# Dropping Your Genes. A Simulation of Meiosis and Fertilization and An Introduction to Probability

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Dropping Your Genes A Simulation of Meiosis and Fertilization and An Introduction to To fully understand Mendelian genetics (and, eventually, population genetics), you need to understand certain aspects of probability as illustrated by the behavior of chromosomes and genes during meiosis and gametic union. Inheritance of factors (alleles of a gene) controlling a particular trait involves a distinct element of chance. The determinations of which allele of a gene pair gets into a particular egg or sperm and which gametes participate in gametic union are random processes. Understanding the consequences of the meiotic process and subsequent gametic union is vital to understanding genetics. The objectives of this exercise are: 1.) to emphasize the importance of the segregation and independent assortment of alleles of genes that occur during the first division of meiosis 2.) to demonstrate the randomness of gametic union 3.) to introduce (or reinforce) some considerations of probability. 4.) to gain experience performing chi-square goodness of fit analyses. To simulate chromosome behavior during meiosis, you will be provided with a diploid set of autosomal chromosomes (a genome with 2N = 6). Each unit consists of the two chromosomes that make up an homologous pair that you will cut out, fold and glue together back to back (see Figure 1). One side of each unit, then, is a chromosome. Even though real chromosomes consist of many genes, each of yours will have only one. The genes you will use control the expression of the following traits: the capability to rolll the tongue (R or r); the capability of tasting PTC (T or t); and the presence of brown eye pigment (N or n). A capital letter represents a dominant allele and a the lower case letter its recessive allele. These chromosomes, then, represent members of homologous pairs that already have synapsed and lined up on the metaphase plate during the first meiotic division. Remember that at this stage all chromosomes have replicated. You will have to imagine that each member of the homologous pair consists of two sister chromatids. Figure 1. An homologous pair of chromosomes with the alleles of one gene labeled to illustrate a heterozygous genotype. Dropping Your Genes Page 1

3 Zygotes Combinations Totals χ 2 = You should have noticed that two of the combinations above are genetically identical. That is, if an individual is heterozygous and one allele is dominant over its homologous allele, only the characteristic controlled by the dominant allele will appear in that individual. To calculate the total probability of producing an individual with either of the two heterozygous combinations you need to use the sum rule that states that the probability of either of two mutually exclusive events occurring is the sum of their individual probabilities. The Dihybrid -- Two Unlinked Genes, Each With Two Alleles Now, what happens if the parents differ genetically in two characteristics controlled by the expression of two unlinked genes? Dihybrid individuals have a genotype of the sort AaBb. Unlinked means that the A gene is on one pair of homologous chromosomes and the B gene is on a different pair. Dihybrid means that these individuals are heterozygous for each gene. By producing gametes from parents that have different genetic contributions for two traits, you can demonstrate Mendel s principle of independent assortment. To predict the gametic genotypes resulting from meiosis in dihybrid parents, consider only one pair of alleles of one of the genes. Because of the genetic consequences of meiosis, each gamete will have one or the other of the two alleles. The same will hold true for the alleles of the second gene. Therefore, the probability of a gamete containing any two of the alleles on nonhomologous chromosomes is the product of their individual probabilities. The alleles on non-homologous chromosomes will appear in the gametes in all possible combinations. You can simulate meiosis in a dihybrid by choosing two chromosomes from your genome and dropping them simultaneously. Only one allele on each chromosome will be facing up and the two alleles will represent the genotype of a gamete. Again, work with a lab partner who should choose the same two chromosomes from his or her genome. Each of you should produce 40 gametes and, by gametic union, 40 zygotes. As above, predict the expected outcomes before generating gametes and zygotes. To simplify your predictions for the zygotes, you should take dominance into account and deal only with phenotypic categories and not genotypic ones. For example, AABB will look like AaBb, AABb and AaBB. You can write all of these combinations as A--B--. To calculate the probabilities for the phenotypic categories resulting from a dihybrid cross, you will have to use both the product and the sum rule. As you produce gametes and zygotes, keep track of the genotypes. You should compare your results with the expected one by using the Chi-square test. Totals χ 2 = Dropping Your Genes Page 3

4 Zygotes Combinations (phenotypes) Totals χ 2 = The Trihybrid -- Three Unlinked Genes, Each With Two Alleles By adding a third chromosome to the parental genomes, you could simulate a trihybrid cross. At this point, however, the manipulations really become tedious and not even necessary. You should have noticed a pattern when moving from the monohybrid cross to the dihybrid one. Simply by adding a second pair of homologous chromosomes with different alleles, you doubled the number of genetically different gametes produced as a result of the segregation and independent assortment that occur during meiosis. After gametic union (assuming a clear dominance relationship) you also doubled the number of phenotypic categories among the progeny. Instead of dropping your genes to simulate the gametic results of meiosis and the zygotic results of gametic union, simply predict the resulting gametic genotypes and their probabilities of occurring. Then list the possible phenotypic results for the progeny resulting from gametic union and the probability of obtaining individuals in each category. Assume that you and your mate each produce 100 gametes and, by gametic union, 100 zygotes. Totals Zygotes (phenotypes) Totals Dropping Your Genes Page 4

5 Dropping Your Genes Page 5

### Yesterday s Picture UNIT 3D

Warm-Up Blood types are determined by a single gene with several alleles. The allele encoding the Type A phenotype (I A ) is dominant to the allele encoding the Type O phenotype (i). Determine the phenotype

### Introduction to Mendelian Genetics. Packet #12

Introduction to Mendelian Genetics Packet #12 1 Friday, August 21, 2015 The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance According to the chromosome theory of inheritance, the

### Reinforcement Unit 3 Resource Book. Meiosis and Mendel KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have.

6.1 CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. Your body is made of two basic cell types. One basic type are somatic cells, also called body cells,

### Essential Questions. Meiosis. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Essential Questions How does the reduction in chromosome number occur during meiosis? What are the stages of meiosis? What is the importance of meiosis in providing genetic variation? Meiosis Vocabulary

### is the scientific study of. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He is considered the of genetics. Mendel carried out his work with ordinary garden.

11-1 The 11-1 Work of Gregor Mendel The Work of Gregor Mendel is the scientific study of. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He is considered the of genetics. Mendel carried out his work with ordinary

### VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous chromosome sexual reproduction meiosis

6.1 CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. VOCABULARY somatic cell autosome fertilization gamete sex chromosome diploid homologous

### Lesson Overview Meiosis

11.4 THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?

### Mendelian Genetics. Introduction to the principles of Mendelian Genetics

+ Mendelian Genetics Introduction to the principles of Mendelian Genetics + What is Genetics? n It is the study of patterns of inheritance and variations in organisms. n Genes control each trait of a living

### THINK ABOUT IT. Lesson Overview. Meiosis. As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located.

Notes THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?

### Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages 263 266) What is the principle of dominance? What happens during segregation? Gregor Mendel s Peas (pages 263 264) 1. The

### BENCHMARK 1 STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2017

BENCHMARK 1 STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2017 Name: There will be semester one content on this benchmark as well. Study your final exam review guide from last semester. New Semester Material: (Chapter 10 Cell Growth

### Name Date Class. Meiosis I and Meiosis II

Concept Mapping Meiosis I and Meiosis II Complete the events chains about meiosis I and meiosis II. These terms may be used more than once: chromosomes, condense, cytokinesis, equator, line up, nuclei,

### Gametes are the reproductive cells - the egg or the sperm. Gametes.

Meiosis Meiosis is the type of cell division for that produces the cells ( ) which are also known as gametes. Two important characteristics of meiosis is that it reduces the number of chromosomes to half

### Name Class Date. Term Definition How I m Going to Remember the Meaning

11.4 Meiosis Lesson Objectives Contrast the number of chromosomes in body cells and in gametes. Summarize the events of meiosis. Contrast meiosis and mitosis. Describe how alleles from different genes

### CSS 350 Midterm #2, 4/2/01

6. In corn three unlinked dominant genes are necessary for aleurone color. The genotypes B-D-B- are colored. If any of these loci is homozygous recessive the aleurone will be colorless. What is the expected

### Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells.

Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe

### Name Date Class CHAPTER 10. Section 1: Meiosis

Name Date Class Study Guide CHAPTER 10 Section 1: Meiosis In your textbook, read about meiosis I and meiosis II. Label the diagrams below. Use these choices: anaphase I anaphase II interphase metaphase

### 11-4 Meiosis Meiosis. Slide 1 of 35. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

11-4 Meiosis 1 of 35 Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from each of its parents. Gametes are formed by a process that separates the two sets of genes so that each gamete ends up with

### Name: Per: Task: To create a model that explains how bi-racial parents can have black and white twins

Name: Per: Genetics Test Review Task: To create a model that explains how bi-racial parents can have black and white twins Part 1: DNA to Protein to Trait LT15 (Protein and Traits) - Proteins express inherited

### Biology Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics

Biology Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics Meiosis - The mechanism that halves the number of chromosomes in cells is a form of cell division called meiosis - Meiosis consists of two successive nuclear

### Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced.

MEIOSIS Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. diploid (2n) haploid (n) (complete set of chromosomes) (half the regular number of

### Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Biology 110 Sec. 11 J. Greg Doheny Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Quiz Questions: 1. What word do you use to describe a chromosome or gene allele that we inherit from our Mother? From our Father?

### Chromosome duplication and distribution during cell division

CELL DIVISION AND HEREDITY Student Packet SUMMARY IN EUKARYOTES, HERITABLE INFORMATION IS PASSED TO THE NEXT GENERATION VIA PROCESSES THAT INCLUDE THE CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS /MEIOSIS AND FERTILIZATION Mitosis

### Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction 2007-2008 Turn in warm ups to basket! Prepare for your test! Get out your mitosis/meiosis foldable After the test: New vocabulary! 2/23/17 Draw and label the parts of the

### Unit 6 : Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

Unit 6 : Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction 2006-2007 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same number of chromosomes

### 1. CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS

Meiosis and Mendel Answer Key SECTION 1. CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS 1. somatic/body cells; germ cells/gametes 2. in the reproductive organs; ovaries and testes 3. 46 4. mother 5. father 6. autosomes 7. X

### Parts 2. Modeling chromosome segregation

Genome 371, Autumn 2017 Quiz Section 2 Meiosis Goals: To increase your familiarity with the molecular control of meiosis, outcomes of meiosis, and the important role of crossing over in generating genetic

### Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual S Section 1: S Gamete: Haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote. S Zygote: The cell that results from the fusion of gametes

### Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1

Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1 Introduction In this activity, you will learn how you inherited two copies of each gene, one from your mother and one from your father.

### Mitosis and Genetics Study Guide Answer Key

Mitosis and Genetics Study Guide Answer Key 1. Which of the following is true of Interphase? a. It is part of Meiosis b. It occurs before Meiosis c. The cell does normal cell activities during interphase

### Chapter 2: Extensions to Mendel: Complexities in Relating Genotype to Phenotype.

Chapter 2: Extensions to Mendel: Complexities in Relating Genotype to Phenotype. please read pages 38-47; 49-55;57-63. Slide 1 of Chapter 2 1 Extension sot Mendelian Behavior of Genes Single gene inheritance

### Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter 11

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 11 1 Sexual life cycle Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells Somatic cells of adults have 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid cells Gametes (egg and sperm)

### Sexual and Asexual Reproduction. Cell Reproduction TEST Friday, 11/13

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Cell Reproduction TEST Friday, 11/13 How many chromosomes do humans have? What are Chromosomes? How many chromosomes came from your mom? How many chromosomes came from your

### Chapter 10.2 Notes. Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a. In the body cells of animals and most plants, chromosomes occur in

Chapter 10.2 Notes NAME Honors Biology Organisms have tens of thousands of genes that determine individual traits Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a Diploid and Haploid Cells In the

### Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1

Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1 Almost all the cells in your body were produced by mitosis. The only exceptions are the gametes sperm or eggs which are produced by a different

### AP Biology Unit 6 Practice Test 1. A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8

AP Biology Unit 6 Practice Test Name: 1. A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. How many picograms

### Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction 2007-2008 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA same number of chromosomes

### Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11. Reproduction Section 1

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Reproduction Section 1 Reproduction Key Idea: An individual formed by asexual reproduction is genetically identical to its parent. Asexual Reproduction In asexual

### Unit 4 Review - Genetics. UNIT 4 Vocabulary topics: Cell Reproduction, Cell Cycle, Cell Division, Genetics

Unit 4 Review - Genetics Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction Mendel s Laws of Heredity Patterns of Inheritance Meiosis and Genetic Variation Non-Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance Cell Reproduction/Cell Cycle/

### Meiosis and Tetrad Analysis Lab

Meiosis and Tetrad Analysis Lab Objectives: - Explain how meiosis and crossing over result in the different arrangements of ascospores within asci. - Learn how to calculate the map distance between a gene

### MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: SIMULATION OF MEIOSIS EVOLUTION. Activity #9

AP BIOLOGY EVOLUTION Unit 1 Part 7 Chapter 13 Activity #9 NAME DATE PERIOD MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION Meiosis involves two successive nuclear divisions that produce four haploid cells. Meiosis I is the reduction

### CH 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles

CH 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles AP Biology 2005-2006 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA

### Chapter 13. Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction. AP Biology

Chapter 13. Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA same number of

### SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less closely related individuals of the

### Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1

Meiosis and Fertilization Understanding How Genes Are Inherited 1 Introduction In this activity, you will learn how you inherited two copies of each gene, one from your mother and one from your father.

### biology Slide 1 of 35 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

biology 1 of 35 Why do you look a little like your mom and your dad? Why do you look a little like your grandma but your brother or sister looks a little like your grandpa? How is the way you look and

### READ THE DIRECTIONS BIOLOGY: A HUMAN APPROACH EXAMINATION II NAME. EBIO 1030, SECS. #0001 & #0002 Nov. 2, 2015

READ THE DIRECTIONS BIOLOGY: A HUMAN APPROACH EXAMINATION II NAME EBIO 1030, SECS. #0001 & #0002 Nov. 2, 2015 INSTRUCTIONS: Use a SOFT-LEAD pencil (#1 or #2) for writing in and mark-sensing your name,

### 6-10 Sexual reproduction requires special cells (gametes) made by meiosis.

Do Now Answer the following questions: For every cell undergoing mitosis, how many cells are created? For a cell with 6 chromosomes, how many chromosomes are in the daughter cells? Why are daughter cells

### Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1

Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1 We have just finished looking at the process of mitosis, a process that produces cells genetically identical to the original cell. Mitosis ensures that each cell of an organism

### GENERAL SAFETY: Follow your teacher s directions. Do not work in the laboratory without your teacher s supervision.

Name: Bio AP Lab: Cell Division B: Mitosis & Meiosis (Modified from AP Biology Investigative Labs) BACKGROUND: One of the characteristics of living things is the ability to replicate and pass on genetic

### Lecture 12 - Meiosis

Lecture 12 - Meiosis In this lecture Types of reproduction Alternation of generations Homologous chromosomes and alleles Meiosis mechanism Sources of genetic variation Meiosis and Mitosis Mitosis the production

### Anaphase, Telophase. Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Cleavage furrow. Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by...

The 4 phases of mitosis Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... Cell which after division is identical to the original is called a Prophase, Metaphase,

### Interactive Biology Multimedia Courseware Mendel's Principles of Heredity. Copyright 1998 CyberEd Inc.

Interactive Biology Multimedia Courseware Mendel's Principles of Heredity Copyright 1998 CyberEd Inc. Mendel's Principles of Heredity TEACHING OBJECTIVES The following subject areas are illustrated throughout

### EXAM 4 CHAPTERS BIOL 1406 GENERAL BIOLOGY I DR. FARNSWORTH

EXAM 4 CHAPTERS 12-15 BIOL 1406 GENERAL BIOLOGY I DR. FARNSWORTH 1. The centromere is a region in which A. metaphase chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate. B. chromosomes are grouped during

### Human Biology Chapter 13.4: Meiosis and Genetic Variation

OpenStax-CNX module: m58013 1 Human Biology Chapter 13.4: Meiosis and Genetic Variation Willy Cushwa Based on Meiosis by OpenStax This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons

### 1. Contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose. 2. Single-stranded instead of double stranded. 3. Contains uracil in place of thymine.

Protein Synthesis & Mutations RNA 1. Contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose. 2. Single-stranded instead of double stranded. 3. Contains uracil in place of thymine. RNA Contains: 1. Adenine 2.

### Meiosis * OpenStax. This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0.

OpenStax-CNX module: m45466 1 Meiosis * OpenStax This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this section, you will be able to: Abstract

### CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10

CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION Chapter 10 Cell division = The formation of 2 daughter cells from a single parent cell Increases ratio of surface area to volume for each cell Allows for more efficient exchange

### 5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis

5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis Lesson Objectives Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction. Give an overview of sexual reproduction, and outline the phases of meiosis. Explain why sexual reproduction

### Objective 3.01 (DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis)

Objective 3.01 (DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis) DNA Structure o Discovered by Watson and Crick o Double-stranded o Shape is a double helix (twisted ladder) o Made of chains of nucleotides: o Has four types

### Review of Mitosis and Meiosis

Review of Mitosis and Meiosis NOTE: Since you will have already had an introduction to both mitosis and meiosis in Biol 204 & 205, this lecture is structured as a review. See the text for a more thorough

### Zoology Cell Division and Inheritance

Zoology Cell Division and Inheritance I. A Code for All Life A. Before Genetics - 1. If a very tall man married a short woman, you would expect their children to be intermediate, with average height. 2.

### CELL DIVISION MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

CELL DIVISION MITOSIS & MEIOSIS Cell Cycle 2 distinct phases S Chromosome duplication Interphase G 2 Mitotic What's the most important event of interphase? What is significant about DNA in the S and G

### Biol 178 Study Guide Exam 3 Mitosis, Meiosis and patterns of Inheritance Fall 2007

Mitosis 13. Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of a complex of 60% protein and 40% DNA. The name of this chemical complex is a A. histone complex. B. chromatin. C. histamine complex. D. chromatid. E.

### Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter Questions 1) What is a genome? A) the complete complement of an organism's genes B) a specific sequence of polypeptides within

### Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis 1. In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes? a. 64 b. 32 c. 16 d. 8 e. 4 2. Chromatids that are

### Mitosis & Meiosis. PPT Questions. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell s DNA?

1. From where do new cells arise? Mitosis & Meiosis PPT Questions 2. Why does the body constantly make new cells? 3. Is cell division the same in all cells? Explain. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete

### Chromosome Chr Duplica Duplic t a ion Pixley

Chromosome Duplication Pixley Figure 4-6 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) Figure 4-72 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) Interphase During mitosis (cell division),

### EOC - Unit 4 Review - Genetics

EOC - Unit 4 Review - Genetics Part A: Benchmark Standard SC.912.L.16.1 Use Mendel s laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance. Also Assesses SC.912.L.16.2 Discuss

### Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells.

Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe

### Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

### Build a STRUCTURAL concept map of has part starting with cell cycle and using all of the following: Metaphase Prophase Interphase Cell division phase

Build a STRUCTURAL concept map of has part starting with cell cycle and using all of the following: Metaphase Prophase Interphase Cell division phase Telophase S phase G1 phase G2 phase Anaphase Cytokinesis

### MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION Chapter

Section 6.1: Meiosis MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION Chapter 6.1 6.2 WHAT DETERMINES WHAT YOU LOOK LIKE? Meiosis Animation Meiosis creates 4 genetically different gametes (haploid) Mitosis creates 2 identical daughter

### Cell Differentiation and Meiosis

Cell Differentiation and Meiosis Study guide Compare the processes and products of meiosis I and meiosis II. Compare the overall processes and products of meiosis and mitosis. Explain how non disjunction

### Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Chapter 9

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 9 9.1 Genes and Alleles Genes Sequences of DNA that encode heritable traits Alleles Slightly different forms of the same gene Each specifies a different version

### CHAPTER 12 THE CELL CYCLE. Section A: The Key Roles of Cell Division

CHAPTER 12 THE CELL CYCLE Section A: The Key Roles of Cell Division 1. Cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair 2. Cell division distributes identical sets of chromosomes to daughter

### CHAPTER 9 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

CHAPTER 9 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION 9.1 INTRODUCING ALLELES When an orchid or aphid reproduces all by it self, what sort of offspring does it get? By the process of asexual reproduction, one alone

### STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS. Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2. Morphology of eukaryotic metaphase chromosomes. Chromatids

STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2 Life depends on cell division and reproduction of organisms. Process involves transfer of genetic material. New somatic (body) cells

### Name: Test date: Per:

Name: Test date: Per: Cell Cycle/Protein Synthesis Unit 1 Study Guide Always remember to use your notes/lectures first, then book, then other sources to help you find the right answers. Be as thorough

### 11.4 Meiosis. Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad

11.4 Meiosis Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad Key Concept: What happens during the process of meiosis? How is MEIOSIS different than mitosis? Blast from the past What

### Modeling Genetic Variation in Gametes PSI AP Biology

Modeling Genetic Variation in Gametes PSI AP Biology Name: Objective Students will model the processes of gamete formation that increase genetic variation: independent assortment, crossing-over, and fertilization.

### Meiosis. What is meiosis? How is it different from mitosis? Stages Genetic Variation

Meiosis What is meiosis? How is it different from mitosis? Stages Genetic Variation Reproduction Asexual reproduction resulting from mitosis (or a similar process) that involves only one parent; the offspring

### Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction (Ch. 13)

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction (Ch. 13) Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA same number of chromosomes

### Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction. AP Biology

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Cell division / Asexual reproduction! Mitosis " produce cells with same information! identical daughter cells " exact copies! clones " same amount of DNA! same number of chromosomes!

### Meiosis, Sexual Reproduction, & Genetic Variability

Meiosis, Sexual Reproduction, & Genetic Variability Teachers Guide NARRATION FOR MEIOSIS, SEXUAL REPRODUCTION, AND GENETIC VARIABILITY Since the members of no species, even California redwoods or giant

### Meiosis B-4.5. Summarize the characteristics of the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II.

Meiosis B-4.5 Summarize the characteristics of the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II. Key Concepts Daughter cells Diploid Haploid Zygote Gamete Meiosis I vs. Meiosis II What You Already Know This concept

### Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

### 9 Genetic diversity and adaptation Support. AQA Biology. Genetic diversity and adaptation. Specification reference. Learning objectives.

Genetic diversity and adaptation Specification reference 3.4.3 3.4.4 Learning objectives After completing this worksheet you should be able to: understand how meiosis produces haploid gametes know how

### Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction. What is Cellular Reproduction?

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction What is Cellular Reproduction? Answer: The division of a parent cell into two daughter cells Requirements of Each Daughter Cell: 1) Necessary genomic

### This is DUE: Come prepared to share your findings with your group.

Biology 160 NAME: Reading Guide 11: Population Dynamics, Humans, Part I This is DUE: Come prepared to share your findings with your group. *As before, please turn in only the Critical Thinking questions

### Virtual Lab 7 Mitosis and Meiosis

Name Period Assignment # Virtual Lab 7 Mitosis and Meiosis http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab3/intro.html Click Next 1) What are 4 processes that require mitosis? a. b. c. d. 2)

### Meiosis. How is meiosis going to be different from mitosis? Meiosis is part of sexual reproduction

Meiosis Meiosis How is meiosis going to be different from mitosis? Meiosis is part of sexual reproduction How is sexual reproduction different from asexual reproduction? Grab a book pg. 273 List your observations