1. Photosynthesis is the process of making a simple organic molecule from inorganic compounds (molecules) utilizing light energy.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. Photosynthesis is the process of making a simple organic molecule from inorganic compounds (molecules) utilizing light energy."

Transcription

1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS A. INTRODUCTION 1. Photosynthesis is the process of making a simple organic molecule from inorganic compounds (molecules) utilizing light energy. a. It takes energy input for synthesis. b. Light energy is funneled into the living world largely by the process of photosynthesis. 1) Two major sources of energy we as humans use are the results of photosynthesis past and present. a) Food fuels are bodily activities which comes from the results or products of recent photosynthesis. b) Fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal) provide energy for most of our needs and these are the results or products of photosynthesis that occurred millions of years ago. 2) And to have accomplished this the green plants only capture something less than 1% of the total solar energy reaching the earth and its atmosphere. 2. The process occurs in green tissue in plants and in algae and certain bacteria. a. Usually this is the leaf in higher plants although some stems also carry on photosynthesis. b. Chlorophyll, which give the green color to the plant, is located within chloroplasts in all plants in the kingdom Plantae. c. Within the chloroplast the pigment chlorophyll along with other pigments is embedded in the membranes of the thylakoid. 3. Raw materials used in the process are CO 2, H 2 O, and Energy (fig. 8.1, p. 146) a. CO 2 enters the leaf by way of the stomates. b. Water enters the plant by way of root hairs, moves into the xylem and is carried to the leaf. c. The mesophyll tissue consisting of the palisade cells and the spongy layer cells is where photosynthesis takes place. d. Light energy is trapped by a pi electron in the chlorophyll molecule. 1) A photon of light activates an electron in the molecule. 2) Only wave lengths of the proper energy can do this. 3) Figure 8.6, p. 149 shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a.

2 4) Wave lengths are in the blue-violet and reds. 5) The fact that chlorophyll appears green indicates it does not absorb but instead reflects green light. 6) The electron absorbs so much energy that it leaves the chlorophyll molecule and can be accepted by another molecule (fig. 8.4, p. 148) 7) Fluorescence is the process in which an electron is excited, spins, and then returns to the chlorophyll molecule giving up the extra energy as light energy. -e- light energy photon --- -e- chlorophyll Figure 1. Diagrammatic representation of fluorescence 4. Photosynthesis results in light energy being transformed to chemical or bond energy. 5. Photosynthesis can be separated into two phases. a. Light phase, which occurs in the thylakoids. 1) Energy-rich molecules, ATP and NADPH + H +, are produced. 2) H 2 O is split by the process of photolysis. b. Dark phase that occurs in the stroma. 1) CO 2 is fixed. 2) CO 2 is reduced. O=C=O --- H-C-OH part of carbohydrate molecule B. LIGHT PHASE 1. The antenna complex consists of a closely connected web of chlorophyll molecules embedded in the thylakoid membrane (fig. 8.9, p. 151) a. Each photosystem includes an assembly of about 250 to 400 pigment molecules consisting of two closely linked components. 1) A reaction center protein-pigment complex. 2) An antenna protein complex. b. The antenna complex molecules can trap light photons of a particular wave length (energy) and pass the energy to a reaction center chlorophyll a molecule. c. When the reaction center chlorophyll molecule absorbs the energy from an antenna molecule, one of its electrons is activated, boosted to a higher energy level, and this activated electron is transferred to an acceptor molecule to initiate electron flow.

3 d. The chlorophyll a molecule is now oxidized and has an electron hole. 2. Cyclic photophosphorylation (fig. fig. 8.10, p. 152.) a. Photon hits electron in chlorophyll a 700. b. Electron is activated and is accepted by a primary acceptor. c. The electron is then passed along a chain of electron acceptors back to chlorophyll a 700. d. The energy from the electron is used to synthesize ATP. 3. Non-cyclic photophosphorylation (fig. 8.9, p. 151) a. 2 electrons from chlorophyll molecules end up in NADPH. b. Involves both photosystems II and I. c. Both ATP and NADPH are synthesized. d. Two electrons from H 2 O are passed to P 680 to P 700 to NADP + (fig. 8.9, p. 151) e. Takes 2 photons of light to raise electron from level in water to level in NADPH. 4. Remember that a reduced molecule contains more energy than an oxidized molecule; therefore, NADP + contains less energy than NADPH 5. Chemiosmosis is similar in the chloroplast and the mitochondrion (fig. 8.11, p. 153) a. In both H +, photons, are pumped through the membrane, thylakoid in the case of the chloroplast, creating a H + gradient. b. The thylakoid membrane is impermeable to protons. c. The protons must pass through the ATP synthase channel. d. This results in ADP being phosphorylated to ATP. Probably 1 ATP is synthesized for each 2 protons that pass through ATP synthase channel. ATPs formed in stroma. C. DARK PHASE OR LIGHT-INDEPENDENT PHASE. 1. Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. 2. Involves the Calvin cycle (fig. 8.13, p. 155)

4 a. C 5 molecule, ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate (RuBP) combines with CO 2 and H 2 O to form a C 6. Ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase, (RuBisCo), is the enzyme that catalyzes this reaction; may the most abundant protein on earth. b. C 6 molecule is split into 2 C 3 molecules, 3-phosphoglycerate, PGA. c. Use ATP and NADPH to reduce PGA to PGAL. 1) ATP used to make 2 molecules of 1,3 bisphosphoglyerate. 2) NADPH used to convert these molecules to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, PGAL 3. For every 6 molecules of PGAL produced, 5 go back into the cycle. There is a net gain of 1 PGAL for each 6 produced. a. Some of the net PGAL molecules can be used for energy. b. Some can be converted to glucose and other sugars. 4. C 4 pathway (fig. 8.17, p. 158) a. Is a method of concentrating CO 2 in one type of cell utilizing ATP energy. b. The fixed CO 2 is then pumped into another cell where it is fixed in the Calvin cycle. c. C 4 plants are good for hot, dry areas. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS OVER PHOTOSYNTHESIS I 1. What are the raw materials required for photosynthesis and what is their source? 2. What is the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis and how is this role accomplished? 3. Chlorophyll cannot absorb photons of which energies (wavelengths)? How do you know this? 4. Overall what type of chemical reaction occurs in converting CO 2 to its form in a carbohydrate H-C-OH? What type of energy exchange occurs? 5. What does the term photolysis mean? 6. How does what occurs in the dark phase of photosynthesis relate to what occurs in the light phase of photosynthesis? 7. Energy cannot be created or destroyed but only transferred or transformed. What occurs to energy during the process of photosynthesis?

5 CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS 1. Guard cells are the only cells in the plant's leaf epidermis that have chloroplasts. Explain the reason for this. (Not what is accomplished by this.) 2. The ribosomes in mitochondria are smaller than ribosomes in the cyotplasm of the cell. Attempt to explain the reason for this. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. Photosynthesis occurs in (A) plants (B) algae (C) some bacteria (D) some fungi (E) some of the preceding (F) three of the preceding (G) all the preceding. 2. Chloroplasts are located in the (A) thylakoids (B) stroma (C) both A and B. 3. Chlorophyll absorbs light in the (A) violet (B) yellow (C) red (D) two of the preceding (E) all the preceding. 4. Red light contains photons with (A) more (B) less (C) the same amount of energy as/than violet light. 5. In order for photosynthesis to occur (A) a pi electron must be activated in the chlorophyll molecule (B) an electron must escape from the chlorophyll molecule (C) an acceptor molecule must receive a high energy electron (D) two of the preceding (E) all the preceding. 6. The oxygen given off in the process of photosynthesis come from (A) CO 2 (B) H 2 O (C) both A and B (D) neither A or B. 7. The conversion of the carbon in CO 2 to its form in CH 2 O is (A) a reduction (B) an oxidation. 8. Photosynthesis is a process in which (A) organic molecules are converted into organic molecules (B) organic molecules are converted into inorganic molecules (C) inorganic molecules are converted into inorganic molecules (D) inorganic molecules are converted to organic molecules. 9. Chlorophyll serves the role of (A) trapping light energy (B) converting photon energy to electron energy (C) both A and B (D) neither A or B. 10. Fluorescence is the process in which (A) absorbed light is passed to an organic acceptor (B) light is reflected from the chlorophyll (C) absorbed light is reemitted (D) none of the preceding. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS OVER PHOTOSYNTHESIS II 1. ATP is produced during both cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation. What is the necessity for non-cyclic? 2. In non-cyclic photophosphorylation it takes 2 photons to raise an electron from water to NADP+. Explain the reason it takes two?

6 3. What does the term chemiosmosis mean? 4. We often refer to glucose as being produced during photosynthesis. Is glucose the actual end product of photosynthesis? Explain. 5. The net gain of PGAL molecules is 1 for every 6 produced. What happens to the other 5? 6. Can the dark phase of photosynthesis occur in the light? Explain. 7. What is the reason(s) that C 4 plants grow better in arid regions than C 3 plants do? CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS 1. NADPH contains more energy per molecule than ATP. What in the non-cyclic photophosporylation would suggest this to you? 2. Explain the reason that reducing carbon dioxide to its form in a carbohydrate results in a more energy-rich molecule. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. ATP is produced during (A) cyclic photophosphorylation (B) non-cyclic photophosphorylation (C) both A and B (D) neither A or B. 2. NADPH is produced during (A) cyclic photophosphorylation (B) non-cyclic photophosphorylation (C) both A and B (D) neither A or B. 3. The light phase of photosynthesis occurs in the (A) thylakoids (B) stroma (C) both A and B (D) neither A or B. 4. The dark phase of photosynthesis occurs in the (A) thylakoids (B) stroma (C) both A and B (D) neither A or B. 5. It takes the energy of (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four photons to raise an electron from its level in water to its level in NADPH. 6. In the light phase of photosynthesis, (A) energy rich molecules are produced (B) water is split (C) both A and B (D) neither A or B. 7. In the dark phase of photosynthesis, (A) carbon dioxide is fixed (B) carbon dioxide is oxidized (C) both A and B (D) neither A or B. 8. In order to change NADP+ to NADPH, (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four electrons is/are required. 9. For every six molecules of PGAL produced (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five (F) six go/goes back into the Calvin cycle. 10. Protons must pass through the ATP synthase channel from (A) stroma to disc (B) disc to stroma (C) either A or R.

Energy Conversions. Photosynthesis. Plants. Chloroplasts. Plant Pigments 10/13/2014. Chapter 10 Pg

Energy Conversions. Photosynthesis. Plants. Chloroplasts. Plant Pigments 10/13/2014. Chapter 10 Pg Energy Conversions Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Pg. 184 205 Life on Earth is solar-powered by autotrophs Autotrophs make their own food and have no need to consume other organisms. They are the ultimate source

More information

Photosynthesis in Detail. 3/19/2014 Averett

Photosynthesis in Detail. 3/19/2014 Averett Photosynthesis in Detail 1 In photosynthesis many chemical reactions, enzymes and ions work together in a precise order. Enzymes Biological catalyst Substance that initiates or speeds up the rate of a

More information

AP Biology. Chloroplasts: sites of photosynthesis in plants

AP Biology. Chloroplasts: sites of photosynthesis in plants The summary equation of photosynthesis including the source and fate of the reactants and products. How leaf and chloroplast anatomy relates to photosynthesis. How photosystems convert solar energy to

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Chapter 10

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Chapter 10 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 10 Modes of Nutrition Autotrophs self-feeders Capture free energy from physical sources in the environment Photosynthetic organisms = sunlight Chemosynthetic organisms = small inorganic

More information

Photosynthesis 05/03/2012 INTRODUCTION: Summary Reaction for Photosynthesis: CO 2 : H 2 O: chlorophyll:

Photosynthesis 05/03/2012 INTRODUCTION: Summary Reaction for Photosynthesis: CO 2 : H 2 O: chlorophyll: Photosynthesis INTRODUCTION: metabolic process occurring in green plants, algae, some protists and cyanobacteria Photosynthesis is an PROCESS (building organic molecules which store radiant energy as chemical

More information

LIGHT DEPENDENT & INDEPENDENT REACTIONS

LIGHT DEPENDENT & INDEPENDENT REACTIONS LIGHT DEPENDENT & INDEPENDENT REACTIONS Photosynthesis is a two stage process Light dependent reactions o requires DIRECT light energy omakes energy carrier molecules that are used in the dark reaction

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Chapter 10

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Chapter 10 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 10 Modes of Nutrition Autotrophs Capture from physical sources in the environment Photosynthetic organisms = sunlight Chemosynthetic organisms = small inorganic molecules (occurs

More information

THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Almost all plants are photosynthetic autotrophs, as are some bacteria and protists Autotrophs generate their own organic matter through photosynthesis Sunlight energy is transformed

More information

Lecture Series 13 Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun

Lecture Series 13 Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun Lecture Series 13 Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun A. Identifying Photosynthetic Reactants and Products B. The Two Pathways of Photosynthesis: An Overview C. Properties

More information

1. What is the source of the oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis? D. Both water and carbon dioxide (Total 1 mark)

1. What is the source of the oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis? D. Both water and carbon dioxide (Total 1 mark) 2.9 Photosynthesis Paper 1 Possible Mult Choice Questions 1. What is the source of the oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis? A. Chlorophyll B. Carbon dioxide only C. Water only D.

More information

AP Biology

AP Biology Chapter 10. Photosynthesis: Life from Light Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy Heterotrophs get their energy from eating others consumers of other organisms consume organic

More information

1. Plants and other autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere

1. Plants and other autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere 1. Plants and other autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere Photosynthesis nourishes almost all of the living world directly or indirectly. All organisms require organic compounds for energy and

More information

Photosynthesis (Outline)

Photosynthesis (Outline) Photosynthesis (Outline) 1. Overview of photosynthesis 2. Producers, consumers, and decomposers of the ecosystem (source of carbon and energy) 3. Plant structures: organ, tissue, cells, sub-cellular organelle,

More information

Ch. 10- Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air

Ch. 10- Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air Ch. 10- Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air 2007-2008 Ch. 10 Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air 2007-2008 Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy consumers Heterotrophs

More information

Where It Starts: Photosynthesis. Chapter 5

Where It Starts: Photosynthesis. Chapter 5 Where It Starts: Photosynthesis Chapter 5 Photosynthesis Metabolic Pathways Converts light energy to chemical energy. Photoautotrophs Organisms that can perform photosynthesis Cyanobacteria (prokaryotic-no

More information

Endosymbiotic Theory. p

Endosymbiotic Theory. p Endosymbiotic Theory p. 427-428 The Endosymbiotic Theory Review: What is a theory? What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? The endosymbiotic theory is the idea that a long time

More information

Photosynthesis. Chapter 10. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Photosynthesis. Chapter 10. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 10 Photosynthesis PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Copyright

More information

Photosynthesis (Chapter 7 Outline) A. For life based on organic compounds, two questions can be raised:

Photosynthesis (Chapter 7 Outline) A. For life based on organic compounds, two questions can be raised: Photosynthesis (Chapter 7 Outline) Sun, Rain, and Survival A. For life based on organic compounds, two questions can be raised: 1. Where does the carbon come from? 2. Where does the energy come from to

More information

6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Sunlight C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2

6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Sunlight C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Sunlight C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 Process Location Reactants (Starting) Products (Ending) Light Reactions Calvin Cycle Introduction to Photosynthesis Mrs. Meyer Target SWBAT describe the reactants

More information

Chapter 7. Introduction. Introduction. Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food. Plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes

Chapter 7. Introduction. Introduction. Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food. Plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes Chapter 7 hotosynthesis: Using to Make Food oweroint Lectures for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko Introduction lants,

More information

AP Biology. Warm-up. Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air. Energy needs of life. Energy needs of life. Objective: Warm-up:

AP Biology. Warm-up. Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air. Energy needs of life. Energy needs of life. Objective: Warm-up: Warm-up Objective: Explain how photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy. Warm-up: In the light reactions, what is the electron donor? Where do the electrons end up? 2006-2007 Photosynthesis:

More information

Photosynthesis Thursday, July 7, 2011

Photosynthesis Thursday, July 7, 2011 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis in Overview Process by which plants and other autotrophs store the energy of sunlight into sugars. Requires sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. Overall equation: 6 CO 2

More information

A. Structures of PS. Site of PS in plants: mostly in leaves in chloroplasts. Leaf cross section. Vein. Mesophyll CO 2 O 2. Stomata

A. Structures of PS. Site of PS in plants: mostly in leaves in chloroplasts. Leaf cross section. Vein. Mesophyll CO 2 O 2. Stomata PS Lecture Outline I. Introduction A. Structures B. Net Reaction II. Overview of PS A. Rxns in the chloroplast B. pigments III. Closer looks A. LD Rxns B. LI Rxns 1. non-cyclic e- flow 2. cyclic e- flow

More information

CHAPTER 13 : PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KV VIKASPURI II SHIFT

CHAPTER 13 : PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KV VIKASPURI II SHIFT CHAPTER 13 : PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KV VIKASPURI II SHIFT Photosynthesis is a Physic o chemical process, uses light energy to synthesis organic compounds (sugar). Importance

More information

Chapter 7 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis. Chapter 7: Photosynthesis. What is Photosynthesis?

Chapter 7 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis. Chapter 7: Photosynthesis. What is Photosynthesis? Chapter 7 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis What is Photosynthesis? Answer: The capture of sunlight energy and the subsequent storage of that energy in the chemical bonds (e.g., glucose) Chemical

More information

Chapter 10: PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Chapter 10: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 10: PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1. Overview of Photosynthesis 2. Light Absorption 3. The Light Reactions 4. The Calvin Cycle 1. Overview of Photosynthesis Chapter Reading pp. 185-190, 206-207 What is Photosynthesis?

More information

Photosynthesis. Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis

Photosynthesis. Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O Pigments

More information

Unit 4.2: Photosynthesis - Sugar as Food

Unit 4.2: Photosynthesis - Sugar as Food Unit 4.2: Photosynthesis - Sugar as Food Lesson Objectives Outline the stages of photosynthesis. Describe the chloroplast and its role in photosynthesis. List the steps of the light reactions. Describe

More information

The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH

The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH 10.2 - The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH Chloroplasts are solar-powered chemical factories The conversion of light energy into chemical energy occurs in the

More information

Photosynthesis. (in C 3 plants)

Photosynthesis. (in C 3 plants) Photosynthesis (in C 3 plants) WHAT DO I REMEMBER FROM GCSE ABOUT PHOTOSYNTHESIS? PS WS Photosynthesis uses sunlight energy to create complex organic compounds, initially glucose, from inorganic compounds.

More information

Complete the notes on photosynthesis in the spaces below.

Complete the notes on photosynthesis in the spaces below. Section: 3.2 Name: Opening Activity: What type of energy is absorbed by pigment molecules in plant cells to start photosynthesis? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: ATP then provides the energy

More information

Overview of Photosynthesis

Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Overview of Photosynthesis During photosynthesis, autotrophs/producers use the sun s energy to make carbohydrate molecules from water and carbon dioxide, releasing oxygen as a by-product

More information

Photosynthesis. Light-dependent Reactions

Photosynthesis. Light-dependent Reactions Photosynthesis Light-dependent Reactions video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hj_wkgnl 6MI&feature=related Overview Photosynthesis transforms the radiant energy from the sun into the chemical energy of

More information

The Life of a Cell. The Chemistry of Life. A View of the Cell. Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle. Energy in a Cell

The Life of a Cell. The Chemistry of Life. A View of the Cell. Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle. Energy in a Cell The Life of a Cell The Chemistry of Life A View of the Cell Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Energy in a Cell Chapter 9 Energy in a Cell 9.1: The Need for Energy 9.1: Section Check 9.2: Photosynthesis:

More information

Name 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light To Make Food Test Date Study Guide You must know: How photosystems convert solar energy to chemical energy.

Name 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light To Make Food Test Date Study Guide You must know: How photosystems convert solar energy to chemical energy. Name _ 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light To Make Food Test Date Study Guide You must know: How photosystems convert solar energy to chemical energy. How linear electron flow in the light reactions results

More information

light-dependent reactions (i.e., light reactions)

light-dependent reactions (i.e., light reactions) LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this lecture you will be able to: 1. Understand that ENERGY can be transformed from one form to another. 2. Know that energy exist in two forms; free energy - available

More information

Photosynthesis. From Sunlight to Sugar

Photosynthesis. From Sunlight to Sugar Photosynthesis From Sunlight to Sugar What is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars used as food for producers. The light energy is stored as chemical

More information

Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

Section 2 The Calvin Cycle Section 2 The Calvin Cycle Objectives Summarize the main events of the Calvin cycle. Describe what happens to the compounds that are made in the Calvin cycle. Distinguish between C 3, C 4, and CAM plants.

More information

Sunlight and Survival. Plants are photoautotrophs; they use sunlight and CO2 to produce sugar in the process of photosynthesis

Sunlight and Survival. Plants are photoautotrophs; they use sunlight and CO2 to produce sugar in the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis Sunlight and Survival Plants are photoautotrophs; they use sunlight and CO2 to produce sugar in the process of photosynthesis Energy From The Sun Many kinds of energy Wavelengths of visible

More information

Forms of stored energy in cells

Forms of stored energy in cells Forms of stored energy in cells Electrochemical gradients Covalent bonds (ATP) Reducing power (NADH) During photosynthesis, respiration and glycolysis these forms of energy are converted from one to another

More information

Photosynthesis in Nature

Photosynthesis in Nature PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis in Nature 1. Plants and other autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere 2. Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis in plants Introduction Life on Earth is solar powered.

More information

Photosynthesis Life Is Solar Powered!

Photosynthesis Life Is Solar Powered! Photosynthesis Life Is Solar Powered! What Would Plants Look Like On Alien Planets? 1 Why Would They Look Different? Different Stars Give off Different types of light or Electromagnetic Waves The color

More information

Concept 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food

Concept 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food Name Period Chapter 10: Photosynthesis This chapter is as challenging as the one you just finished on cellular respiration. However, conceptually it will be a little easier because the concepts learned

More information

Where It Starts - Photosynthesis

Where It Starts - Photosynthesis Where It Starts - Photosynthesis What Is Photosynthesis? The Rainbow Catchers Making ATP and NADPH Making Sugars Alternate Pathways What is Photosynthesis? Energy flow through ecosystems begins when photosynthesizers

More information

Light form the sun is composed of a range of wavelengths (colors). The visible spectrum to the left illustrates the wavelengths and associated color

Light form the sun is composed of a range of wavelengths (colors). The visible spectrum to the left illustrates the wavelengths and associated color Photosynthesis Englemann Experiment In 1883, Thomas Engelmann of Germany used a combination of aerobic bacteria and a filamentous alga to study the effect of various colors of the visible light spectrum

More information

AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Figure 7.0_ Chapter 7: Big Ideas An Overview of hotosynthesis The Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy AN OVERVIEW OF HOTOSYNTHESIS The : Reducing CO to Sugar hotosynthesis Reviewed and

More information

Ch. 10 Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle Life from Air

Ch. 10 Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle Life from Air Ch. 10 Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle Life from Air 2007-2008 Whoops! Wrong Calvin The Calvin Cycle 1950s 1961 Remember what it means to be a plant Need to produce all organic molecules necessary for

More information

Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle

Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle Whoops! Wrong Calvin 1950s 1961 Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle Remember what it means to be a plant Need to produce all organic molecules necessary for growth carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic

More information

Photosynthesis 1. Light Reactions and Photosynthetic Phosphorylation. Lecture 31. Key Concepts. Overview of photosynthesis and carbon fixation

Photosynthesis 1. Light Reactions and Photosynthetic Phosphorylation. Lecture 31. Key Concepts. Overview of photosynthesis and carbon fixation Photosynthesis 1 Light Reactions and Photosynthetic Phosphorylation Lecture 31 Key Concepts Overview of photosynthesis and carbon fixation Chlorophyll molecules convert light energy to redox energy The

More information

Active Learning Exercise 6. Photosynthesis

Active Learning Exercise 6. Photosynthesis Name Biol 211 - Group Number Active Learning Exercise 6. Photosynthesis Reference: Chapter 10 (Biology by Campbell/Reece, 8 th ed.) Note: See the last page of this ALE for a diagram that summarizes the

More information

Photosynthesis: Light reactions

Photosynthesis: Light reactions 5.21.08 Photosynthesis: Light reactions Reading Assignment: Chapter 14 Nice tutorial on photosynthesis http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol120/images/photosynthesis.asp Another decent site on photosynthesis

More information

Campbell Biology in Focus (Urry) Chapter 8 Photosynthesis. 8.1 Multiple-Choice Questions

Campbell Biology in Focus (Urry) Chapter 8 Photosynthesis. 8.1 Multiple-Choice Questions Campbell Biology in Focus (Urry) Chapter 8 Photosynthesis 8.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) In autotrophic bacteria, where is chlorophyll located? A) in chloroplast membranes B) in chloroplast stroma C)

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. AP Exam Chapters 9 and 10; Photosynthesis and Respiration Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released

More information

NOTES: CH 10, part 3 Calvin Cycle (10.3) & Alternative Mechanisms of C-Fixation (10.4)

NOTES: CH 10, part 3 Calvin Cycle (10.3) & Alternative Mechanisms of C-Fixation (10.4) NOTES: CH 10, part 3 Calvin Cycle (10.3) & Alternative Mechanisms of C-Fixation (10.4) 10.3 - The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO 2 to sugar The Calvin cycle, like the citric acid cycle,

More information

Chapter 6. Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis. Lectures by Gregory Ahearn. University of North Florida. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 6. Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis. Lectures by Gregory Ahearn. University of North Florida. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.1 What Is Photosynthesis? Life on earth depends on photosynthesis.

More information

Photosynthesis An Overview

Photosynthesis An Overview Photosynthesis Photosynthesis An Overview Living things get energy from food Food is broken down and energy is stored as ATP Heterotrophs have to consume other organisms for energy Autotrophs are able

More information

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Section 8-1 Notes Energy and Life Energy is the ability to do work. Living things depend on energy. Without the ability to obtain and use energy, life would cease to exist. Where does the energy that living

More information

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Lecture Outline Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Life on Earth is solar powered. The chloroplasts of plants use a process called photosynthesis to capture light

More information

Photosynthesis in Detail

Photosynthesis in Detail 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail KEY CONCEPT Photosynthesis requires a series of chemical reactions. MAIN IDEAS The first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy. The second stage of photosynthesis

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: A BRIEF STORY!!!!!

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: A BRIEF STORY!!!!! PHOTOSYNTHESIS: A BRIEF STORY!!!!! This is one of the most important biochemical processes in plants and is amongst the most expensive biochemical processes in plant in terms of investment. Photosynthesis

More information

Chapter 7 AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Introduction. Introduction. Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food. Plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes

Chapter 7 AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Introduction. Introduction. Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food. Plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes Chapter 7 hotosynthesis: Using to Make Food Introduction lants, algae, and certain prokaryotes convert light energy to chemical energy and store the chemical energy in sugar, made from carbon dioxide and

More information

Cellular Energy. How Organisms Obtain Energy Section 2: Photosynthesis Section 3: Cellular Respiration. Click on a lesson name to select.

Cellular Energy. How Organisms Obtain Energy Section 2: Photosynthesis Section 3: Cellular Respiration. Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy Section 2: Photosynthesis Section 3: Cellular Respiration Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Transformation of Energy Energy

More information

Cyanide (CN) blocks transfer of H. to oxygen Jim Jones, millipedes

Cyanide (CN) blocks transfer of H. to oxygen Jim Jones, millipedes Respiratory Poisons Cyanide (CN) blocks transfer of H. to oxygen Jim Jones, millipedes DNP (dinitrophenol) makes inner mt membrane leak H + short circuits oxidative phosphorylation diet pills and bug poison

More information

Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules

Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules OpenStax-CNX module: m44449 1 Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the

More information

Chapter 8 Assessment (Take Home) AP Biology

Chapter 8 Assessment (Take Home) AP Biology Chapter 8 Assessment (Take Home) AP Biology 1) In autotrophic bacteria, where is chlorophyll located? A) in chloroplast membranes B) in chloroplast stroma C) in the ribosomes D) in the nucleoid E) in the

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Photosynthesis Unit Objective I can compare the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy flow, reactants, and products. During this

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Outer Glycolysis mitochondrial membrane Glucose ATP

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Outer Glycolysis mitochondrial membrane Glucose ATP Fig. 7.5 uter Glycolysis mitochondrial membrane Glucose Intermembrane space xidation Mitochondrial matrix Acetyl-oA Krebs FAD e NAD + FAD Inner mitochondrial membrane e Electron e Transport hain hemiosmosis

More information

1 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants https://biologyaipmt.com/

1 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants https://biologyaipmt.com/ 1 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants https://biologyaipmt.com/ CHAPTER 13 PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS Green plants carry out 'photosynthesis', a physico-chemical process by which they use light energy

More information

METABOLISM. What is metabolism? Categories of metabolic reactions. Total of all chemical reactions occurring within the body

METABOLISM. What is metabolism? Categories of metabolic reactions. Total of all chemical reactions occurring within the body METABOLISM What is metabolism? METABOLISM Total of all chemical reactions occurring within the body Categories of metabolic reactions Catabolic reactions Degradation pathways Anabolic reactions Synthesis

More information

8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis. 8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis

8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis. 8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis 8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis 8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis Light-Dependent Reactions: ATP and NADPH The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoids of chloroplasts. Light-Dependent

More information

DAY 1 Leaf Structure

DAY 1 Leaf Structure DAY 1 Leaf Structure Design a Leaf!! What would be the best structure for a leaf to carry out its major function PHOTOSYNTHESIS!!!??? Place the following in order from the top of the leaf to the bottom.

More information

CO 7. Cell Process Photosynthesis

CO 7. Cell Process Photosynthesis CO 7 Cell Process Photosynthesis Cell Process - Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is used to build carbohydrates (the main energy source of all life.) - - Producers (like plants) use carbon dioxide and water

More information

4.3. Photosynthesis in Detail. The first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy.

4.3. Photosynthesis in Detail. The first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy. 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail VOCABULARY photosystem electron transport chain ATP synthase Calvin cycle Key Concept Photosynthesis requires a series of chemical reactions. MAIN IDEAS The first stage of

More information

Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food

Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food Chapter 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food Lectures by Chris C. Romero, updated by Edward J. Zalisko 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Essential Biology, Fourth Edition

More information

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis Name: KEY Class: Date Chapter 8: Photosynthesis Section 8-1 Energy and Life (pages 201-203) Autotrophs and Heterotrophs (page 201) 1. Where does the energy of food originally come from? The sun, plants

More information

Chapter 7. Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food. Lectures by Edward J. Zalisko

Chapter 7. Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food. Lectures by Edward J. Zalisko Chapter 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Essential Biology, Fifth Edition, and Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, Fourth Edition Eric J. Simon, Jean

More information

Outcome: Explain the process of photosynthesis.

Outcome: Explain the process of photosynthesis. Outcome: Explain the process of photosynthesis. Warm-up: 1. Compare the two types of cells. Give examples for each. 2. Using double bubble map, differentiate plants and animal cells. 3. What organelles

More information

Look at all the living things that surround you the trees, your

Look at all the living things that surround you the trees, your 9 Photosynthesis: apturing Energy Photosynthesis. These blue lupines (Lupinus hirsutus) and the trees behind them use light energy to power the processes that incorporate O 2 into organic molecules. This

More information

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Test

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Test Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Test 1. When bonds are made energy is, when bonds are broken energy is. A. stored / released C. released / stored B. used / not used D. created / destroyed 2. Aerobic

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Practice Test Name

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Practice Test Name Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Practice Test Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which H+ has just passed through the

More information

1/25/2018. Bio 1101 Lec. 5, Part A Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration

1/25/2018. Bio 1101 Lec. 5, Part A Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration 1 2 3 4 5 Bio 1101 Lec. 5, Part A Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration Energy is needed by cells to do work Chemical energy, a form of potential energy, is stored in bonds of food molecules (such as glucose)

More information

CELLULAR ENERGETICS PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUMMARY EQUATION SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- PLANTS. Cellular Energetics Activity #4 page 1

CELLULAR ENERGETICS PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUMMARY EQUATION SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- PLANTS. Cellular Energetics Activity #4 page 1 Cellular Energetics Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY NAME CELLULAR ENERGETICS ACTIVITY #4 DATE HOUR PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUMMARY EQUATION SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- PLANTS Cellular Energetics Activity #4 page 2

More information

2015 Biology Unit #3 Quiz 1 Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Week of November

2015 Biology Unit #3 Quiz 1 Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Week of November Name: Class: Date: 2015 Biology Unit #3 Quiz 1 Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Week of 02-09 November 1 Which of the following statements is true for all cells? a They use solar energy

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration What you will learn: GPS Standard SB3a Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. IN OTHER WORDS Photosynthesis and Cellular

More information

Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Class/Homework

Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Class/Homework 2011 Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Class/Homework Chapter 8 Vocabulary 8.1 Term Definition Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Autotroph Heterotroph Photosynthesis Compound that cells use to store and release energy

More information

Photosyntheis; Summary of what you need to know. Photosynthesis is simply the process by which organisms convert solar energy to chemical energy

Photosyntheis; Summary of what you need to know. Photosynthesis is simply the process by which organisms convert solar energy to chemical energy Photosyntheis; Summary of what you need to know. Understand the various forms of potential energy utilized in the photosynthetic and respiration processes; Describe the similarities and differences between

More information

ATP. Pentose Sugar (ribose) 3 phosphate groups. adenine. Does this structure look familiar?

ATP. Pentose Sugar (ribose) 3 phosphate groups. adenine. Does this structure look familiar? Photosynthesis The Big Picture Photosynthesis and Respiration work together in plants to make energy for the plant they are autotrophs Animals only use cellular respiration why? They are heterotrophs!

More information

Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Photosynthesis the process

Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Photosynthesis the process GRADE 11 LIFE SCIENCES SESSION 1: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: process of photosynthesis using words and symbols: importance of

More information

Chapter 8.1. How Organisms Obtain Energy

Chapter 8.1. How Organisms Obtain Energy Chapter 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy Main Idea All living organisms use energy to carry out all biological processes. Energy Energy is the ability to do work. Quick Review: Heterotrophs are organisms

More information

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis BIOLOGY I Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Evelyn I. Milian Instructor 2012 Evelyn I. Milian - Instructor 2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Definition A series of chemical reactions in which the energy of sun light is used

More information

Unit 3: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Unit 3: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Unit 3: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Monday/Tuesday Wednesday/Thursday Friday Bell Ringer Answer Daily Goal HOMEWORK Bell Ringer Answer Monday/Tuesday Wednesday/Thursday Friday Daily Goal HOMEWORK

More information

CELLULAR ENERGETICS PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUMMARY EQUATION SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- PLANTS. Cellular Energetics Activity #4 page 1

CELLULAR ENERGETICS PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUMMARY EQUATION SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- PLANTS. Cellular Energetics Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY CELLULAR ENERGETICS ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUMMARY EQUATION SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- PLANTS Cellular Energetics Activity #4 page 1 SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS PROKARYOTES STRUCTURE

More information

In Cellular Respiration, are removed from sugar and transferred to

In Cellular Respiration, are removed from sugar and transferred to 1 2 3 4 5 Bio 1101 Lec. 5, Part A (Guided Notes) Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration Energy is needed by cells to do work Chemical energy, a form of potential energy, is stored in bonds of food molecules (such

More information

10 Identify the stroma. A A B B C C D D E E. 11 Identify a thylakoid. A A B B C C D D E E. 12 Where does the Calvin cycle occur? A A B B C C D D E E

10 Identify the stroma. A A B B C C D D E E. 11 Identify a thylakoid. A A B B C C D D E E. 12 Where does the Calvin cycle occur? A A B B C C D D E E Unit 4 Review 1 elow is an absorption spectrum for an unknown pigment molecule. What color would this pigment appear to you? red blue green violet yellow 2 In green plants, most of the TP for synthesis

More information

2/6/2011. Essentials of Biology. 6.1 Overview of Photosynthesis. Investigating Photosynthesis

2/6/2011. Essentials of Biology. 6.1 Overview of Photosynthesis. Investigating Photosynthesis Investigating Photosynthesis Essentials of Biology Sylvia S. Mader One of the first questions. When a tiny seedling grows into a tall tree with a mass of several tons, where does all that mass come from?

More information

Photolysis of water During the photolysis of water, photons of split water forming oxygen gas (O 2 ), (hydrogen ions or protons) and.

Photolysis of water During the photolysis of water, photons of split water forming oxygen gas (O 2 ), (hydrogen ions or protons) and. A2 Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis: ATP; thylakoid; energy; Pi; electrons; grana; reduce; electron; water; chlorophyll; transport; oxidising; carriers; ADP; oxygen; NADP; light; H + ; The light

More information

X Biology I. Unit 1-4: Cellular Energy

X Biology I. Unit 1-4: Cellular Energy NOTE/STUDY GUIDE: Unit 1-4, Cellular Energy X Biology I, Mr. Doc Miller, M.Ed. North Central High School Name: ID#: NORTH CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL NOTE & STUDY GUIDE X Biology I Unit 1-4: Cellular Energy Additional

More information

In cell respiration, as in photosynthesis (see Topic 8.2),

In cell respiration, as in photosynthesis (see Topic 8.2), Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis Cell respiration and photosynthesis 8.1 Cell respiration 8.2 Photosynthesis 8 8.1 Cell respiration 8.1.1 State that oxidation involves the loss of electrons from an

More information

Photosynthesis. Chapter 10. Active Lecture Questions for use with Classroom Response Systems Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Photosynthesis. Chapter 10. Active Lecture Questions for use with Classroom Response Systems Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Active Lecture Questions for use with Classroom Response Systems Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Edited by William Wischusen, Louisiana State University

More information

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Biochemical processes are the chemical processes that occur in all living things. Two of these processes are Cellular Respiration and. Photosynthesis They are both

More information