Cell Energy Notes ATP THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY. CELL ENERGY Cells usable source of is called ATP stands for. Name Per

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1 Cell Energy Notes Name Per THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY The Endosymbiotic theory is the idea that a long time ago, engulfed other prokaryotic cells by. This resulted in the first First proposed by Explains the Explains the origin of certain ATP CELL ENERGY Cells usable source of is called ATP stands for ADP stands for adenosine diphosphate MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES Mitochondria = organelle that Chloroplast = organelle that EVIDENCE IN SUPPORT OF THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY: Both mitochondria and chloroplasts, which is fairly different from that of the cell nucleus, and that is ( and ). They are surrounded by, and the innermost of these shows differences in composition compared to the other membranes in the cell. The composition is like that of a New mitochondria and chloroplasts are formed only through a process similar to (prokaryote cell division). Much of the internal structure and biochemistry of, for instance the presence of and particular chlorophylls, is very similar to that of. The size of both organelles is comparable to bacteria. These organelle's are like those found in bacteria (70s). All energy is stored in the of compounds the bond the energy When the cell has energy available it can store this energy by adding a to, producing ATP is converted into ADP by breaking the between the and phosphate groups and releasing for cellular processes.

2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis (small molecules combined) (stores energy) requiring process that uses energy (photons: particles of light) and water (H 2 O) to produce organic macromolecules ( ) energy is converted into energy Chloroplast Organelle where takes place stacks are connected together is a solution surrounding Thylakoid make up the inner membrane Plants - produce their own food ( ). Known as o Examples - Process called Mainly occurs in the of plants a. - pores b. cells Stomata (Stoma pl.) in a plant s through which and are exchanged between the plant and the atmosphere. The Big Picture Found on the of leaves Mesophyll Cell of Leaf occurs in these cells!

3 Chlorophyll Molecules Chlorophyll is a pigment Pigment - Located in the Chlorophyll have in the center Chlorophyll pigments (photons) by absorbing certain wavelengths (blue nm and red - nm are most important) Plants are green because the wavelength is not absorbed. - other compounds found in the membranes. Accessory pigments that include, and brown. A close up of Chlorophyll During the Fall, What Causes the Leaves to Change Color? In addition to the chlorophyll pigments, there are other pigments present During the fall, the green chlorophyll pigments are greatly reduced, are pigments that are either,, or. REDOX REACTION Redox Reaction the of one or more from one reactant to another Two Types o is the of e- o is the of e- Oxidation Reaction The loss of from a substance or the gain of Reduction Reaction The to a substance or the of. Wavelength of Light TWO PARTS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Two reactions make up photosynthesis 1. or - produces energy from solar power in the form of and Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll 2. or also called or fixation. Uses energy ( and ) from light reaction to make sugar ( ) LIGHT REACTION (ELECTRON FLOW) Occurs in the membranes During the light reaction, there are two possible routes for electron flow a. b.

4 CYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW Occurs in the. Uses only reaction center chlorophyll a Uses (ETC) Generates only, more ATP required for Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Because cells need a steady supply of energy to carry on cellular processes they store energy by bonding a third phosphate molecule to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) forming ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Pigments absorb light energy & excite e- of Chlorophyll a to produce ATP Noncyclic Electron Flow Occurs in the membrane Uses and reaction center (PSII) - reaction center (PSI) - Uses (ETC) Generates, and What makes up ADP (adenosine diphosphate? ATP consists of an, a sugar, and + ATP + NADPH comes from the splitting of H 2 O, not CO 2 (photolysis) Chemiosmosis Powers Located in the Uses and ( ) to make addition of phosphate to ADP to make ATP Energy stored in the bonds between phosphate molecules is released when a phosphate molecule breaks off. Since every activity an organism performs requires energy, this cycle is repeated again and again throughout the life of the cell Cyclic Electron Flow Calvin Cycle Carbon Fixation (light independent reaction) C3 plants (80% plants on earth Occurs in the stroma Uses and from light reactions as energy Uses CO2 To produce glucose : it takes turns and uses ATP and NADPH

5 Chloroplast C 4 Plants continued Light reaction - Calvin cycle - Calvin Cycle (C 3 Fixation) CAM Plants Hot, dry environments of plants ( and ) closed open - occurs during the day - occurs when CO 2 is present Remember : C3 = Calvin Cycle Photorespiration Occurs on,, days close of instead of Produces instead of Produces molecules or no Because of photorespiration, plants have special (alternative pathways) to limit the effect of photorespiration 1. Plants 2. Plants C 4 Plants Hot, moist environments of plants (,, ) Photosynthesis occurs in 2 places

6 Q: Why do CAM plants close their stomata during the day? A: The rest is lost as One molecule has about % of the chemical energy found in glucose Rates of Photosynthesis CELLULAR RESPIRATION Breathing vs. Respiration Breathing o Alternation of and o Exchange of gases in which organisms obtain from the air (or water) and release o Exchange occurs in (or ) Cellular Respiration o Harvesting of from molecules o process (requires ) o Occurs inside ( and ) Respiration comes from the Latin word for breathing. Breathing and cellular respiration are closely related, but NOT the same process CATABOLISM Process of splitting molecules to ones. Catabolic reactions are and release free energy. THREE MAJOR CATABOLIC PATHWAYS IN LIVING ORGANISMS A. B. C. MAJOR CATABOLIC PATHWAYS A. Aerobic (cellular) Respiration Requires Most commonly used metabolic pathway. Over 30 reactions. Used to extract from molecules. Final electron acceptor: Most efficient: of glucose energy is converted to Reaction: Cellular Respiration Banks ATP Reaction: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) What happens to the energy in glucose of other food molecules? o Only about % of energy is turned into B. Anaerobic Respiration: Does not require Used by that live in environments without Final electron acceptor: Very inefficient: only % of glucose energy is converted into ATP. Final products:,, and other

7 MAJOR CATABOLIC PATHWAYS Continued C. Fermentation Does NOT require Used by, and other cells when is not available Final electron acceptor: Very inefficient: only % of glucose energy is converted into ATP. Products depend on type of fermentation: o : used to make cheese and yogurt. Carried out by muscle cells if oxygen is low. o : used to make alcoholic beverages. Produces alcohol and carbon dioxide. FERMENTATION OCCURS WHEN OXYGEN IS NOT AVAILABLE Yeasts normally use aerobic respiration to process food If oxygen is not available, they use fermentation, which is less efficient Types of fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation: Glucose 2 pyruvate + Lactic Acid Fermentation: Glucose 2 pyruvate Three Stages of Cellular Respiration GLYCOLYSIS: SPLITTING SUGAR Occurs in the of the cell Does not require oxygen Net Result: (6 carbons each) is split into two molecules of carbons each. Yield per glucose molecule o (Substrate level phosphorylation) o o 2 ATP are invested to get 4 ATP back o Pyruvic acid diffuses into the where all subsequent reactions take place WHERE DOES CELLULAR RESPIRATION TAKE PLACE? It actually takes place in two parts of the cell Glycolysis occurs in the & take place in the mitochondria Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetly CoA Before entering the next stage, pyruvic acid (3C) must be converted to (2 C) A carbon atom is lost as Yield per glucose molecule:

8 B. KREBS CYCLE Occurs in the of the mitochondrion A cycle of 8 reactions o Reaction 1: (2C) joins with 4C molecule (oxaloacetic acid) to produce (6C) o Reactions 2 & 3: Citric acid loses 2C atoms as o Reactions 4 & 5: reactions produce and o Reactions 6-8: Oxaloacetic acid is regenerated. Ultimate acceptor of and is, producing o Detailed Krebs cycle below *Note: the electron transport chain only works when is available at the end of the chain to accept the electrons and to form water Yield of ATP through Chemiosmosis: o Each produces 3 ATP o Each produces 2 ATP 2 NADH (Glycolysis) x 3 ATP = 2 NADH (Acetyl CoA) x 3 ATP = 6 NADH (Kreb s cycle) x 3ATP = 2 FADH2 (Krebs cycle) x 2 ATP = Total = These ATP are made by or Carbons are released as Yield per glucose molecule o o o o C. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS Most ATP is produced at this stage Occurs on from and are transferred to electron acceptors, which produces a Proton gradient used to drive the : allows to flow across inner mitochondrial membrane down concentration gradient, which produces Cellular Respiration!

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