Introduction to Genetics

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Introduction to Genetics"

Transcription

1 Introduction to Genetics

2

3 We ve all heard of it, but What is genetics? Genetics: the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring.

4 Ancient ideas about genetics Selective breeding of plants and animals Examples:

5 Ancient ideas about genetics Theories why offspring resemble parents Spontaneous generation? Miniature pre-formed organisms? Blending of vital fluids?

6 Then, in 1860 Gregor Mendel successfully discovered genetic principles

7 Pea Characteristics Mendel studied traits of pea plants one at a time

8 Mendel and Plant Breeding Mendel examined thousands of crosses and offspring Mendel analyzed his results mathematicallysaw patterns no one else saw

9 Mendel s experiments

10 Mendel s Principle Findings Dominant and Recessive Certain characteristics are dominant to others The dominant trait will mask another (recessive) trait, preventing it s expression The recessive trait disappears for a generation

11 True-breeding means the organism has a genotype that is homozygous. Hybrid in this sense is a word for a having a genotype that is heterozygous

12 Mendel s Principle Findings Law of Segregation For each trait, organisms have 2 genes (which may be different versions or forms of the genes, these are called alleles) Each pea plant got one gene from each parent Genes are segregated from each other during egg or sperm formation (meiosis). **Draw in chromosomes for a 2n cell of 4. (Use 2 different colors)

13 Remember Meiosis?!? The Law of Segregation is the SAME THING! Mendel just theorized about it before it was actually discovered.

14

15 Segregation of Genes during Meiosis B B B sperm Bb diploid (2n) b b haploid (n) meiosis I meiosis II b

16 Mendel s Principle Findings Independent Assortment Factors for different traits are distributed to reproductive cells independently Later it was seen that orientation of homologous pair to poles during meiosis is random. So, for example, genes from the individual s mother don't all stay together Click here for an animation!

17

18 Some terms Trait: characteristics of an organism passed from generation to generation. Eye color Skin color Hair color and type Height Temperament Symptoms for genetic diseases

19 Not all traits are easy to predict For example: polygenic inheritance. (Where have we seen the prefix poly before?)

20 Genotype Tells you the genetic makeup of the organism The genes the organism carries

21 Genotype Written using symbols Each allele is represented by a letter Capital represents dominant trait Tall = T Lower case represents recessive trait Short = t Capital letter is always written first.

22 Homozygous An individual which contains one allele for a genetic trait TT-- homozygous dominant tt -- homozygous recessive

23 Heterozygous An individual which contains different alleles for a genetic trait Tt -- heterozygote

24 Phenotype What the organism looks like (THE TRAIT THAT IS EXPRESSED) Controlled by the genotype TT tall Tt tall tt short TT Tt tt

25 Remember:

26 Example eye color gene Allele B (brown eyes) eye color gene Allele b (blue eyes) Phenotype Genotype Paternal Maternal This person would have brown eyes (Bb)

27 Punnett squares The probability the next generation will exhibit a certain trait can be shown with a Punnett square. The genotype of the mother is shown on the top of the square (TT) The genotype of the father is shown on the side of the square (tt) The various combinations of genes (genotypes) are shown in the squares. All of these offspring will be (T) tall and carry the recessive (t) short allele. t t T Tt Tt T Tt Tt

28 Monohybrid Cross (crosses that examine the inheritance of only ONE specific trait) What happens if you cross a tall (heterozygous) plant (Tt) with a short plant (tt)? Genotypic Ratio: TT : Tt : tt t 0 : 2 : 2 Phenotypic Ratio: t Tall : Short 2 : 2 T t Tt tt Tt tt

29 Punnett squares If deafness in dogs is recessive (dd), show what offspring could result from two dogs that are heterozygous (Dd) 3 possible genotypes: DD, Dd, dd D d Genotypic Ratio: DD : Dd : dd 1 : 2 : 1 D D Dd 2 possible phenotypes: Not deaf or Deaf Phenotypic Ratio: Not Deaf : Deaf 3 : 1 d D Dd dd

30 Test Cross Farmer Dan breeds guinea pigs. There is a gene in guinea pigs for teeth length. Teeth can either be normal (T) or bucked (t). Farmer Dan buys what he thinks is a normal TT guinea pig. How can he be sure it is pure (TT) and not a heterozygote (Tt)?

31 Test Cross: Breed the unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive. A homozygous dominant guinea pig will result in offspring that all have normal teeth. T T t Tt Tt A heterozygous guinea pig will result in a 2:2 or 1:1 ratio of normal to buck-teethed offspring. T t t Tt tt t Tt Tt t Tt tt

Mendelian Genetics. Introduction to the principles of Mendelian Genetics

Mendelian Genetics. Introduction to the principles of Mendelian Genetics + Mendelian Genetics Introduction to the principles of Mendelian Genetics + What is Genetics? n It is the study of patterns of inheritance and variations in organisms. n Genes control each trait of a living

More information

Ch 11.Introduction to Genetics.Biology.Landis

Ch 11.Introduction to Genetics.Biology.Landis Nom Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages 263 266) This section describes how Gregor Mendel studied the inheritance of traits in garden peas and what his conclusions were. Introduction (page 263)

More information

Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages 263 266) What is the principle of dominance? What happens during segregation? Gregor Mendel s Peas (pages 263 264) 1. The

More information

Reinforcement Unit 3 Resource Book. Meiosis and Mendel KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have.

Reinforcement Unit 3 Resource Book. Meiosis and Mendel KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. 6.1 CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. Your body is made of two basic cell types. One basic type are somatic cells, also called body cells,

More information

Introduction to Mendelian Genetics. Packet #12

Introduction to Mendelian Genetics. Packet #12 Introduction to Mendelian Genetics Packet #12 1 Friday, August 21, 2015 The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance According to the chromosome theory of inheritance, the

More information

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have.

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. Section 1: Chromosomes and Meiosis KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous

More information

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells.

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells. Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics Chapter Test A CHAPTER 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term, number, or phrase that best answers each question. 1. How many

More information

HEREDITY: Objective: I can describe what heredity is because I can identify traits and characteristics

HEREDITY: Objective: I can describe what heredity is because I can identify traits and characteristics Mendel and Heredity HEREDITY: SC.7.L.16.1 Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, that this hereditary information. Objective: I can describe

More information

Interest Grabber. Analyzing Inheritance

Interest Grabber. Analyzing Inheritance Interest Grabber Section 11-1 Analyzing Inheritance Offspring resemble their parents. Offspring inherit genes for characteristics from their parents. To learn about inheritance, scientists have experimented

More information

Natural Selection. Population Dynamics. The Origins of Genetic Variation. The Origins of Genetic Variation. Intergenerational Mutation Rate

Natural Selection. Population Dynamics. The Origins of Genetic Variation. The Origins of Genetic Variation. Intergenerational Mutation Rate Natural Selection Population Dynamics Humans, Sickle-cell Disease, and Malaria How does a population of humans become resistant to malaria? Overproduction Environmental pressure/competition Pre-existing

More information

Unit 5: Chapter 11 Test Review

Unit 5: Chapter 11 Test Review Name: Date: Period: Unit 5: Chapter 11 Test Review 1. Vocabulary you should know. Recommendation (optional): make flashcards, or write the definition down. Make sure you understand the meanings of all

More information

is the scientific study of. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He is considered the of genetics. Mendel carried out his work with ordinary garden.

is the scientific study of. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He is considered the of genetics. Mendel carried out his work with ordinary garden. 11-1 The 11-1 Work of Gregor Mendel The Work of Gregor Mendel is the scientific study of. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He is considered the of genetics. Mendel carried out his work with ordinary

More information

Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits

Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits Chapter 10 Before you go on Review the answers to the following questions to test your understanding of previous material. 1. Most organisms are diploid. What does

More information

Biology Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics

Biology Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics Biology Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics Meiosis - The mechanism that halves the number of chromosomes in cells is a form of cell division called meiosis - Meiosis consists of two successive nuclear

More information

Mitosis and Genetics Study Guide Answer Key

Mitosis and Genetics Study Guide Answer Key Mitosis and Genetics Study Guide Answer Key 1. Which of the following is true of Interphase? a. It is part of Meiosis b. It occurs before Meiosis c. The cell does normal cell activities during interphase

More information

Yesterday s Picture UNIT 3D

Yesterday s Picture UNIT 3D Warm-Up Blood types are determined by a single gene with several alleles. The allele encoding the Type A phenotype (I A ) is dominant to the allele encoding the Type O phenotype (i). Determine the phenotype

More information

Essential Questions. Meiosis. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Essential Questions. Meiosis. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Essential Questions How does the reduction in chromosome number occur during meiosis? What are the stages of meiosis? What is the importance of meiosis in providing genetic variation? Meiosis Vocabulary

More information

BENCHMARK 1 STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2017

BENCHMARK 1 STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2017 BENCHMARK 1 STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2017 Name: There will be semester one content on this benchmark as well. Study your final exam review guide from last semester. New Semester Material: (Chapter 10 Cell Growth

More information

What is a sex cell? How are sex cells made? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results?

What is a sex cell? How are sex cells made? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results? CHAPTER 6 3 Meiosis SECTION Heredity BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a sex cell? How are sex cells made? How does meiosis help explain

More information

10. How many chromosomes are in human gametes (reproductive cells)? 23

10. How many chromosomes are in human gametes (reproductive cells)? 23 Name: Key Block: Define the following terms: 1. Dominant Trait-characteristics that are expressed if present in the genotype 2. Recessive Trait-characteristics that are masked by dominant traits unless

More information

VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous chromosome sexual reproduction meiosis

VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous chromosome sexual reproduction meiosis 6.1 CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous

More information

T TT Tt. T TT Tt. T = Tall t = Short. Figure 11 1

T TT Tt. T TT Tt. T = Tall t = Short. Figure 11 1 Chapt 11 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The principles of probability can be used to a. predict the traits of the offspring of genetic

More information

Dropping Your Genes. A Simulation of Meiosis and Fertilization and An Introduction to Probability

Dropping Your Genes. A Simulation of Meiosis and Fertilization and An Introduction to Probability Dropping Your Genes A Simulation of Meiosis and Fertilization and An Introduction to To fully understand Mendelian genetics (and, eventually, population genetics), you need to understand certain aspects

More information

1 Mendel and His Peas

1 Mendel and His Peas CHAPTER 3 1 Mendel and His Peas SECTION Heredity BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is heredity? How did Gregor Mendel study heredity? National

More information

1 Errors in mitosis and meiosis can result in chromosomal abnormalities.

1 Errors in mitosis and meiosis can result in chromosomal abnormalities. Slide 1 / 21 1 Errors in mitosis and meiosis can result in chromosomal abnormalities. a. Identify and describe a common chromosomal mutation. Slide 2 / 21 Errors in mitosis and meiosis can result in chromosomal

More information

Name Date Class CHAPTER 10. Section 1: Meiosis

Name Date Class CHAPTER 10. Section 1: Meiosis Name Date Class Study Guide CHAPTER 10 Section 1: Meiosis In your textbook, read about meiosis I and meiosis II. Label the diagrams below. Use these choices: anaphase I anaphase II interphase metaphase

More information

Name Date Class. Meiosis I and Meiosis II

Name Date Class. Meiosis I and Meiosis II Concept Mapping Meiosis I and Meiosis II Complete the events chains about meiosis I and meiosis II. These terms may be used more than once: chromosomes, condense, cytokinesis, equator, line up, nuclei,

More information

Interactive Biology Multimedia Courseware Mendel's Principles of Heredity. Copyright 1998 CyberEd Inc.

Interactive Biology Multimedia Courseware Mendel's Principles of Heredity. Copyright 1998 CyberEd Inc. Interactive Biology Multimedia Courseware Mendel's Principles of Heredity Copyright 1998 CyberEd Inc. Mendel's Principles of Heredity TEACHING OBJECTIVES The following subject areas are illustrated throughout

More information

Just to review Genetics and Cells? How do Genetics and Cells Relate? The cell s NUCLEUS contains all the genetic information.

Just to review Genetics and Cells? How do Genetics and Cells Relate? The cell s NUCLEUS contains all the genetic information. Just to review Genetics and Cells? How do Genetics and Cells Relate? The cell s NUCLEUS contains all the genetic information. It s called: DNA A. Describe what Gregor Mendel discovered in his experiments

More information

Objective 3.01 (DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis)

Objective 3.01 (DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis) Objective 3.01 (DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis) DNA Structure o Discovered by Watson and Crick o Double-stranded o Shape is a double helix (twisted ladder) o Made of chains of nucleotides: o Has four types

More information

Unit 4 Review - Genetics. UNIT 4 Vocabulary topics: Cell Reproduction, Cell Cycle, Cell Division, Genetics

Unit 4 Review - Genetics. UNIT 4 Vocabulary topics: Cell Reproduction, Cell Cycle, Cell Division, Genetics Unit 4 Review - Genetics Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction Mendel s Laws of Heredity Patterns of Inheritance Meiosis and Genetic Variation Non-Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance Cell Reproduction/Cell Cycle/

More information

Segregation and the Principle of independent assortment

Segregation and the Principle of independent assortment . Segregation and the Principle of independent assortment The Principle of Independent Assortment describes how different genes independently separate from one another when reproductive cells develop.

More information

1. Contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose. 2. Single-stranded instead of double stranded. 3. Contains uracil in place of thymine.

1. Contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose. 2. Single-stranded instead of double stranded. 3. Contains uracil in place of thymine. Protein Synthesis & Mutations RNA 1. Contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose. 2. Single-stranded instead of double stranded. 3. Contains uracil in place of thymine. RNA Contains: 1. Adenine 2.

More information

Cover Requirements: Name of Unit Colored picture representing something in the unit

Cover Requirements: Name of Unit Colored picture representing something in the unit Name: Period: Cover Requirements: Name of Unit Colored picture representing something in the unit Biology B1 1 Target # Biology Unit B1 (Genetics & Meiosis) Learning Targets Genetics & Meiosis I can explain

More information

Keys to Success on the Quarter 3 EXAM

Keys to Success on the Quarter 3 EXAM Name: Pd: Date: Keys to Success on the Quarter 3 EXAM 7.L.1.1 Compare the structures and life functions of single-celled organisms that carry out all of the basic functions of life. 1. Fill out the following

More information

2. What is meiosis? The process of forming gametes (sperm and egg) 4. Where does meiosis take place? Ovaries- eggs and testicles- sperm

2. What is meiosis? The process of forming gametes (sperm and egg) 4. Where does meiosis take place? Ovaries- eggs and testicles- sperm Name KEY Period Biology Review Standard 3 Main Idea Explain the significance of meiosis and fertilization in genetic variation. How I can demonstrate what a smart. Person I am 1. What is fertilization?

More information

Objectives. Announcements. Comparison of mitosis and meiosis

Objectives. Announcements. Comparison of mitosis and meiosis Announcements Colloquium sessions for which you can get credit posted on web site: Feb 20, 27 Mar 6, 13, 20 Apr 17, 24 May 15. Review study CD that came with text for lab this week (especially mitosis

More information

Chromosome duplication and distribution during cell division

Chromosome duplication and distribution during cell division CELL DIVISION AND HEREDITY Student Packet SUMMARY IN EUKARYOTES, HERITABLE INFORMATION IS PASSED TO THE NEXT GENERATION VIA PROCESSES THAT INCLUDE THE CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS /MEIOSIS AND FERTILIZATION Mitosis

More information

Zoology Cell Division and Inheritance

Zoology Cell Division and Inheritance Zoology Cell Division and Inheritance I. A Code for All Life A. Before Genetics - 1. If a very tall man married a short woman, you would expect their children to be intermediate, with average height. 2.

More information

Gametes are the reproductive cells - the egg or the sperm. Gametes.

Gametes are the reproductive cells - the egg or the sperm. Gametes. Meiosis Meiosis is the type of cell division for that produces the cells ( ) which are also known as gametes. Two important characteristics of meiosis is that it reduces the number of chromosomes to half

More information

1. The diagram below shows two processes (A and B) involved in sexual reproduction in plants and animals.

1. The diagram below shows two processes (A and B) involved in sexual reproduction in plants and animals. 1. The diagram below shows two processes (A and B) involved in sexual reproduction in plants and animals. Which statement best explains how these processes often produce offspring that have traits not

More information

Chromosome Chr Duplica Duplic t a ion Pixley

Chromosome Chr Duplica Duplic t a ion Pixley Chromosome Duplication Pixley Figure 4-6 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) Figure 4-72 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) Interphase During mitosis (cell division),

More information

Biology Mid-Term Study Guide

Biology Mid-Term Study Guide Name: Date: Chapter 1: The Science of Biology 1. List the 8 characteristics of all living things: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 2. What is biology? 3. What is homeostasis? 4. Define sexual and asexual reproduction.

More information

Name: Per: Task: To create a model that explains how bi-racial parents can have black and white twins

Name: Per: Task: To create a model that explains how bi-racial parents can have black and white twins Name: Per: Genetics Test Review Task: To create a model that explains how bi-racial parents can have black and white twins Part 1: DNA to Protein to Trait LT15 (Protein and Traits) - Proteins express inherited

More information

Introduction to population genetics & evolution

Introduction to population genetics & evolution Introduction to population genetics & evolution Course Organization Exam dates: Feb 19 March 1st Has everybody registered? Did you get the email with the exam schedule Summer seminar: Hot topics in Bioinformatics

More information

EOC - Unit 4 Review - Genetics

EOC - Unit 4 Review - Genetics EOC - Unit 4 Review - Genetics Part A: Benchmark Standard SC.912.L.16.1 Use Mendel s laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance. Also Assesses SC.912.L.16.2 Discuss

More information

Chapter 10.2 Notes. Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a. In the body cells of animals and most plants, chromosomes occur in

Chapter 10.2 Notes. Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a. In the body cells of animals and most plants, chromosomes occur in Chapter 10.2 Notes NAME Honors Biology Organisms have tens of thousands of genes that determine individual traits Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a Diploid and Haploid Cells In the

More information

Chapter 10 Beyond Mendel s Laws of Inheritance

Chapter 10 Beyond Mendel s Laws of Inheritance female / eggs Colonie High AP Biology Chapter 10 Beyond Mendel s Laws of Inheritance Extending Mendelian Genetics Mendel worked with a simple system peas are genetically simple most traits are controlled

More information

9 Genetic diversity and adaptation Support. AQA Biology. Genetic diversity and adaptation. Specification reference. Learning objectives.

9 Genetic diversity and adaptation Support. AQA Biology. Genetic diversity and adaptation. Specification reference. Learning objectives. Genetic diversity and adaptation Specification reference 3.4.3 3.4.4 Learning objectives After completing this worksheet you should be able to: understand how meiosis produces haploid gametes know how

More information

Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1

Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1 Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1 Introduction In this activity, you will learn how you inherited two copies of each gene, one from your mother and one from your father.

More information

Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Biology 110 Sec. 11 J. Greg Doheny Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Quiz Questions: 1. What word do you use to describe a chromosome or gene allele that we inherit from our Mother? From our Father?

More information

Cell Division and Genetics

Cell Division and Genetics Name Date Cell Division and Genetics 1. Black fur is dominant over brown fur in a particular population of guinea pig. The genetic information that gives a guinea pig brown fur is described as having A.

More information

THINK ABOUT IT. Lesson Overview. Meiosis. As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located.

THINK ABOUT IT. Lesson Overview. Meiosis. As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. Notes THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics section 1 Meiosis Before You Read Think about the traits that make people unique. Some people are tall, while others are short. People can have brown, blue, or green

More information

GETTING READY TO LEARN Preview Key Concepts 6.1 Chromosomes and Meiosis Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have.

GETTING READY TO LEARN Preview Key Concepts 6.1 Chromosomes and Meiosis Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. CHAPTER 6 Meiosis and Mendel GETTING READY TO LEARN Preview Key Concepts 6.1 Chromosomes and Meiosis Gametes have hal the number o chromosomes that body cells have. 6.2 Process o Meiosis During meiosis,

More information

1. The process in which ( ) are produced. 2. Males produce cells and females produce cells through meiosis

1. The process in which ( ) are produced. 2. Males produce cells and females produce cells through meiosis Name: Aim 35: What is Meiosis? Date: I. What is Meiosis? What is Meiosis? Which organisms undergo Meiosis? Where does Meiosis occur? What does Meiosis produce? What is Meiosis also known as? 1. The process

More information

Class 10 Heredity and Evolution Gist of lesson

Class 10 Heredity and Evolution Gist of lesson Class 10 Heredity and Evolution Gist of lesson Genetics : Branch of science that deals with Heredity and variation. Heredity : It means the transmission of features / characters/ traits from one generation

More information

AP Biology Unit 6 Practice Test 1. A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8

AP Biology Unit 6 Practice Test 1. A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 AP Biology Unit 6 Practice Test Name: 1. A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. How many picograms

More information

Name Class Date. Term Definition How I m Going to Remember the Meaning

Name Class Date. Term Definition How I m Going to Remember the Meaning 11.4 Meiosis Lesson Objectives Contrast the number of chromosomes in body cells and in gametes. Summarize the events of meiosis. Contrast meiosis and mitosis. Describe how alleles from different genes

More information

BIOLOGY 1 WORKSHEET III (SELECTED ANSWERS)

BIOLOGY 1 WORKSHEET III (SELECTED ANSWERS) BIOLOGY 1 WORKSHEET III (SELECTED ANSWERS) 1. What is a karyotype? You did this in lab! 2. What are homologous chromosomes? How many pairs of homologous chromosomes are found in humans? Chromosomes that

More information

Gregor Mendel and Heredity (Lexile 1010L)

Gregor Mendel and Heredity (Lexile 1010L) Gregor Mendel and Heredity (Lexile 1010L) 1 Traits are the part of our genetic code that makes us who we are. You may have brown or blond hair, dark or light skin, or a blood type of,,, or O. These are

More information

GENETICS UNIT VOCABULARY CHART. Word Definition Word Part Visual/Mnemonic Related Words 1. adenine Nitrogen base, pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil

GENETICS UNIT VOCABULARY CHART. Word Definition Word Part Visual/Mnemonic Related Words 1. adenine Nitrogen base, pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil Word Definition Word Part Visual/Mnemonic Related Words 1. adenine Nitrogen base, pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA 2. allele One or more alternate forms of a gene Example: P = Dominant (purple);

More information

Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1

Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1 Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1 Introduction In this activity, you will learn how you inherited two copies of each gene, one from your mother and one from your father.

More information

10.2 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

10.2 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis 10.2 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis There are thousands of different species of organisms. Each species produces more of its own. A species of bacteria splits to make two identical bacteria. A eucalyptus

More information

UNIT. Chapters. Genetics. 11 Introduction to Genetics 12 DNA 13 RNA and Protein Synthesis 14 Human Heredity 15 Genetic Engineering

UNIT. Chapters. Genetics. 11 Introduction to Genetics 12 DNA 13 RNA and Protein Synthesis 14 Human Heredity 15 Genetic Engineering Genetics UNIT Chapters 11 Introduction to Genetics 12 DNA 13 RNA and Protein Synthesis 14 Human Heredity 15 Genetic Engineering 5? NK A + P ), the Information and Heredity Cellular Basis of Life Science

More information

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis 1. In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes? a. 64 b. 32 c. 16 d. 8 e. 4 2. Chromatids that are

More information

X-Sheet 3 Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis

X-Sheet 3 Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis X-Sheet 3 Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis 13 Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Revise Mitosis (Grade 11), the process of meiosis, First Meiotic division,

More information

HEREDITY AND VARIATION

HEREDITY AND VARIATION HEREDITY AND VARIATION OVERVIEW Students often do not understand the critical role of variation to evolutionary processes. In fact, variation is the only fundamental requirement for evolution to occur.

More information

BIOLOGY 1 WORKSHEET III ( GENETICS, EVOLUTION, ECOLOGY)

BIOLOGY 1 WORKSHEET III ( GENETICS, EVOLUTION, ECOLOGY) BIOLOGY 1 WORKSHEET III ( GENETICS, EVOLUTION, ECOLOGY) 1. What is a karyotype? 2. What are homologous chromosomes? How many pairs of homologous chromosomes are found in humans? 3. Label the diagrams below:

More information

5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis

5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis 5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis Lesson Objectives Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction. Give an overview of sexual reproduction, and outline the phases of meiosis. Explain why sexual reproduction

More information

Unit 6 : Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

Unit 6 : Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Unit 6 : Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction 2006-2007 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same number of chromosomes

More information

Biology Semester Review

Biology Semester Review Chapter 1 The Science of Biology Biology Semester Review 1 1 What is Science? One goal of science is to provide natural explanations for events in the natural world. Science also aims to use those explanations

More information

EXAM 4 CHAPTERS BIOL 1406 GENERAL BIOLOGY I DR. FARNSWORTH

EXAM 4 CHAPTERS BIOL 1406 GENERAL BIOLOGY I DR. FARNSWORTH EXAM 4 CHAPTERS 12-15 BIOL 1406 GENERAL BIOLOGY I DR. FARNSWORTH 1. The centromere is a region in which A. metaphase chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate. B. chromosomes are grouped during

More information

Lesson Overview Meiosis

Lesson Overview Meiosis 11.4 THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?

More information

6-10 Sexual reproduction requires special cells (gametes) made by meiosis.

6-10 Sexual reproduction requires special cells (gametes) made by meiosis. Do Now Answer the following questions: For every cell undergoing mitosis, how many cells are created? For a cell with 6 chromosomes, how many chromosomes are in the daughter cells? Why are daughter cells

More information

CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE

CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE The fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) has been widely used for the study of eukaryote genetics because of several features: short generation time (two weeks) prolific

More information

Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1

Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1 Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1 Almost all the cells in your body were produced by mitosis. The only exceptions are the gametes sperm or eggs which are produced by a different

More information

CHAPTER 13 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL LIFE CYCLES. Section A: An Introduction to Heredity

CHAPTER 13 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL LIFE CYCLES. Section A: An Introduction to Heredity CHAPTER 13 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL LIFE CYCLES Section A: An Introduction to Heredity 1. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 2. Like begets like, more or less: a comparison of asexual

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter 11

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter 11 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 11 1 Sexual life cycle Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells Somatic cells of adults have 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid cells Gametes (egg and sperm)

More information

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less closely related individuals of the

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Outline Overview: Variations on a Theme Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents

More information

How are traits passed from one generation to the next?

How are traits passed from one generation to the next? How are traits passed from one generation to the next? Since the dawn of agriculture, humans have been trying to improve and increase their food supply. Historically, this was done by selecting the best

More information

Genetics: Study Guide

Genetics: Study Guide Genetics: Genetics: Define the following terms in your own words Name: 1. Heredity- 2. Nucleus- 3. DNA- 4. Genes- 5. Alleles- 6. Meiosis- 7. Mitosis- 8. Dominant- 9. Recessive- 10. Genotype- 11. Phenotype-

More information

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced.

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. MEIOSIS Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. diploid (2n) haploid (n) (complete set of chromosomes) (half the regular number of

More information

Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1

Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1 Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1 We have just finished looking at the process of mitosis, a process that produces cells genetically identical to the original cell. Mitosis ensures that each cell of an organism

More information

Heredity Composite. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Heredity Composite. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Heredity Composite Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When a plant breeder crossed two red roses, 78% of the offspring had red flowers and

More information

CH 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles

CH 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles CH 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles AP Biology 2005-2006 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA

More information

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells.

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells. Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe

More information

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction Chapter 11: Cellular Reproduction What is Cellular Reproduction? Answer: The division of a parent cell into two daughter cells Requirements of

More information

READ THE DIRECTIONS BIOLOGY: A HUMAN APPROACH EXAMINATION II NAME. EBIO 1030, SECS. #0001 & #0002 Nov. 2, 2015

READ THE DIRECTIONS BIOLOGY: A HUMAN APPROACH EXAMINATION II NAME. EBIO 1030, SECS. #0001 & #0002 Nov. 2, 2015 READ THE DIRECTIONS BIOLOGY: A HUMAN APPROACH EXAMINATION II NAME EBIO 1030, SECS. #0001 & #0002 Nov. 2, 2015 INSTRUCTIONS: Use a SOFT-LEAD pencil (#1 or #2) for writing in and mark-sensing your name,

More information

Cell Reproduction Review

Cell Reproduction Review Name Date Period Cell Reproduction Review Explain what is occurring in each part of the cell cycle --- G 0, G1, S, G2, and M. 1 CELL DIVISION Label all parts of each cell in the cell cycle and explain

More information

Concept 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes

Concept 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes r Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Name Period Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Concept 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes

More information

STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS. Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2. Morphology of eukaryotic metaphase chromosomes. Chromatids

STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS. Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2. Morphology of eukaryotic metaphase chromosomes. Chromatids STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2 Life depends on cell division and reproduction of organisms. Process involves transfer of genetic material. New somatic (body) cells

More information

List the five conditions that can disturb genetic equilibrium in a population.(10)

List the five conditions that can disturb genetic equilibrium in a population.(10) List the five conditions that can disturb genetic equilibrium in a population.(10) The five conditions are non-random mating, small population size, immigration or emigration, mutations, and natural selection.

More information

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction. Cell Reproduction TEST Friday, 11/13

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction. Cell Reproduction TEST Friday, 11/13 Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Cell Reproduction TEST Friday, 11/13 How many chromosomes do humans have? What are Chromosomes? How many chromosomes came from your mom? How many chromosomes came from your

More information

a type of reproduction in which one parent organism produces offspring without meiosis and fertilization

a type of reproduction in which one parent organism produces offspring without meiosis and fertilization Define the following terms: Term Final Exam Vocabulary Review 2016-2017 Definition adaptation an inherited trait that increases an organism's chance of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment

More information

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science Mitosis and Meiosis Presented by Kesler Science Essential Questions: 1. What are mitosis and meiosis? 2. What occurs at different phases in cell division? 3. How are mitosis and meiosis similar and different?

More information

Biol 178 Study Guide Exam 3 Mitosis, Meiosis and patterns of Inheritance Fall 2007

Biol 178 Study Guide Exam 3 Mitosis, Meiosis and patterns of Inheritance Fall 2007 Mitosis 13. Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of a complex of 60% protein and 40% DNA. The name of this chemical complex is a A. histone complex. B. chromatin. C. histamine complex. D. chromatid. E.

More information