Module A Unit 1 Basic Biological Principles. Mr. Mitcheltree

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1 Module A Unit 1 Basic Biological Principles Mr. Mitcheltree

2 Biochemistry Cytology Genetics Evolution Taxonomy Microbiology Mycology Botany Zoology Ecology Branches of Biology

3 Characteristics of Life Made of organic compounds Contain: Examples: Made of Cells - Cell Theory - -

4 Cytoplasm Water with dissolved material, monomers and polymers: proteins, carbs, nucleic acids and lipids Chemical Reactions: respiration (glycolysis), dehydration synthesis (monomers polymers), hydrolysis (polymers monomers) Cytoplasmic Streaming moves substances through cytoplasm. Intracellular fluid that contains organelles True organelles have double membrane. inner membrane increases surface area for increased reactions. Ex. Mitochondria cristae Ex. Plastids grana

5 Function of DNA Tells cell how to make proteins by linking amino acids. (sequencing) Transcription DNA mrna 3 DNA bases codes for one amino acid. CCCTATCGCATTCGC Translation Protein production occurs at ribosomes in cytoplasm The Central Dogma of Biology Chromosomes Twisted strands of DNA & Protein present during cell reproduction

6 Prokaryotic Cells Meaning Before Nucleus Suggests evolution No membrane bound nucleus. DNA found in strands (big messy ball of yarn) Bacteria

7 Eukaryotic Cell Has true nucleus (double membrane bound organelle) contains DNA Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Much Larger than prokaryotic

8 Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells

9 Nucleus True Organelle May be more than one and found anywhere in the cell Has nuclear envelope: membrane porous to allow mrna to exit separates nucleus from cytoplasm. Contains chromatin DNA and Proteins When cell reproduces becomes chromosomes Tells the cell how to make protein

10 Nucleus

11 Mitochondria Powerhouse of the cell. Aerobic respiration occurs in matrix and on cristae. Site of Kreb s cycle and electron transport chain, 34 of 36 ATP formed In animals, inherited from the egg, has its own DNA Cristae increases SA Plant cells have them What body cell type would have the most?

12 Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.) True organelle Transports materials made by biosynthesis. Two Types: Smooth E.R. Lipids Rough E.R. Covered with Ribosomes Therefore transports.

13 Endoplasmic Reticulum The rough ER manufactures membranes and secretory proteins. In leukocytes (leuk-) the rough ER produces antibodies (anti-). In pancreatic cells the rough ER produces insulin. Rough ER Song

14 Golgi Body (Apparatus) True Organelle Collects, Modifies and Packages materials from biosynthesis (typically from Rough ER) Materials packaged? Used for storage, digestion, and secretion (Exocytosis).

15 One end acts as the "receiving" department (cis) and the other as the "shipping" department (trans). The receiving department is closely associated with the ER. Golgi Apparatus

16 Excretion Excretion getting rid of waste or excess water. Occurs by: diffusion (wastes) movement of material from high to low concentrations of solute. osmosis (water) movement of water from high to low concentration of solvent. Exocytosis

17 Secretion Getting rid of cell products from biosynthesis. Occurs by Mostly exocytosis Diffusion Example: Salivary Glands secreting amylase (carbohydrate digestive enzyme)

18 Plastids Chloroplasts True organelle. Contain Photosynthetic pigments. Mg Light reactions Calvin Cycle Contains its own DNA

19 Cell Wall Found in Plant, Fungi, and Bacteria cells All Porous Plant cell made of cellulose and lignin Fungi made of chitin Bacteria made of various carbohydrates Cell Song

20 Characteristics of Life Cont. Limited Life Span Reproduce - Importance: - Types : Asexual - : Sexual - - Importance:

21 Characteristics of Life Cont. Evolve Use Energy some form of ATP production respiration Grow and Develop Respond to the environment - Homeostasis Examples:

22 Characteristics of Life Cont. Cell Organization of Life Unicellular - Colonial - - Multicellular- - -

23 Hierarchy of Life Describes life from smallest units to largest. Chemical Cell Organelle tissue organ system Crash Course Biology The Nervous System Circulatory & Respiratory Systems The Digestive System The Excretory System: From Your Heart to the Toilet Your Skeleton: It s ALIVE! The Big Guns: Your Muscular System Your Immune System: Natural Born Killer Eukaryopolis The City of Animal Cells organism

24 Plant Organs Produces pollen and ovule for sexual reproduction Photosynthesis, gas exchange and transpiration Transports water and sap up and down the plant, storage of food (sap) and water in some Absorbs water and nutrients, storage of food (sap) and water in some, anchors the plant

25

26 Storage and photosynthesis Growth rapid mitosis Support thick walled Crash Course Biology Plant Cells Support thick walled

27 Meristematic Tissue Cell differentiation or specialization Certain genes turn on to become different tissues Apical Meristem growth in length Cambium growth in width

28 Root Systems Root hair Tap root - storage Fibrous root high surface area for absorption

29 Study Island Pretest Science of Inquiry 2a and 2b Cell Structure and Organization 4a

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