Essential Questions. Meiosis. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Essential Questions. Meiosis. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education"

Transcription

1 Essential Questions How does the reduction in chromosome number occur during meiosis? What are the stages of meiosis? What is the importance of meiosis in providing genetic variation? Meiosis

2 Vocabulary Review chromosome New gene homologous chromosome gamete haploid fertilization diploid meiosis crossing over Meiosis

3 Chromosomes and Chromosome Number Characteristics such as hair color, eye color, etc., are called traits. The instructions for each trait are located on chromosomes, in the nucleus of cells. DNA is organized in segments called genes that control the production of a protein. Each chromosome contains hundreds of genes. Meiosis

4 Chromosomes and Chromosome Number Homologous chromosomes Human cells have 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs (one contributed by each parent). The chromosomes that make up the pairs are called homologous chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes are the same length, same centromere position, and carry genes for the same traits. Meiosis

5 Chromosomes and Chromosome Number Haploid and diploid cells To maintain the same number of chromosomes from generation to generation, organisms produce gametes sex cells with half the number of chromosomes. The symbol n can be used to represent the number of chromosomes in a gamete. A cell with n chromosomes is called a haploid cell. A cell that contains 2n chromosomes is called a diploid cell. Meiosis

6 Meiosis I Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell and produces gametes. Involves two consecutive cell divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II Meiosis

7 Meiosis I Interphase Chromosomes replicate. Chromatin condenses. Meiosis

8 Meiosis I Prophase I Pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs. Each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids. Meiosis

9 Meiosis I Prophase I As homologous chromosomes condense, they are bound together in a process called synapsis, which allows for crossing over. Crossing over chromosomal segments are exchanged between a pair of homologous chromosomes. Crossing over produces exchange of genetic information. Meiosis

10 Meiosis I Metaphase I Chromosome centromeres attach to spindle fibers. Homologous chromosomes line up as a pair at the equator. Meiosis

11 Meiosis I Anaphase I Homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. The chromosome number is reduced from 2n to n when the homologous chromosomes separate. Meiosis

12 Meiosis I Telophase I Chromosomes reach the cell s opposite poles. Cytokinesis occurs. Meiosis

13 Meiosis II Prophase II A second set of phases begins as the spindle apparatus forms and the chromosomes condense. Meiosis

14 Meiosis II Metaphase II Chromosomes are positioned at the equator. Meiosis II involves a haploid number of chromosomes. Meiosis

15 Meiosis II Anaphase II Sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere by spindle fibers and move toward the opposite poles of the cell. Meiosis

16 Meiosis II Telophase II The chromosomes reach the poles, and the nuclear membrane and nuclei reform. Meiosis

17 Meiosis II Cytokinesis results in four haploid cells, each with n number of chromosomes. Meiosis

18 The Importance of Meiosis Mitosis consists of one cell division that produces identical cells. Meiosis consists of two cell divisions that produce haploid daughter cells that are not genetically identical. Meiosis results in genetic variation. Meiosis

19 The Importance of Meiosis Meiosis provides variation During prophase I, the chromosomes line up randomly at the equator. Gametes end up with different combinations of chromosomes. Genetic variation also is produces during crossing over and during fertilization, when games randomly combine. Meiosis

20 Sexual Reproduction v. Asexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction The organism inherits all of its chromosomes from a single parent. The new individual is genetically identical to its parent. Sexual reproduction Rate of beneficial mutations is faster. Beneficial genes multiply faster over times than they do for asexual organisms. Meiosis

21 Review Essential Questions How does the reduction in chromosome number occur during meiosis? What are the stages of meiosis? What is the importance of meiosis in providing genetic variation? Vocabulary gene homologous chromosome gamete haploid fertilization diploid meiosis crossing over Meiosis

22 Essential Questions What is the significance of Mendel s experiments to the study of genetics? What is the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment? What are the possible offspring from a cross using a Punnett square? Mendelian Genetics

23 Vocabulary Review segregation New genetics allele dominant recessive homozygous heterozygous genotype phenotype law of segregation hybrid law of independent assortment Mendelian Genetics

24 How Genetics Began The passing of traits to the next generation is called inheritance, or heredity. Gregor Mendel published his findings on the method of inheritance in garden pea plants: Cross-pollinated pea plants, which normally self-fertilize Rigorously followed various traits in the pea plants he bred Began the study of genetics, the science of heredity. Mendelian Genetics

25 The Inheritance of Traits One trait Mendel noticed was seed color some plants always produced green seeds, others always produced yellow seeds. Mendel cross-bred the green and yellow seed plants. Mendel called the green-seed and yellow-seed plants the parent, or P, generation. Mendelian Genetics

26 The Inheritance of Traits F 1 and F 2 generations The offspring of this P cross are called the first filial (F 1 ) generation. The second filial (F 2 ) generation is the offspring from the F 1 cross. In Mendel s peas, the green-seed trait disappeared in the F 1 generation, but reappeared in the F 2 generation. The F 2 generation showed a 3:1 ratio of yellow: green seeds Mendelian Genetics

27 The Inheritance of Traits F 1 and F 2 generations Mendel studied seven different traits. Seed or pea color Flower color Seed pod color Seed shape or texture Seed pod shape Stem length Flower position In all cases, Mendel found the F 2 generation plants showed a 3:1 ratio of traits. Mendelian Genetics

28 The Inheritance of Traits Genes in Pairs Mendel concluded that there must be two forms of the seed trait in the pea plants, and that each was controlled by a factor. An allele is an alternative form of a single gene. The gene for yellow seeds and the gene for green seeds are different alleles for the same gene. Dominant alleles controlled the traits that appeared in the F 1 generation. Recessive alleles were masked in the F 1 generation. Mendelian Genetics

29 The Inheritance of Traits Dominance When modeling inheritance, the dominant allele is represented by a capital letter (Y), and a recessive allele is represented with a lower case letter (y). An organism with two of the same alleles for a particular trait is homozygous for that trait (YY or yy). An organism with two different alleles for a particular trait is heterozygous for that trait (Yy). In heterozygous individuals, the dominant trait will be observed. Mendelian Genetics

30 The Inheritance of Traits Genotype and phenotype The appearance of an organism does not always indicate which pair of alleles it possesses. An organism s allele pairs are called its genotype. The observable characteristic or outward expression of an allele pair is called the phenotype. Mendelian Genetics

31 The Inheritance of Traits Mendel s law of segregation The law of segregation states that the two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis. During fertilization, two alleles for that trait unite. Heterozygous organisms are called hybrids. Mendelian Genetics

32 The Inheritance of Traits Monohybrid cross A cross that involves hybrids for a single trait is called a monohybrid cross. Dihybrid cross The simultaneous inheritance of two or more traits in the same plant is a dihybrid cross. Mendelian Genetics

33 The Inheritance of Traits Law of independent assortment The law of independent assortment states that random distribution of alleles occurs during gamete formation. Genes on separate chromosomes sort independently during meiosis. Each allele combination is equally likely to occur. Mendelian Genetics

34 Punnett Squares Punnett squares predict the possible offspring of a cross between two known genotypes. Mendelian Genetics

35 Punnett Squares Punnett square monohybrid cross The number of squares is determined by the number of different types of alleles produced by each parent. Mendelian Genetics

36 Punnett Squares Punnett square dihybrid cross Four types of alleles from the male gametes and four types of alleles from the female gametes can be produced. The resulting phenotypic ratio is 9:3:3:1. Mendelian Genetics

37 Probability The inheritance of genes can be compared to the probability of flipping a coin. Actual data might not perfectly match the predicted ratios. Mendel s results were not exactly a 9:3:3:1 ratio, but the larger the number of offspring involved, the more likely it will match the results predicted by Punnett squares. Mendelian Genetics

38 Review Essential Questions What is the significance of Mendel s experiments to the study of genetics? What is the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment? What are the possible offspring from a cross using a Punnett square? Vocabulary genetics allele dominant recessive homozygous heterozygous genotype phenotype law of segregation hybrid law of independent assortment Mendelian Genetics

39 Essential Questions How does the process of meiosis produce genetic recombination? How can gene linkage be used to create chromosome maps? Why is polyploidy important to the field of agriculture? Gene Linkage and Polyploidy

40 Vocabulary Review protein New genetic recombination polyploidy Gene Linkage and Polyploidy

41 Genetic Recombination The new combination of genes produced by crossing over and independent assortment is called genetic recombination. Combinations of genes due to independent assortment can be calculated using the formula 2 n, where n is the number of chromosome pairs. Any possible male gamete can fertilize any possible female gamete, so the possible combinations after fertilization are 2 n X 2 n. Gene Linkage and Polyploidy

42 Gene Linkage Genes located close to each other on the same chromosome are said to be linked. They usually travel together during gamete formation. Gene linkage results in an exception to Mendel s law of independent assortment. Gene Linkage and Polyploidy

43 Gene Linkage Chromosome maps Crossing over occurs more frequently between genes that are farther apart. Cross over data can be used to create chromosome maps, depictions of how genes are arranged on a chromosome. Gene Linkage and Polyploidy

44 Polyploidy Polyploidy is the occurrence of one or more extra sets of all chromosomes in an organism. A triploid organism is designated 3n, which means that it has three complete sets of chromosomes. Many agricultural crops are polyploid. Wheat (6n), oats (6n), and sugar cane (8n) Polyploid plants often have increased vigor and size Gene Linkage and Polyploidy

45 Review Essential Questions How does the process of meiosis produce genetic recombination? How can gene linkage be used to create chromosome maps? Why is polyploidy important to the field of agriculture? Vocabulary genetic recombination polyploidy Gene Linkage and Polyploidy

Name Date Class. Meiosis I and Meiosis II

Name Date Class. Meiosis I and Meiosis II Concept Mapping Meiosis I and Meiosis II Complete the events chains about meiosis I and meiosis II. These terms may be used more than once: chromosomes, condense, cytokinesis, equator, line up, nuclei,

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics Chapter Test A CHAPTER 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term, number, or phrase that best answers each question. 1. How many

More information

Meiosis and Mendel. Chapter 6

Meiosis and Mendel. Chapter 6 Meiosis and Mendel Chapter 6 6.1 CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS Key Concept Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. Body Cells vs. Gametes You have body cells and gametes body cells

More information

Name Date Class CHAPTER 10. Section 1: Meiosis

Name Date Class CHAPTER 10. Section 1: Meiosis Name Date Class Study Guide CHAPTER 10 Section 1: Meiosis In your textbook, read about meiosis I and meiosis II. Label the diagrams below. Use these choices: anaphase I anaphase II interphase metaphase

More information

is the scientific study of. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He is considered the of genetics. Mendel carried out his work with ordinary garden.

is the scientific study of. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He is considered the of genetics. Mendel carried out his work with ordinary garden. 11-1 The 11-1 Work of Gregor Mendel The Work of Gregor Mendel is the scientific study of. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He is considered the of genetics. Mendel carried out his work with ordinary

More information

Reinforcement Unit 3 Resource Book. Meiosis and Mendel KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have.

Reinforcement Unit 3 Resource Book. Meiosis and Mendel KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. 6.1 CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. Your body is made of two basic cell types. One basic type are somatic cells, also called body cells,

More information

Name Class Date. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. 33

Name Class Date. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. 33 Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics Chapter Vocabulary Review Matching On the lines provided, write the letter of the definition of each term. 1. genetics a. likelihood that something will happen 2. trait

More information

Biology Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics

Biology Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics Biology Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics Meiosis - The mechanism that halves the number of chromosomes in cells is a form of cell division called meiosis - Meiosis consists of two successive nuclear

More information

Chapter 10.2 Notes. Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a. In the body cells of animals and most plants, chromosomes occur in

Chapter 10.2 Notes. Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a. In the body cells of animals and most plants, chromosomes occur in Chapter 10.2 Notes NAME Honors Biology Organisms have tens of thousands of genes that determine individual traits Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a Diploid and Haploid Cells In the

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics section 1 Meiosis Before You Read Think about the traits that make people unique. Some people are tall, while others are short. People can have brown, blue, or green

More information

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have.

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. Section 1: Chromosomes and Meiosis KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous

More information

Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages 263 266) What is the principle of dominance? What happens during segregation? Gregor Mendel s Peas (pages 263 264) 1. The

More information

Sexual Reproduction. The two parent cells needed for sexual reproduction are called gametes. They are formed during a process known as meiosis.

Sexual Reproduction. The two parent cells needed for sexual reproduction are called gametes. They are formed during a process known as meiosis. Sexual Reproduction Recall that asexual reproduction involves only one parent cell. This parent cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction,

More information

Interest Grabber. Analyzing Inheritance

Interest Grabber. Analyzing Inheritance Interest Grabber Section 11-1 Analyzing Inheritance Offspring resemble their parents. Offspring inherit genes for characteristics from their parents. To learn about inheritance, scientists have experimented

More information

BENCHMARK 1 STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2017

BENCHMARK 1 STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2017 BENCHMARK 1 STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2017 Name: There will be semester one content on this benchmark as well. Study your final exam review guide from last semester. New Semester Material: (Chapter 10 Cell Growth

More information

Lesson Overview Meiosis

Lesson Overview Meiosis 11.4 THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?

More information

11-4 Meiosis Meiosis. Slide 1 of 35. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

11-4 Meiosis Meiosis. Slide 1 of 35. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 11-4 Meiosis 1 of 35 Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from each of its parents. Gametes are formed by a process that separates the two sets of genes so that each gamete ends up with

More information

THINK ABOUT IT. Lesson Overview. Meiosis. As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located.

THINK ABOUT IT. Lesson Overview. Meiosis. As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. Notes THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?

More information

Mitosis and Genetics Study Guide Answer Key

Mitosis and Genetics Study Guide Answer Key Mitosis and Genetics Study Guide Answer Key 1. Which of the following is true of Interphase? a. It is part of Meiosis b. It occurs before Meiosis c. The cell does normal cell activities during interphase

More information

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II Meiosis A process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes to form gametes, or sex cells Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and

More information

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced.

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. MEIOSIS Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. diploid (2n) haploid (n) (complete set of chromosomes) (half the regular number of

More information

Bell Ringer 02/02/15. Match the stages of mitosis to their descriptions and pictures.

Bell Ringer 02/02/15. Match the stages of mitosis to their descriptions and pictures. Match the stages of mitosis to their descriptions and pictures. 1. Nuclear membrane disappears and chromosomes condense 2. Nuclear membrane reappears and cells begin to fully separate Bell Ringer 02/02/15

More information

Name Class Date. Term Definition How I m Going to Remember the Meaning

Name Class Date. Term Definition How I m Going to Remember the Meaning 11.4 Meiosis Lesson Objectives Contrast the number of chromosomes in body cells and in gametes. Summarize the events of meiosis. Contrast meiosis and mitosis. Describe how alleles from different genes

More information

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells.

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells. Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe

More information

GENERAL SAFETY: Follow your teacher s directions. Do not work in the laboratory without your teacher s supervision.

GENERAL SAFETY: Follow your teacher s directions. Do not work in the laboratory without your teacher s supervision. Name: Bio AP Lab: Cell Division B: Mitosis & Meiosis (Modified from AP Biology Investigative Labs) BACKGROUND: One of the characteristics of living things is the ability to replicate and pass on genetic

More information

CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10

CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10 CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION Chapter 10 Cell division = The formation of 2 daughter cells from a single parent cell Increases ratio of surface area to volume for each cell Allows for more efficient exchange

More information

Ch 11.Introduction to Genetics.Biology.Landis

Ch 11.Introduction to Genetics.Biology.Landis Nom Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages 263 266) This section describes how Gregor Mendel studied the inheritance of traits in garden peas and what his conclusions were. Introduction (page 263)

More information

Agenda. 1. Lesson Learning Goals 2. Meiosis 3. Meiosis Bingo

Agenda. 1. Lesson Learning Goals 2. Meiosis 3. Meiosis Bingo Meiosis SBI 3U Agenda 1. Lesson Learning Goals 2. Meiosis 3. Meiosis Bingo Learning Goals By the end of today s lesson, you will be able: To use proper vocabulary related to this unit, including meiosis,

More information

Genetics (patterns of inheritance)

Genetics (patterns of inheritance) MENDELIAN GENETICS branch of biology that studies how genetic characteristics are inherited MENDELIAN GENETICS Gregory Mendel, an Augustinian monk (1822-1884), was the first who systematically studied

More information

Mendelian Genetics. Introduction to the principles of Mendelian Genetics

Mendelian Genetics. Introduction to the principles of Mendelian Genetics + Mendelian Genetics Introduction to the principles of Mendelian Genetics + What is Genetics? n It is the study of patterns of inheritance and variations in organisms. n Genes control each trait of a living

More information

Biology Chapter 10 Test: Sexual Reproduction and Genetics

Biology Chapter 10 Test: Sexual Reproduction and Genetics Class: Date: Biology Chapter 10 Test: Sexual Reproduction and Genetics True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. A gamete has one-half the number of chromosomes of a regular body cell.

More information

Mitosis & Meiosis. PPT Questions. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell s DNA?

Mitosis & Meiosis. PPT Questions. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell s DNA? 1. From where do new cells arise? Mitosis & Meiosis PPT Questions 2. Why does the body constantly make new cells? 3. Is cell division the same in all cells? Explain. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete

More information

Meiosis. The sexy shuffling machine. LO: Describe the events of meiosis Explain how meiosis creates uniqueness Compare & contrast mitosis & meiosis

Meiosis. The sexy shuffling machine. LO: Describe the events of meiosis Explain how meiosis creates uniqueness Compare & contrast mitosis & meiosis Meiosis The sexy shuffling machine LO: Describe the events of meiosis Explain how meiosis creates uniqueness Compare & contrast mitosis & meiosis http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kvmb4js99ta Meiosis Intro

More information

Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1

Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1 Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1 We have just finished looking at the process of mitosis, a process that produces cells genetically identical to the original cell. Mitosis ensures that each cell of an organism

More information

Gametes are the reproductive cells - the egg or the sperm. Gametes.

Gametes are the reproductive cells - the egg or the sperm. Gametes. Meiosis Meiosis is the type of cell division for that produces the cells ( ) which are also known as gametes. Two important characteristics of meiosis is that it reduces the number of chromosomes to half

More information

Outline for today s lecture (Ch. 13)

Outline for today s lecture (Ch. 13) Outline for today s lecture (Ch. 13) Sexual and asexual life cycles Meiosis Origins of Genetic Variation Independent assortment Crossing over ( recombination ) Heredity Transmission of traits between generations

More information

What is a sex cell? How are sex cells made? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results?

What is a sex cell? How are sex cells made? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results? CHAPTER 6 3 Meiosis SECTION Heredity BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a sex cell? How are sex cells made? How does meiosis help explain

More information

VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous chromosome sexual reproduction meiosis

VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous chromosome sexual reproduction meiosis 6.1 CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter 11

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter 11 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 11 1 Sexual life cycle Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells Somatic cells of adults have 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid cells Gametes (egg and sperm)

More information

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction 2007-2008 Turn in warm ups to basket! Prepare for your test! Get out your mitosis/meiosis foldable After the test: New vocabulary! 2/23/17 Draw and label the parts of the

More information

The Cell Cycle & Cell Division

The Cell Cycle & Cell Division The Cell Cycle & Cell Division http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2001/press.html The Cell Cycle Animated Cycle http://www.cellsalive.com/cell_cycle.htm MITOSIS Mitosis The process of cell division

More information

1 Mendel and His Peas

1 Mendel and His Peas CHAPTER 3 1 Mendel and His Peas SECTION Heredity BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is heredity? How did Gregor Mendel study heredity? National

More information

Guided Notes Unit 6: Classical Genetics

Guided Notes Unit 6: Classical Genetics Name: Date: Block: Chapter 6: Meiosis and Mendel I. Concept 6.1: Chromosomes and Meiosis Guided Notes Unit 6: Classical Genetics a. Meiosis: i. (In animals, meiosis occurs in the sex organs the testes

More information

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Module 3B Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles In this module, we will examine a second type of cell division used by eukaryotic cells called meiosis. In addition, we will see how the 2 types of eukaryotic cell

More information

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less closely related individuals of the

More information

11.4 Meiosis. Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad

11.4 Meiosis. Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad 11.4 Meiosis Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad Key Concept: What happens during the process of meiosis? How is MEIOSIS different than mitosis? Blast from the past What

More information

MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU

MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes such as animals, plants and fungi The number of sets of chromosomes

More information

Genetics. Chapter 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics. Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity. Chapter 12 Molecular Genetics

Genetics. Chapter 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics. Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity. Chapter 12 Molecular Genetics Genetics Chapter 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics Reproductive cells, which pass on genetic traits from the parents to the child, are produced by the process of meiosis. Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance

More information

Cell Reproduction Review

Cell Reproduction Review Name Date Period Cell Reproduction Review Explain what is occurring in each part of the cell cycle --- G 0, G1, S, G2, and M. 1 CELL DIVISION Label all parts of each cell in the cell cycle and explain

More information

Advance Organizer. Topic: Mendelian Genetics and Meiosis

Advance Organizer. Topic: Mendelian Genetics and Meiosis Name: Row Unit 8 - Chapter 11 - Mendelian Genetics and Meiosis Advance Organizer Topic: Mendelian Genetics and Meiosis 1. Objectives (What should I be able to do?) a. Summarize the outcomes of Gregor Mendel's

More information

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells.

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells. Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe

More information

Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual S Section 1: S Gamete: Haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote. S Zygote: The cell that results from the fusion of gametes

More information

CELL GROWTH & DIVISION. Preview (Honors)

CELL GROWTH & DIVISION. Preview (Honors) CELL GROWTH & DIVISION Mitosis & Meiosis Preview (Honors) Read: Chapter 10-1 Page 256: Define ALL vocabulary Page 257: #1-10 & 14 Page 282: Define Section 11-4 vocabulary 1 Preview (Academic) Read: Chapter

More information

biology Slide 1 of 35 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

biology Slide 1 of 35 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall biology 1 of 35 Why do you look a little like your mom and your dad? Why do you look a little like your grandma but your brother or sister looks a little like your grandpa? How is the way you look and

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

The Cellular Basis of Inheritance

The Cellular Basis of Inheritance CHAPTER 9 The Cellular Basis of Inheritance Summary of Key Concepts Concept 9.1 All cells come from cells. (pp. 180 181) Cell reproduction is an important process. Three functions of cell reproduction

More information

Chapter 8. The Continuity of Life: How Cells Reproduce. Gregory Ahearn. Lectures by. Ammended by John Crocker. University of North Florida

Chapter 8. The Continuity of Life: How Cells Reproduce. Gregory Ahearn. Lectures by. Ammended by John Crocker. University of North Florida Chapter 8 The Continuity of Life: How Cells Reproduce Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Questions for Chapters

More information

Unit 4 Review - Genetics. UNIT 4 Vocabulary topics: Cell Reproduction, Cell Cycle, Cell Division, Genetics

Unit 4 Review - Genetics. UNIT 4 Vocabulary topics: Cell Reproduction, Cell Cycle, Cell Division, Genetics Unit 4 Review - Genetics Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction Mendel s Laws of Heredity Patterns of Inheritance Meiosis and Genetic Variation Non-Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance Cell Reproduction/Cell Cycle/

More information

Heredity and Genetics WKSH

Heredity and Genetics WKSH Chapter 6, Section 3 Heredity and Genetics WKSH KEY CONCEPT Mendel s research showed that traits are inherited as discrete units. Vocabulary trait purebred law of segregation genetics cross MAIN IDEA:

More information

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis 1. In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes? a. 64 b. 32 c. 16 d. 8 e. 4 2. Chromatids that are

More information

Overview. Overview: Variations on a Theme. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes. Inheritance of Genes

Overview. Overview: Variations on a Theme. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes. Inheritance of Genes Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Overview I. Cell Types II. Meiosis I. Meiosis I II. Meiosis II III. Genetic Variation IV. Reproduction Overview: Variations on a Theme Figure 13.1 Living organisms

More information

T TT Tt. T TT Tt. T = Tall t = Short. Figure 11 1

T TT Tt. T TT Tt. T = Tall t = Short. Figure 11 1 Chapt 11 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The principles of probability can be used to a. predict the traits of the offspring of genetic

More information

MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION Chapter

MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION Chapter Section 6.1: Meiosis MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION Chapter 6.1 6.2 WHAT DETERMINES WHAT YOU LOOK LIKE? Meiosis Animation Meiosis creates 4 genetically different gametes (haploid) Mitosis creates 2 identical daughter

More information

Lecture 12 - Meiosis

Lecture 12 - Meiosis Lecture 12 - Meiosis In this lecture Types of reproduction Alternation of generations Homologous chromosomes and alleles Meiosis mechanism Sources of genetic variation Meiosis and Mitosis Mitosis the production

More information

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science Mitosis and Meiosis Presented by Kesler Science Essential Questions: 1. What are mitosis and meiosis? 2. What occurs at different phases in cell division? 3. How are mitosis and meiosis similar and different?

More information

CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES

CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES DNA - Genetic information is stored in the DNA strand in the form of genes. DNA stands for deoxyribose nucleic acid Genes located on the DNA strand 2 Types of DNA

More information

Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Biology 110 Sec. 11 J. Greg Doheny Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Quiz Questions: 1. What word do you use to describe a chromosome or gene allele that we inherit from our Mother? From our Father?

More information

CSS 350 Midterm #2, 4/2/01

CSS 350 Midterm #2, 4/2/01 6. In corn three unlinked dominant genes are necessary for aleurone color. The genotypes B-D-B- are colored. If any of these loci is homozygous recessive the aleurone will be colorless. What is the expected

More information

Mendel and the Gene Idea. Biology Exploring Life Section Modern Biology Section 9-1

Mendel and the Gene Idea. Biology Exploring Life Section Modern Biology Section 9-1 Mendel and the Gene Idea Biology Exploring Life Section 10.0-10.2 Modern Biology Section 9-1 Objectives Summarize the Blending Hypothesis and the problems associated with it. Describe the methods used

More information

Sexual reproduction & Meiosis

Sexual reproduction & Meiosis Sexual reproduction & Meiosis Sexual Reproduction When two parents contribute DNA to the offspring The offspring are the result of fertilization the unification of two gametes (sperm & egg) Results in

More information

STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS. Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2. Morphology of eukaryotic metaphase chromosomes. Chromatids

STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS. Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2. Morphology of eukaryotic metaphase chromosomes. Chromatids STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2 Life depends on cell division and reproduction of organisms. Process involves transfer of genetic material. New somatic (body) cells

More information

The Cell Cycle. The Cell Cycle

The Cell Cycle. The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle Cells divide by Mitosis or Meiosis. Mitosis allows the organism to replace cells that have died or aren't working, and is how living things grow. It makes an exact copy of the parent cell.

More information

Anaphase, Telophase. Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Cleavage furrow. Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by...

Anaphase, Telophase. Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Cleavage furrow. Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... The 4 phases of mitosis Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... Cell which after division is identical to the original is called a Prophase, Metaphase,

More information

Objectives. Announcements. Comparison of mitosis and meiosis

Objectives. Announcements. Comparison of mitosis and meiosis Announcements Colloquium sessions for which you can get credit posted on web site: Feb 20, 27 Mar 6, 13, 20 Apr 17, 24 May 15. Review study CD that came with text for lab this week (especially mitosis

More information

Interactive Biology Multimedia Courseware Mendel's Principles of Heredity. Copyright 1998 CyberEd Inc.

Interactive Biology Multimedia Courseware Mendel's Principles of Heredity. Copyright 1998 CyberEd Inc. Interactive Biology Multimedia Courseware Mendel's Principles of Heredity Copyright 1998 CyberEd Inc. Mendel's Principles of Heredity TEACHING OBJECTIVES The following subject areas are illustrated throughout

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Chapter 9

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Chapter 9 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 9 9.1 Genes and Alleles Genes Sequences of DNA that encode heritable traits Alleles Slightly different forms of the same gene Each specifies a different version

More information

Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division. Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms

Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division. Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms Genes DNA Chromatin fiber Chromosomes Fig. 9.6 Genes, the segments of DNA, are part of chromatin fiber

More information

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction Chapter 11: Cellular Reproduction What is Cellular Reproduction? Answer: The division of a parent cell into two daughter cells Requirements of

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS URRY CAIN WASSERMAN MINORSKY REECE 10 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge, Simon Fraser University SECOND EDITION

More information

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Name: Date: INTRODUCTION BINARY FISSION: Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) reproduce asexually by binary fission. Bacterial cells have a single circular chromosome,

More information

Outline for today s lecture (Ch. 14, Part I)

Outline for today s lecture (Ch. 14, Part I) Outline for today s lecture (Ch. 14, Part I) Ploidy vs. DNA content The basis of heredity ca. 1850s Mendel s Experiments and Theory Law of Segregation Law of Independent Assortment Introduction to Probability

More information

EOC - Unit 4 Review - Genetics

EOC - Unit 4 Review - Genetics EOC - Unit 4 Review - Genetics Part A: Benchmark Standard SC.912.L.16.1 Use Mendel s laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance. Also Assesses SC.912.L.16.2 Discuss

More information

Sexual life cycle. Sexual life cycle. Fertilization. Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells (2n)

Sexual life cycle. Sexual life cycle. Fertilization. Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells (2n) Sexual life cycle Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells (2n) Chapter 11 Somatic cells of adults have 2 sets of Haploid cells (n) Gametes have only 1 set of

More information

HEREDITY: Objective: I can describe what heredity is because I can identify traits and characteristics

HEREDITY: Objective: I can describe what heredity is because I can identify traits and characteristics Mendel and Heredity HEREDITY: SC.7.L.16.1 Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, that this hereditary information. Objective: I can describe

More information

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction. What is Cellular Reproduction?

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction. What is Cellular Reproduction? Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction What is Cellular Reproduction? Answer: The division of a parent cell into two daughter cells Requirements of Each Daughter Cell: 1) Necessary genomic

More information

Chromosome duplication and distribution during cell division

Chromosome duplication and distribution during cell division CELL DIVISION AND HEREDITY Student Packet SUMMARY IN EUKARYOTES, HERITABLE INFORMATION IS PASSED TO THE NEXT GENERATION VIA PROCESSES THAT INCLUDE THE CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS /MEIOSIS AND FERTILIZATION Mitosis

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11. Reproduction Section 1

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11. Reproduction Section 1 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Reproduction Section 1 Reproduction Key Idea: An individual formed by asexual reproduction is genetically identical to its parent. Asexual Reproduction In asexual

More information

Introduction to Mendelian Genetics. Packet #12

Introduction to Mendelian Genetics. Packet #12 Introduction to Mendelian Genetics Packet #12 1 Friday, August 21, 2015 The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance According to the chromosome theory of inheritance, the

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

CHAPTER 10 : CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KVS

CHAPTER 10 : CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KVS CHAPTER 10 : CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KVS Cell cycle It is a series of events that takes place in a cell, leading to the formation of two daughter cells from a single mother cell.

More information

This is DUE: Come prepared to share your findings with your group.

This is DUE: Come prepared to share your findings with your group. Biology 160 NAME: Reading Guide 11: Population Dynamics, Humans, Part I This is DUE: Come prepared to share your findings with your group. *As before, please turn in only the Critical Thinking questions

More information

CLASS XI CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

CLASS XI CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION CLASS XI CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION Cell cycle It is a series of events that takes place in a cell, leading to the formation of two daughter cells from a single mother cell. Phases of cell

More information

5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis

5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis 5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis Lesson Objectives Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction. Give an overview of sexual reproduction, and outline the phases of meiosis. Explain why sexual reproduction

More information

BW #16. What are the phases of mitosis in order?

BW #16. What are the phases of mitosis in order? BW #16 What are the phases of mitosis in order? COMPARING MITOSIS & MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION! Cell Cycle.how living things GROW!! Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase --------------- Cytokinesis

More information

LECTURE 10A: MEIO S S

LECTURE 10A: MEIO S S LECTURE 10A: MEIOSIS Meiosis Definition INTRODUCTION 1. Meiosis is the production of gametes, which is a reduction division which means a diploid gamete produces haploid gametes - from a full complement

More information

MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: SIMULATION OF MEIOSIS EVOLUTION. Activity #9

MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: SIMULATION OF MEIOSIS EVOLUTION. Activity #9 AP BIOLOGY EVOLUTION Unit 1 Part 7 Chapter 13 Activity #9 NAME DATE PERIOD MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION Meiosis involves two successive nuclear divisions that produce four haploid cells. Meiosis I is the reduction

More information

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction 2007-2008 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA same number of chromosomes

More information

Plant Propagation PLS 3221/5222

Plant Propagation PLS 3221/5222 Plant Propagation PLS 3221/5222 Dr. Sandra Wilson Dr. Mack Thetford Chapter 2 Introduction to the Biology of Plant Propagation -A review- 1 The Plant Breeder and the Plant Propagator Plant Breeder, The

More information