together. Cell Wall/ Skin - The Cell Wall protects the plant cell. Also, the skin protects the human body. Organs and Systems relate the needs and functions of various cells and organs to the needs and functions of the human organism as a whole describe the basic functions and efficiency of the human respiratory, circulatory, digestive, excretory and nervous systems Evaluate individual and group processes used in researching the roles of the main organ systems 1. What does your body need to stay alive? Oxygen, Nutrients (food), Water 2. How does your body get what it needs to stay alive? Eating (nutrients, sugar, fats, proteins: all of these things are needed to make energy at the cellular level and to keep our body functioning properly). Breathing (your cells use oxygen when they make energy, that is why it is so important. If you did not have oxygen, you wouldn t have energy to live). Drinking (water, your body needs this to make energy and keep your cells alive). 3. What wastes does your body produce? How does your body get rid of wastes? Feces (The matter discharged from the bowel during defecation, consisting of the undigested residue of food, epithelium, intestinal mucus, bacteria, and waste material). Urine (your cells produce waste products when they make energy. These wastes go through the blood stream to the kidneys and then get peed out). Carbon Dioxide (your cells make carbon dioxide as a waste product when making energy and your body has to get rid of it). 4. You are going to be responsible to know the functions and parts of the respiratory system, circulatory system, and nervous systems

5 How do your organ systems work together Describe examples of the interdependence of various systems of the human body Illustrate examples of conflicting evidence related to how we should maintain and/or treat our body systems Describe the science underlying various technologies used to assist or replace unhealthy organs or systems Provide examples of careers that are associated with the health of body systems 1. Give two examples of how systems work together. The kidneys get rid of wastes, but in order to get oxygen to do work, they rely on the cardiovascular system to provide oxygen and take away the carbon dioxide. The respiratory system brings in oxygen and then the cardiovascular system takes the oxygen throughout the body and brings back carbon dioxide, which the respiratory system exhales. 2. Provide examples of careers that are associated with the health of body systems

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