Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air

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1 Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air

2 Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy consumers producers Heterotrophs (Animals) obtain energy from eating others eat food = other organisms = organic molecules make energy through respiration Autotrophs (Plants) produce their own energy (from self ) convert energy of sunlight (solar energy) build organic molecules (CHO) from CO 2 make energy & synthesize sugars through photosynthesis

3 Remember, the ATP that is generated in PSI is used in the Calvin cycle. How are they connected? Heterotrophs making energy & organic molecules from ingesting organic molecules glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP oxidation = exergonic (LEO) Autotrophs making energy & organic molecules from light energy carbon dioxide + water + energy glucose + oxygen 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2 reduction = endergonic (GER) Where s the ATP?

4 What does it mean to be a plant Need to collect light energy (solar energy) transform it into chemical energy store light energy (transform into chemical energy) in a stable form to be moved around glucose the plant or stored need to get building block atoms from the environment C, H, O, N, P, K, S, Mg produce all organic molecules needed for growth ATP CO 2 N K P carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids (Yes, plants need these too) H 2 O

5 Plant structure Obtaining raw materials sunlight leaves = solar collectors CO 2 stomates = gas exchange H 2 O uptake from roots nutrients N, P, K, S, Mg, Fe uptake from roots

6 stomate transpiration gas exchange

7 leaves Chloroplasts cross section of leaf Remember, light can be reflected, transmitted or absorbed; reflected and transmitted light give things their color. absorb sunlight & CO 2 CO 2 chloroplasts in plant cell chloroplast chloroplasts contain chlorophyll make energy & sugar

8 Chloroplast structure Chloroplasts double membrane stroma fluid-filled interior thylakoid sacs grana stacks Thylakoid membrane contains chlorophyll molecules electron transport chain ATP synthase gradient built up within thylakoid sac chloroplast stroma ATP H+ H+ H+ outer membrane ATP synthase thylakoid granum H+ thylakoid inner membrane

9 Photosynthesis Light reactions light-dependent reactions energy conversion reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy ATP & NADPH Calvin cycle light-independent reactions sugar building reactions It s not the Dark Reactions! uses chemical energy (ATP & NADPH) to reduce CO 2 & synthesize C 6 H 12 O 6

10 Light reactions Electron Transport Chain like in cellular respiration proteins in organelle membrane electron acceptors NADPH proton ( ) gradient across inner membrane find the double membrane! ATP synthase enzyme chloroplast ATP H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ thylakoid

11 mitochondrion thylakoid (in chloroplast)

12 ETC of Respiration Mitochondria: transfer chemical energy from food molecules into chemical energy of ATP electron carrier: NADH generates H 2 O

13 ETC of Photosynthesis Chloroplasts transform light energy into chemical energy of ATP electron carrier: NADPH generates O 2

14 The ATP that Jack built photosynthesis respiration sunlight breakdown of C 6 H 12 O 6 moves the electrons runs the pump pumps the protons builds the gradient drives the flow of protons through ATP synthase bonds P i to ADP generates the ATP ADP + P i ATP Remember chemiosmosis

15 Pigments of photosynthesis Chlorophylls & other pigments embedded in thylakoid membrane arranged in a photosystem collection of molecules structure-function relationship How does this molecular structure fit its function?

16 A Look at Light The spectrum of color Energy packets Solar energy: photon Chemical energy: electron V I B G Y O R

17 Light can be reflected, transmitted or absorbed; reflected and transmitted light give things their color. Light: absorption spectra Photosynthesis gets energy by absorbing wavelengths of light chlorophyll a absorbs best in red & blue wavelengths & least in green accessory pigments with different structures absorb light of different wavelengths chlorophyll b, carotenoids, xanthophylls Why are plants green?

18 Photosystems of photosynthesis 2 photosystems in thylakoid membrane collections of chlorophyll molecules act as light-gathering molecules Photosystem II reaction chlorophyll a center P 680 = absorbs 680nm wavelength red light Photosystem I chlorophyll b P 700 = absorbs 700nm wavelength red light antenna pigments

19 chlorophyll a Photosystem II ETC of Photosynthesis chlorophyll b Photosystem I

20 Inhale, baby! ETC of Photosynthesis chloroplast H+ H+ H+ thylakoid ATP H+ H+ H+ Plants SPLIT water! 2 1 e O H O H H H e e fill the e vacancy e - e - +H Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a

21 ETC of Photosynthesis chloroplast H+ H+ H+ thylakoid ATP H+ H+ H+ 2 1 e 3 4 ATP to Calvin Cycle energy to build carbohydrates Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a ATP ADP + P i

22 ETC of Photosynthesis e sun 5 e e Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a Photosystem I P700 chlorophyll b

23 ETC of Photosynthesis electron carrier e 6 5 sun Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a Photosystem I P700 chlorophyll b $$ in the bank reducing power!

24 ETC of Photosynthesis sun sun split H 2 O O H + H H+ + to Calvin Cycle ATP

25 ETC of Photosynthesis ETC uses light energy to produce ATP & NADPH go to Calvin cycle PS II absorbs light excited electron passes from chlorophyll to primary electron acceptor need to replace electron in chlorophyll enzyme extracts electrons from H 2 O & supplies them to chlorophyll splits H 2 O O combines with another O to form O 2 O 2 released to atmosphere and we breathe easier!

26 Experimental evidence Where did the O 2 come from? radioactive tracer = O18 (or 18 O) Experiment 1 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2 Experiment 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2 Proved O 2 came from H 2 O not CO 2 = plants split H 2 O!

27 Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Light reactions elevate electrons in 2 steps (PS II & PS I) PS II generates energy as ATP PS I generates reducing power as NADPH ATP

28 Cyclic photophosphorylation If PS I can t pass e - to NADP + it cycles back to PS II & makes more ATP, but no NADPH coordinates light reactions to Calvin cycle Calvin cycle uses more ATP than NADPH ATP 18 ATP + 12 NADPH 1 C 6 H 12 O 6

29 Photophosphorylation cyclic photophosphorylation NADP NONcyclic photophosphorylation ATP

30 Photosynthesis summary Where did the energy come from? Where did the electrons come from? Where did the H 2 O come from? Where did the O 2 come from? Where did the O 2 go? Where did the come from? Where did the ATP come from? What will the ATP be used for? Where did the NADPH come from? What will the NADPH be used for? stay tuned for the Calvin cycle

31 Next: The Calvin Cycle 1950s 1961 Whoops! Wrong Calvin but this Calvin sure looks strung out on SUGAR!!!

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