# Design for Manufacturability and Power Estimation. Physical issues verification (DSM)

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1 Design for Manufacturability and Power Estimation Lecture 25 Alessandra Nardi Thanks to Prof. Jan Rabaey and Prof. K. Keutzer Physical issues verification (DSM) Interconnects Signal Integrity P/G integrity Substrate coupling Crosstalk Parasitic Extraction Reduced Order Modeling Manufacturability Power Estimation 1

2 Outline Design for Manufacturability Yield Parametric Yield Defect-related yield Statistical Design Power Estimation Power consumption mechanisms Different level of abstraction Static or dynamic analysis Physical issues verification (DSM) Manufacturability IC manufacturing process is affected by random disturbances different silicon dioxide growth rates, mask misalignement, drift of fabrication equipment operation, etc. These disturbances are often uncontrollable and affect the circuit performance How good is my chips performance? How many of my chips will work? Yield: percentage of manufactured products that pass all performance specifications Yield loss mechanisms Parametric yield (process variations) Defect-related yield (defects) 2

3 Parametric Yield Process variations Process Variations SPICE model Process variations are reflected into a statistical SPICE model Usually only a few parameters have a statistical distribution (e.g. : { L, W, T OX,V Tn, V Tp }) and the others are set to a nominal value The nominal SPICE model is obtained by setting the statistical parameters to their nominal value 3

4 Global Variations (Inter-die) Process variations Performance variations Critical path delay of a 16-bit adder All devices have the same set of model parameters value Local Variations (Intra-die) Each device instance has a slightly different set of model parameter values (aka device mismatch) The performance of some analog circuits strongly depends on the degree of matching of device properties Digital circuits are in general more immune to mismatch, but clock distribution network is sensitive (clock skew) 4

5 Statistical Design Need to account for process variations during design phase Statistical design Nominal design Yield optimization Design centering Statistical Design 5

6 Design for Manufacturability (DFM) Approaches 1) Worst-Case Approach: choose the SPICE model giving the worst possible behavior Traditional choice is pessimistic and lead to circuit overdesign (neglects any kind of correlation) Other techniques to choose the SPICE model values (accounting for correlation) 2) Probability Density Function Approach: keep track of the whole distribution Expensive: need smart ways to do it Defect-related Yield Manufacturing process may introduce some defects in the layout From W. Maly Computer-aided design for VLSI circuit manufacturability, IEEE Proc

7 Defect-related Yield Defect-layout relationship Yield in terms of area and design rules Larger area lower yield Smaller geometries higher sensitivity to defects trade-off: yield loss must be expressed in terms of the defect size and layout characteristics rather than in terms of area alone More relaxed layout More aggressive layout Defect-related Yield Critical area Model relationship between defect characteristics (density and size distribution) and the probability of the defect The critical area, for a defect radius R, is defined as the area on the layout where, if the center of a defect is deposited a fault occurs: Y exp{ A cr ( R)} From W. Maly Computer-aided design for VLSI circuit manufacturability, IEEE Proc

8 Physical issues verification (DSM) Power Estimation Higher speed and shrinking geometries Increased power consumption and heat dissipation Higher packaging costs Higher on-chip electric field Decreased reliability power dissipation of VLSI circuits becomes a critical concern Accurate and efficient power estimation (and optimization) techniques are required Low Power Challenges Multifaceted approach adopted: Reducing chip capacitance through process scaling Reducing voltage Employing better architectural and circuit design techniques From 2D to 3D optimization problem From D. Singh et al Power Conscious CAD Tools and Methodologies: A Perspective, IEEE Proc

9 Power and Synthesis Flow Potential for Power Savings 400% 50% 20% 10% Behavioral RTL Gate Switch Accuracy of Power Estimation 1997 Jan M. Rabaey Design Abstraction Levels HDL Behavioral Synthesis RTL Synthesis Logic Optimization Transistor Optimization Power Analysis Power Analysis Power Analysis Power Analysis Place & Route 1997 Jan M. Rabaey 9

10 Power Consumption Mechanisms in CMOS Static Consumption Small component (increasing importance for DSM) Leakage diodes and transistors Dynamic Consumption Due to load capacitance Largest component Due to direct-path currents CMOS Power Consumption Mechanisms Static consumption Ideally zero Due to: Leakage current through reverse biased diode junctionbetween source (or drain) and the substrate Subthreshold current of the transistor Vdd Vout Drain Junction Leakage P = I stat leak V DD Sub-Threshold Current Digital Integrated Circuits 2nd 10

11 CMOS Power Consumption Mechanisms Dynamic consumption Load Capacitance Major component Energy/transition: Vin Vdd Vout Power=Energy/transition: P E dyn dyn = C V = C L L V 2 DD 2 DD f C L Digital Integrated Circuits 2nd if the gate is switched on and off f times per second Note: it is not a function of gate size! CMOS Power Consumption Mechanisms Dynamic consumption Switching activity Consider switching a CMOS gate for N clock cycles E = C V 2 nn ( ) N L dd E N : the energy consumed for N clock cycles n(n ): the number of 0->1 transition in N clock cycles P = lim avg N E N f N clk = nn ( ) lim N N C L V 2 fclk dd α 0 1 = nn ( ) lim N N P = α avg 0 1 C L V 2 fclk dd Digital Integrated Circuits 2nd a 0 1 is called the switching activity C eff = a 0 1 C L is called the effective capacitance 11

12 CMOS Power Consumption Mechanisms Dynamic consumption Short Circuit current Ideally zero Not zero since rise and fall time (t r and t f ) are not zero Power=Energy/transition: tr + tf Psc = Ipeak VDD ( ) f 2 if the gate is switched on and off f times per second I peak determined by the saturation current of the devices Digital Integrated Circuits 2nd Vin I V DD (ma) Vdd C L Vin (V) Vout Power Consumption Mechanisms in CMOS V DD Dynamic Dissipation P 2 dyn = CL VDD fclk α0 1 In Out Short-Circuit Currents tr + t f Psc = I peak VDD ) fclk α 2 ( 0 1 I SC C L Static Dissipation P = I V stat leak DD Complete power model provides infrastructure for analysis and optimization 1997 Jan M. Rabaey Concentrate on the estimation of a

13 Power Estimation Dynamic Analysis Simulation requires representative simulation vectors Derived by designer Automatic (Monte Carlo) Transitor level (PowerMill) Very accurate Much faster than SPICE Gate level (Powergate, DesignPower) Faster than transistor level Still very accurate due to good modeling of power dissipation at cell-level Power Estimation Static Analysis Propagation of switching probabilities No input vectors needed Much faster than simulation Less accurate than simulation Hard to model real delays Glitches? 13

14 Power Estimation Static Analysis Probability Propagation AND gate sp(1) = sp1 * sp2 tp(0 1) = sp * (1 - sp) Example sp = 0.5 * 0.5 = /2 1/2 1/2 1/2 tp = 0.25 * (1-0.25) = Propagate 1/4 1/4 7/ Jan M. Rabaey Power Estimation Static Analysis Probability Propagation Ignores Temporal and Spatial Correlations 1997 Jan M. Rabaey 14

15 Power Estimation Static Analysis Probability Propagation: Problems Problem: Reconvergent Fan-out: Creates spatial correlation between signals ? 0.5! P(X) = P(B=1).(P(X=1 B = 1) Becomes complex and untractable real fast 1997 Jan M. Rabaey Power Optimization Supply voltage reduction Most effective: quadratic improvement Implies performance degradation Use of multiple-v DD (not below the sum of thresholds) Increase of leakage current Effective capacitance reduction Reduce physical capacitance Reduce switching activity True at all levels of abstraction: trade-off between impact on the design and accuracy 15

16 Summary Design for Manufacturability Yield Parametric Yield Defect-related yield Statistical Design Power Estimation Power consumptionmechanisms Different level of abstraction Static or dynamic analysis Class Review Fundamentals of Circuit Simulation Formulation of circuit equations Solution of linear equations Solution of nonlinear equations Solution of ordinary differential equations Analog Circuits Simulation Analog Hardware Description Languages Digital Systems Verification Overview Equivalence Checking FastMOS simulation Timing Analysis Hardware Description Languages System C Physical Issues Verification Interconnects Signal Integrity Parasitic Extraction Reduced Order Modeling Manufacturability Power Estimation 16

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