Name. Total. Hydrozoa Cubozoa Anthozoa Scyphozoa 1 2 5

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1 Name Total 1. Coral reefs are the most diverse marine habitat, providing critical habitat for 25% of marine species. Nevertheless reef communities are currently threatened by: (1) rising temperature, (2) rising ocean CO 2 levels, and (3) rising human populations. Further increases in all of these stressors are certain. What steps need to be taken immediately to preserve the biological diversity of coral reefs? (10 pts.) _Establish Marine Protection Areas in reef localities that are relatively protected from climatic change and human impact. Use genetic engineering and artificial selection to develop thermal resistant zooxanthellae. 2. The characters or forms listed below are associated with one or more divisions of Cnidaria. Place the number for each character in the Cnidaria division/s in which it is found. Note each character may occur in more than one division. (13 points) 1. Nematocysts 5. Polyps reduced or lost 2. Medusa stage 6. Dactylozooid 3. Colonial, polymorphic polyps 7. Scleractinian 4. Complex eyes 8. important reef builder Hydrozoa Cubozoa Anthozoa Scyphozoa 1 2 5

2 3. Complete the sentences. (14 points) A. Many plants, fungi and sponges protect themselves from being eaten by lacing their tissues with secondary metabolites. In most cases these defensive compounds have chemical structures that are closely related to molecules critical to the organism. B. In the terrestrial environment, almost all plants depend on a symbiotic relationship with _mycorrhizal fungi. C. Arbuscular (or endo) mycorrhizae characterize Glomeromycota. D. Chytridiomycota (chytrids) is the group of fungi that are associated with the decline and extinction of many amphibian populations. 4. Circle the letter in front of the single most appropriate response that would complete each sentence. (12 point) The inhabitants of Easter Island stopped eating porpoises because D. A. they became cannibals. B. chickens were easy to raise. C. their tastes changed so that they preferred to eat rats. D. they turned the forest into a grassland. E. the porpoises became extinct F. A and D. G. A-D. In a few centuries the human inhabitants of Easter Island eliminated G. A. all species of land birds. B. 50% of the seabird species. C. all species of a diverse rat fauna. D. all but 2 tree species. E. 2 species of porpoise F. B and E. G. A, B, and D. Jared Diamond suggests that the inhabitants of Easter Island were unable to stop the destruction they were wreaking on their environment because C. A. the Little Ice Age hit that region of the Pacific particularly hard. B. raiding bands from nearby islands forced the Easter Islanders to harvest resources to support tribal wars. C. vested interest of people whose jobs depended on exploitation of natural resources silenced any warnings about the need for conservation. D. Dutch slave traders forced the exploitation of the natural resources. E. B and D. F. A and B.

3 5. The traditional phylogeny of animals is based on the assumption that greater organizational complexity is derived. The recent phylogeny based on sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA suggests that this may not be a valid assumption. (12 points) A. B. On the Molecular Tree (A) fill in the names of groups by placing the appropriate number in the space provided (see example). (4 points) A 4 B 8 C 2 D 7 1. Parazoa 2. Ecdysozoans 3. Acoelomates 4. Lophotrochozoans 5. Radiata 6. Pseudocoelomates 7. Deuterostomes 8. Protostomes On the Traditional Tree (B) identify the one character (synapomorphy) that unites the clades marked by the letters. (8 points) A radial symmetry, diploblastic development, 2 germ layers B Hox genes C true tissues D bilateral symmetry, triploblastic development E coelom

4 6. Match the letter of the labeled structures (A-N) with the correct term. Put the letter of the correct answer on the line by the term. Not all letters will be used. (8 points) Nerve cord J Epidermis C Longitudinal muscles H Gastrovascular cavity L Parenchyma M Rhabdite cell N Cilia I Pharynx E or K 7. The mass extinction at the end of the Permian period resulted in the elimination of 75-90% of all species. Name two of the phyla we have studied that were severely affected. (4 pts.) Brachiopoda Cnidaria

5 8. From the list of terms provided below, select the single best match for each statement. The each term may be an appropriate match once, twice or not at all. (13 pts.) A. Corona B. Cercariae C. Syncytium D. Acoelomorpha E. Microtriches F. Turbellarians G. Scolex H. Mictic egg I. Brachiopods J. Lophophore K. Trematodes L. Rotifer M. Choanocytes N. Cnidocyte O. Leuconoid P. Pseudocoelom Q. Neodermata A group that may be the most basal Bilateria. A larval form that can pierce vertebrate skin in seconds. Increases surface area for nutrient absorption. The basal group of platyhelminthes. Cell that pumps water in a sponge. A structure with a set of hooks and suckers. The body cavity of rotifers. A group that exhibited high diversity during the Paleozoic. Type of sponge organization that allows high pumping rates. A set of ciliated tentacles that function as a filter feeding system. The acellular covering of a cestode. An animal with a complete gut. A clade of flat worms that underwent adaptive radiation. D B E F M G P I O J C L or I Q

6 9. Answer the following questions about the life cycle shown below. (14 pts.) The cells labeled with "A" have a special genetic make-up that is called dikaryotic. These cells result from a process known as plasmogamy. The structure labeled "B" is composed of tissue that is made entirely of hyphae. Structure "B" functions to produces and distributes spores. Structures "C" are called basidia. The genetic composition of the cells labeled "D" is haploid. These cells ("D") are called spores or basidiospores.

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