Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air

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1 Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air

2 Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy consumers producers Heterotrophs (Animals) get their energy from eating others eat food = other organisms = organic molecules make energy through respiration Autotrophs (Plants) produce their own energy (from self ) convert energy of sunlight build organic molecules (CHO) from CO 2 make energy & synthesize sugars through photosynthesis

3 How are they connected? Heterotrophs making energy & organic molecules from ingesting organic molecules glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP oxidation = exergonic Autotrophs making energy & organic molecules from light energy carbon dioxide + water + energy glucose + oxygen 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2 reduction = endergonic Where s the ATP?

4 What does it mean to be a plant Need to collect light energy transform it into chemical energy store light energy in a stable form to be moved around glucose the plant or stored need to get building block atoms from the environment C,H,O,N,P,K,S,Mg produce all organic molecules needed for growth ATP CO 2 N K P carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids H 2 O

5 Plant structure Obtaining raw materials sunlight leaves = solar collectors CO 2 stomates = gas exchange H 2 O uptake from roots nutrients N, P, K, S, Mg, Fe uptake from roots

6 stomate transpiration gas exchange

7 leaves Chloroplasts cross section of leaf absorb sunlight & CO 2 CO 2 chloroplasts in plant cell chloroplast chloroplasts contain chlorophyll make energy & sugar

8 Plant structure Chloroplasts double membrane stroma fluid-filled interior thylakoid sacs grana stacks Thylakoid membrane contains chlorophyll molecules electron transport chain ATP synthase gradient built up within thylakoid sac chloroplast stroma ATP H+ H+ H+ outer membrane thylakoid granum H+ thylakoid inner membrane

9 Photosynthesis Light reactions light-dependent reactions energy conversion reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy ATP & NADPH Calvin cycle light-independent reactions sugar building reactions It s not the Dark Reactions! uses chemical energy (ATP & NADPH) to reduce CO 2 & synthesize C 6 H 12 O 6

10 Light reactions Electron Transport Chain like in cellular respiration proteins in organelle membrane electron acceptors NADPH proton ( ) gradient across inner membrane find the double membrane! ATP synthase enzyme chloroplast ATP H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ thylakoid

11 ETC of Respiration Mitochondria transfer chemical energy from food molecules into chemical energy of ATP use electron carrier NADH generates H 2 O

12 ETC of Photosynthesis Chloroplasts transform light energy into chemical energy of ATP use electron carrier NADPH generates O 2

13 The ATP that Jack built photosynthesis respiration sunlight breakdown of C 6 H 12 O 6 moves the electrons runs the pump pumps the protons builds the gradient drives the flow of protons through ATP synthase bonds P i to ADP generates the ATP ADP + P i ATP that evolution built

14 Pigments of photosynthesis Chlorophylls & other pigments embedded in thylakoid membrane arranged in a photosystem collection of molecules structure-function relationship How does this molecular structure fit its function?

15 A Look at Light The spectrum of color V I B G Y O R

16 Light: absorption spectra Photosynthesis gets energy by absorbing wavelengths of light chlorophyll a absorbs best in red & blue wavelengths & least in green accessory pigments with different structures absorb light of different wavelengths chlorophyll b, carotenoids, xanthophylls Why are plants green?

17 Photosystems of photosynthesis 2 photosystems in thylakoid membrane collections of chlorophyll molecules act as light-gathering molecules Photosystem II reaction chlorophyll a center P 680 = absorbs 680nm wavelength red light Photosystem I chlorophyll b P 700 = absorbs 700nm wavelength red light antenna pigments

18 chlorophyll a Photosystem II ETC of Photosynthesis chlorophyll b Photosystem I

19 ETC of Photosynthesis sun 1 e Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a

20 Inhale, baby! ETC of Photosynthesis chloroplast H+ H+ H+ thylakoid ATP H+ H+ H+ Plants SPLIT water! 2 1 e O H O H H H e e fill the e vacancy e - e - +H Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a

21 ETC of Photosynthesis chloroplast H+ H+ H+ thylakoid ATP H+ H+ H+ 2 1 e 3 4 ATP to Calvin Cycle energy to build carbohydrates Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a ATP ADP + P i

22 ETC of Photosynthesis e sun 5 e e Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a Photosystem I P700 chlorophyll b

23 ETC of Photosynthesis electron carrier e 6 5 sun Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a Photosystem I P700 chlorophyll b $$ in the bank reducing power!

24 ETC of Photosynthesis sun sun split H 2 O O H + H H+ + to Calvin Cycle ATP

25 ETC of Photosynthesis ETC uses light energy to produce ATP & NADPH go to Calvin cycle PS II absorbs light excited electron passes from chlorophyll to primary electron acceptor need to replace electron in chlorophyll enzyme extracts electrons from H 2 O & supplies them to chlorophyll splits H 2 O O combines with another O to form O 2 O 2 released to atmosphere and we breathe easier!

26 Experimental evidence Where did the O 2 come from? radioactive tracer = O 18 Experiment 1 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2 Experiment 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2 Proved O 2 came from H 2 O not CO 2 = plants split H 2 O!

27 Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Light reactions elevate electrons in 2 steps (PS II & PS I) PS II generates energy as ATP PS I generates reducing power as NADPH ATP

28 Cyclic photophosphorylation If PS I can t pass electron to NADP it cycles back to PS II & makes more ATP, but no NADPH coordinates light reactions to Calvin cycle Calvin cycle uses more ATP than NADPH ATP 18 ATP + 12 NADPH 1 C 6 H 12 O 6

29 Photophosphorylation cyclic photophosphorylation NADP NONcyclic photophosphorylation ATP

30 Photosynthesis summary Where did the energy come from? Where did the electrons come from? Where did the H 2 O come from? Where did the O 2 come from? Where did the O 2 go? Where did the come from? Where did the ATP come from? What will the ATP be used for? Where did the NADPH come from? What will the NADPH be used for? stay tuned for the Calvin cycle

31 Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle Life from Air

32 Whoops! Wrong Calvin The Calvin Cycle 1950s 1961

33 Remember what it means to be a plant Need to produce all organic molecules necessary for growth carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Need to store chemical energy (ATP) produced from light reactions in a more stable form that can be moved around plant saved for a rainy day carbon + water + energy glucose + oxygen dioxide 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2

34 Light reactions Convert solar energy to chemical energy ATP energy ATP NADPH reducing power What can we do now? build stuff!! photosynthesis

35 How is that helpful? Want to make C 6 H 12 O 6 synthesis How? From what? What raw materials are available? CO 2 carbon fixation NADPH NADP reduces CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 NADP

36 From CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 has very little chemical energy fully oxidized C 6 H 12 O 6 contains a lot of chemical energy highly reduced Synthesis = endergonic process put in a lot of energy Reduction of CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 proceeds in many small uphill steps each catalyzed by a specific enzyme using energy stored in ATP & NADPH

37 From Light reactions to Calvin cycle Calvin cycle chloroplast stroma Need products of light reactions to drive synthesis reactions ATP NADPH stroma ATP thylakoid

38 starch, sucrose, cellulose & more C C C = = Calvin cycle 3. Regeneration of RuBP RuBP 5C ribulose bisphosphate 3 ATP 3 ADP used to make glucose C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H C C C C C C C C C H H H C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 5C 3C 6 NADP 2. Reduction C 1C CO 2 RuBisCo ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase glyceraldehyde-3-p G3P PGA C C C phosphoglycerate 1. Carbon fixation 3C 6 ATP 6 NADPH 6 ADP C 3C C 6C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

39 Remember G3P? glycolysis glucose C-C-C-C-C-C fructose-1,6bp P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 2 ATP ADP DHAP P-C-C-C G3P C-C-C-P glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 2 2 NAD + 4 ADP Photosynthesis pyruvate C-C-C 4 ATP

40 To G3P and Beyond! To G3P and beyond! Glyceraldehyde-3-P end product of Calvin cycle energy rich 3 carbon sugar C3 photosynthesis G3P is an important intermediate G3P glucose carbohydrates lipids phospholipids, fats, waxes amino acids proteins nucleic acids DNA, RNA

41 RuBisCo Enzyme which fixes carbon from air ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase the most important enzyme in the world! it makes life out of air! definitely the most abundant enzyme I m green with envy! It s not easy being green!

42 Accounting The accounting is complicated 3 turns of Calvin cycle = 1 G3P 3 CO 2 1 G3P (3C) 6 turns of Calvin cycle = 1 C 6 H 12 O 6 (6C) 6 CO 2 1 C 6 H 12 O 6 (6C) 18 ATP + 12 NADPH 1 C 6 H 12 O 6 any ATP left over from light reactions will be used elsewhere by the cell

43 Photosynthesis summary Light reactions produced ATP produced NADPH consumed H 2 O produced O 2 as byproduct Calvin cycle consumed CO 2 produced G3P (sugar) regenerated ADP regenerated NADP ADP NADP

44 Light Reactions H 2 O + light ATP O energy + NADP 2 sunlight H 2 O Energy Building Reactions NADPH ATP produces ATP produces NADPH releases O 2 as a waste product O 2

45 Calvin Cycle CO 2 + ATP + NADPH C 6 H 12 O 6 + ADP + NADP ADP NADP NADPH ATP CO 2 Sugar Building Reactions builds sugars uses ATP & NADPH recycles ADP & NADP back to make more ATP & NADPH sugars

46 Putting it all together CO 2 + H 2 O + energy light C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 sunlight H 2 O Energy Building Reactions ADP NADP NADPH CO 2 Sugar Building Reactions Plants make both: energy ATP & NADPH sugars ATP O 2 sugars

47 Energy cycle sun even though this equation is a bit of a lie it makes a better story CO 2 H 2 O Photosynthesis CO + 2 H 2 O + energy light C 6 H 12 O + 6 O 2 plants animals, plants ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 energy + CO 2 + H 2 O Cellular Respiration glucose O 2 The Great Circle of Life,Mufasa! ATP

48 Summary of photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2 Where did the CO 2 come from? Where did the CO 2 go? Where did the H 2 O come from? Where did the H 2 O go? Where did the energy come from? What s the energy used for? What will the C 6 H 12 O 6 be used for? Where did the O 2 come from? Where will the O 2 go?

49 Supporting a biosphere On global scale, photosynthesis is the most important process for the continuation of life on Earth each year photosynthesis captures 121 billion tons of CO 2 synthesizes 160 billion tons of carbohydrate heterotrophs are dependent on plants as food source for fuel & raw materials

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