The Life of a Cell. The Chemistry of Life. A View of the Cell. Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle. Energy in a Cell

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1 The Life of a Cell The Chemistry of Life A View of the Cell Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Energy in a Cell

2 Chapter 9 Energy in a Cell 9.1: The Need for Energy 9.1: Section Check 9.2: Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun s Energy 9.2: Section Check 9.3: Getting Energy to Make ATP 9.3: Section Check Chapter 9 Summary Chapter 9 Assessment

3 What You ll Learn You will recognize why organisms need a constant supply of energy and where that energy comes from. You will identify how cells store and release energy as ATP. You will describe the pathways by which cells obtain energy.

4 What You ll Learn You will compare ATP production in mitochondria and in chloroplasts.

5 Section Objectives: Explain why organisms need a supply of energy. Describe how energy is stored and released by ATP.

6 Cell Energy All living organisms must be able to obtain energy from the environment in which they live. Plants and other green organisms are able to trap the light energy in sunlight and store it in the bonds of certain molecules for later use.

7 Cell Energy Other organisms cannot use sunlight directly. They eat green plants. In that way, they obtain the energy stored in plants.

8 Work and the need for energy Active transport, cell division, movement of flagella or cilia, and the production, transport, and storage of proteins are some examples of cell processes that require energy. There is a molecule in your cells that is a quick source of energy for any organelle in the cell that needs it.

9 Work and the need for energy The name of this energy molecule is adenosine triphosphate or ATP for short. ATP is composed of an adenosine molecule with three phosphate groups attached.

10 Forming and Breaking Down ATP The charged phosphate groups act like the positive poles of two magnets. Bonding three phosphate groups to form adenosine triphosphate requires considerable energy.

11 Forming and Breaking Down ATP When only one phosphate group bonds, a small amount of energy is required and the chemical bond does not store much energy. This molecule is called adenosine monophosphate (AMP). When a second phosphate group is added, more energy is required to force the two groups together. This molecule is called adenosine diphosphate, or ADP.

12 Forming and Breaking Down ATP An even greater amount of energy is required to force a third charged phosphate group close enough to the other two to form a bond. When this bond is broken, energy is released.

13 Forming and Breaking Down ATP The energy of ATP becomes available to a cell when the molecule is broken down. Adenosine P P P Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) P Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine P P P

14 How cells tap into the energy stored in ATP When ATP is broken down and the energy is released, the energy must be captured and used efficiently by cells. Many proteins have a specific site where ATP can bind.

15 How cells tap into the energy stored in ATP Then, when the phosphate bond is broken and the energy released, the cell can use the energy for activities such as making a protein or transporting molecules through the plasma membrane. ATP Protein P Energy ADP ADP

16 How cells tap into the energy stored in ATP When ATP has been broken down to ADP, the ADP is released from the binding site in the protein and the binding site may then be filled by another ATP molecule.

17 This protein molecule has a specific binding site for ATP. In order to access the energy stored ATP, the protein molecule binds the ATP and uncouples one phosphate group. This action releases energy that is then available to the cell. ATP Protein P Energy ADP ADP

18 Section Objectives: Relate the structure of chloroplasts to the events in photosynthesis. Describe light-dependent reactions. Explain the reactions and products of the light-independent Calvin cycle.

19 Trapping Energy from Sunlight The process that uses the sun s energy to make simple sugars is called photosynthesis.

20 Trapping Energy from Sunlight Photosynthesis happens in two phases. 1. The light-dependent reactions convert light energy into chemical energy. 2. The molecules of ATP produced in the lightdependent reactions are then used to fuel the light-independent reactions that produce simple sugars. The general equation for photosynthesis is written as 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

21 Trapping Energy from Sunlight Click image to view movie.

22 The chloroplast and pigments To trap the energy in the sun s light, the thylakoid membranes contain pigments, molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of sunlight. Although a photosystem contains several kinds of pigments, the most common is chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs most wavelengths of light except green.

23 Light-Dependent Reactions As sunlight strikes the chlorophyll molecules in a photosystem of the thylakoid membrane, the energy in the light is transferred to electrons. These highly energized, or excited, electrons are passed from chlorophyll to an electron transport chain, a series of proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane.

24 Light-Dependent Reactions At each step along the transport chain, the electrons lose energy. Sun Light energy transfers to chlorophyll. Chlorophyll passes energy down through the electron transport chain. Energized electrons provide energy that splits H 2 O H + NADP + oxygen released bondsp to ADP forming ATP NADPH for the use in light-independent reactions

25 Light-Dependent Reactions This lost energy can be used to form ATP from ADP, or to pump hydrogen ions into the center of the thylakoid disc. Electrons are re-energized in a second photosystem and passed down a second electron transport chain.

26 Light-Dependent Reactions The electrons are transferred to the stroma of the chloroplast. To do this, an electron carrier molecule called NADP is used. NADP can combine with two excited electrons and a hydrogen ion (H + ) to become NADPH. NADPH will play an important role in the light-independent reactions.

27 Restoring electrons To replace the lost electrons, molecules of water are split in the first photosystem. This reaction is called photolysis. Sun Chlorophyll 1 _ O2 + 2H + 2 H 2 O 2Η _ 1 O 2 + 2e - 2e - H 2 O

28 Restoring electrons The oxygen produced by photolysis is released into the air and supplies the oxygen we breathe. The electrons are returned to chlorophyll. The hydrogen ions are pumped into the thylakoid, where they accumulate in high concentration.

29 The Calvin Cycle

30 The Calvin Cycle Carbon fixation The carbon atom from CO 2 bonds with a five-carbon sugar called ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) to form an unstable sixcarbon sugar. (CO 2 ) The stroma in chloroplasts hosts the Calvin cycle. (RuBP)

31 The Calvin Cycle Formation of 3- carbon molecules The six-carbon sugar formed in Step A immediately splits to form two three-carbon molecules. (Unstable intermediate)

32 The Calvin Cycle Use of ATP and NADPH A series of reactions involving ATP and NADPH from the lightdependent reactions converts the three-carbon molecules into phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), three-carbon sugars with higher energy bonds. (PGAL) ATP ADP + NADPH NADP+

33 The Calvin Cycle Sugar production One out of every six molecules of PGAL is transferred to the cytoplasm and used in the synthesis of sugars and other carbohydrates. After three rounds of the cycle, six molecules of PGAL are produced. (PGAL) (Sugars and other carbohydrates)

34 The Calvin Cycle RuBP is replenished Five molecules of PGAL, each with three carbon atoms, produce three molecules of the five-carbon RuBP. This replenishes the RuBP that was used up, and the cycle can continue. ADP+ P ATP (PGAL)

35 Section Objectives: Compare and contrast cellular respiration and fermentation. Explain how cells obtain energy from cellular respiration.

36 Cellular Respiration The process by which mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP is called cellular respiration. There are three stages of cellular respiration: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.

37 Cellular Respiration The first stage, glycolysis, is anaerobic no oxygen is required. The last two stages are aerobic and require oxygen to be completed.

38 Glycolysis Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions in the cytoplasm of a cell that break down glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two molecules of pyruvic acid, a three-carbon compound. 4ATP 2ATP 2ADP 4ADP + 4P 2 Pyruvic acid Glucose 2PGAL 2NAD+ 2NADH + 2H +

39 Glycolysis Glycolysis is not very effective, producing only two ATP molecules for each glucose molecule broken down. 4ATP 2ATP 2ADP 4ADP + 4P 2 Pyruvic acid Glucose 2PGAL 2NAD+ 2NADH + 2H +

40 Glycolysis Before citric acid cycle and electron transport chain can begin, pyruvic acid undergoes a series of reactions in which it gives off a molecule of CO 2 and combines with a molecule called coenzyme A to form acetyl-coa. Outside the mitochondrion Pyruvic acid Mitochondrial membrane Inside the mitochondrion Pyruvic acid CO 2 Coenzyme A - CoA Intermediate by-product NAD + Acetyl-CoA NADH + H +

41 The citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also called the Krebs cycle, is a series of chemical reactions similar to the Calvin cycle in that the molecule used in the first reaction is also one of the end products. For every turn of the cycle, one molecule of ATP and two molecules of carbon dioxide are produced.

42 The Citric Acid Cycle

43 The electron transport chain In the electron transport chain, the carrier molecules NADH and FADH 2 gives up electrons that pass through a series of reactions. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor. Overall, the electron transport chain adds 32 ATP molecules to the four already produced.

44 The electron transport chain

45 Fermentation During heavy exercise, when your cells are without oxygen for a short period of time, an anaerobic process called fermentation follows glycolysis and provides a means to continue producing ATP until oxygen is available again.

46 Lactic acid fermentation Lactic acid fermentation is one of the processes that supplies energy when oxygen is scarce. In this process, the reactions that produced pyruvic acid are reversed. Two molecules of pyruvic acid use NADH to form two molecules of lactic acid.

47 Lactic acid fermentation This releases NAD + to be used in glycolysis, allowing two ATP molecules to be formed for each glucose molecule. The lactic acid is transferred from muscle cells, to the liver that converts it back to pyruvic acid.

48 Alcoholic fermentation Another type of fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, is used by yeast cells and some bacteria to produce CO 2 and ethyl alcohol.

49 Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Table 9.1 Comparison of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Food synthesized Energy from sun stored in glucose Carbon dioxide taken in Oxygen given off Cellular Respiration Food broken down Energy of glucose released Carbon dioxide given off Oxygen taken in Produces sugars from PGAL Requires light Occurs only in presence of chlorophyll Produces CO2 and H 2 O Does not require light Occurs in all living cells

50 The Need for Energy ATP is the molecule that stores energy for easy use within the cell. ATP is formed when a phosphate group is added to ADP. When ATP is broken down, ADP and phosphate are formed and energy is released. Green organisms trap the energy in sunlight and store it in the bonds of certain molecules for later use.

51 The Need for Energy Organisms that cannot use sunlight directly obtain energy by consuming plants or other organisms that have consumed plants.

52 Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun s Energy Photosynthesis is the process by which cells use light energy to make simple sugars. Chlorophyll in the chloroplasts of plant cells traps light energy needed for photosynthesis. The light reactions of photosynthesis produce ATP and result in the splitting of water molecules.

53 Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun s Energy The reactions of the Calvin Cycle make carbohydrates using CO 2 along with ATP and NADPH from the light reactions.

54 Getting Energy to Make ATP In cellular respiration, cells break down carbohydrates to release energy. The first stage of cellular respiration, glycolysis, takes place in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen. The citric acid cycle takes place in mitochondria and requires oxygen.

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