Harvesting energy: photosynthesis & cellular respiration part 1

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1 Harvesting energy: photosynthesis & cellular respiration part 1

2 Agenda I. Overview (Big Pictures) of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration II. Making Glucose - Photosynthesis III. Making ATP - Cellular Respiration Aerobic Anaerobic

3 I. Overview Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Both processes are essential for life! Both processes use and produce energy just in different forms The products of photosynthesis are used as the reactants for cellular respiration linking producers and consumers!

4 I. Overview of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis The Big Picture The transformation of carbon dioxide and water using light energy to create stored chemical energy (glucose) photo part: light energy is captured & turned into ATP synthesis part: ATP fuels the production of sugar (glucose)

5 I. Overview of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration The Photosynthesis Summary Reaction

6 I. Overview of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration The Big Picture Using the bond energy within food and the power of oxygen to make cellular energy ATP! Cellular takes place within all cells (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) Respiration the exchange of gases CO 2 out, O 2 in!

7 I. Cellular Respiration the big picture Summary Reaction

8 I. Overview of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

9 II. Making Glucose - Photosynthesis Plants as well as some bacteria and protists are the only organisms that photosynthesize they are photoautotrophs meaning they produce their own food using light energy (photons). They take light energy and turn it into glucose some for their own cellular respiration requirement so they can produce ATP. and some glucose is also converted into fructose, starch and cellulose, for storage and structure respectively. these products can then be consumed by heterotrophs (organisms that must consume other organisms to gain nutrition)

10 II. Making Glucose - Photosynthesis First Some photosynthetic structures eukaryotic photoautotrophic cells are found primarily in leaves of green plants located in the mesophyll gas exchange occurs through small openings called stomata

11 II. Making Glucose - Photosynthesis Second in order for photosynthesis to occur, plants must have energy absorbing pigments these are in the thylakoid membranes within the chloroplast!» Chlorophyll a and b are the main pigments that are used by photosynthetic organisms to absorb the light energy. o wavelengths that are not absorbed either pass through (transmitted) or reflected What type of energy is light energy? Potential or Kinetic

12 II. Making Glucose - Photosynthesis Chloroplasts have two parts thylakoids: a stack of interconnected membranes where the photo happens; the conversion of light energy into ATP stroma: the fluid surrounding the thylakoids where the synthesis happens; the production of sugar

13 II. Making Glucose - Photosynthesis Third: The Two Stage Process The light dependent reaction (the photo part) converts solar energy into ATP (what is it for?) takes place in the thylakoid membrane releases oxygen from hydrolysis of water The Calvin cycle (the synthesis part) uses energy from ATP from light dependent reaction to synthesize sugar molecules from CO 2 takes place in the stroma

14 II. Making Glucose Photosynthesis The Light-Dependent Reactions 1. Photon hits molecule of chlorophyll in the photosystem integral membrane protein & pigment complex. 2. Energy of the photon causes an e - to become excited 3. Excited e - is transferred along chlorophyll molecules until it reaches the primary electron acceptor in the reaction center of the photosystem the e - is replaced by the hydrolysis of water releases 2 e - & so can replace 2 e - that chlorophylls lost.

15 II. Making Glucose Photosynthesis The Light-Dependent Reactions 4. The e- from the reaction center are then transferred to a series of membrane proteins (in the thylakoid membrane) as the e- travels from one protein to the next, hydrogen ions (H + ) are pumped from the stroma to the thylakoid space against the normal concentration gradient for H + which means?

16 II. Making Glucose Photosynthesis The Light-Dependent Reactions 5. The e- after passing through the electron transport chain is passed to another photosystem (photosystem I) here the e - is again excited by photons striking the chlorophyll molecules the e- is again passed to membrane proteins that creates an energy carrying molecule called NADPH by combining a H + and NADP + this energy carrier can now be used in the synthesize of glucose! along with ATP.

17 II. Making Glucose Photosynthesis The Light-Dependent Reactions 6. The H + gradient that was created by the splitting of water and the electron transport chain can now be used! H + is allowed to travel down its concentration gradient BUT the only way to do this is through a large protein complex called ATP synthase ATP synthase is able to capture the energy in the H+ traveling down their gradient and uses it to attach a Phosphate onto a molecule of Adenosine Diphosphate creating Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)!

18 The Light- Dependent Reactions Summary

19 II. Making Glucose - Photosynthesis The Synthesis: A series of chemical reactions called the Calvin cycle Uses energy stored in ATP & NADPH molecules from photo part to make glucose and then other molecules fructose fatty acids amino acids Three major events occur that happen in the stroma of chloroplast 1. Fixation 2. Reduction 3. Regeneration

20 II. Making Glucose - Photosynthesis Events of Calvin Cycle within the stroma of the chlorplast 1. Carbon Fixation a. carbon dioxide is fixed into an organic molecule (RuBP ribulose bisphosphate) by the enzyme RuBisCO b. this forms a six carbon molecule which is immediately split into two 3 carbon molecules called 3-PGA 2. Reduction a. ATP & NADPH release their energy and convert the 3-PGA into GEP b. called reduction because the molecules gained electrons the spent ADP and NADP + are re-used again in the light dependent reaction 3. Regeneration a. one of the G3P molecules leaves the Calvin cycle to eventually be synthesized into a glucose molecule b. The remaining 5 G3P molecules are regenerated into the RUBP molecules Calvin s cycle must cycle 6 times to get enough carbon to make 1 glucose

21 You should be able to answer these questions... What is the balanced formula for photosynthesis? Where does the CO 2 come from? How does it get into the plant? What absorbs the light? How does light energy become chemical energy? What about the H 2 O? Why is O 2 made? What is it for? How is the sugar made? What is the sugar for?

22 What s the big deal? Why do we care? Why do we care at a level of even more detail? What are the biological impacts of reduced levels of photosynthesis in the biosphere?

23 Next Time cellular respiration

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