Endosymbiotic Theory. p

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Endosymbiotic Theory. p"

Transcription

1 Endosymbiotic Theory p

2 The Endosymbiotic Theory Review: What is a theory? What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? The endosymbiotic theory is the idea that a long time ago, prokaryotic cells engulfed other prokaryotic cells by endocytosis. This resulted in the first eukaryotic cells. First proposed by Lynn Margulis Explains the origin of eukaryotic cells Explains the origin of certain membrane-bound organelles

3 What Exactly Happened? Chloroplast Heterotrophic bacteria Ancient Prokaryotes Nuclear envelope evolving Photosynthetic bacteria Mitochondrion Plants and plant-like protists Primitive Autotrophic (Photosynthetic) Eukaryote Ancient Heterotrophic Prokaryote Primitive Heterotrophic Eukaryote Animals, fungi, and animal-like protists

4 Membrane-Bound Organelles Mitochondria = membrane-bound organelle that produces energy for the cell Chloroplast = membrane-bound organelle that captures sunlight and uses it to make food for the cell

5 Evidence in support of the endosymbiotic theory: Both mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA, which is fairly different from that of the cell nucleus, and that is similar to that of bacteria (circular and smaller). They are surrounded by two or more membranes, and the innermost of these shows differences in composition compared to the other membranes in the cell. The composition is like that of a prokaryotic cell membrane. New mitochondria and chloroplasts are formed only through a process similar to binary fission (prokaryote cell division).

6 Evidence in support of the endosymbiotic theory: Much of the internal structure and biochemistry of chloroplasts, for instance the presence of thylakoids and particular chlorophylls, is very similar to that of cyanobacteria. The size of both organelles is comparable to bacteria. These organelle's ribosomes are like those found in bacteria (70s).

7 Cell Energy: Cells usable source of energy is called ATP ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups

8 ADP stands for adenosine diphosphate Adenine Ribose 2 Phosphate groups

9 All energy is stored in the bonds of compounds breaking the bond releases the energy When the cell has energy available it can store this energy by adding a phosphate group to ADP, producing ATP

10 ATP is converted into ADP by breaking the bond between the second and third phosphate groups and releasing energy for cellular processes.

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Part II

31 Two Parts of Photosynthesis Two reactions make up photosynthesis: 1.Light Reaction or Light Dependent Reaction - Produces energy from solar power (photons) in the form of ATP and NADPH. SUN 2

32 Two Parts of Photosynthesis 2. Calvin Cycle or Light Independent Reaction Also called Carbon Fixation or C 3 Fixation Uses energy (ATP( and NADPH) ) from light reaction to make sugar (glucose). 3

33 Light Reaction (Electron Flow) Occurs in the Thylakoid membranes During the light reaction,, there are two possible routes for electron flow: A.Cyclic Electron Flow B. Noncyclic Electron Flow 4

34 Cyclic Electron Flow Occurs in the thylakoid membrane. Uses Photosystem I only P700 reaction center- chlorophyll a Uses Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Generates ATP only,, more ATP required for P ADP + ATP 5

35 Adenosine Triphosphate ATP A. Because cells need a steady supply of energy to carry on cellular processes they store energy by bonding a third phosphate molecule to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) forming ATP (adenosine triphosphate) 6

36 What makes up ADP (adenosine diphosphate)? Adenine base, ribose sugar and 2 (di)phosphates ATP consists of an adenine base, a ribose sugar and 3 phosphate molecules Adenosine Triphosphate Adenosine Diphophate 7

37 . Energy stored in the bonds between phosphate molecules is released when a phosphate molecule breaks off. Since every activity an organism performs requires energy, this cycle is repeated again and again throughout the life of the cell. 8

38 Cyclic Electron Flow SUN Primary Electron Acceptor e - Photons e - P700 e - e - ATP produced by ETC Accessory Pigments Photosystem I Pigments absorb light energy & excite e-e of Chlorophyll a to produce ATP 9

39 Noncyclic Electron Flow Occurs in the thylakoid membrane Uses Photosystem II and Photosystem I P680 reaction center (PSII) - chlorophyll a P700 reaction center (PS I) - chlorophyll a Uses Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Generates O 2, ATP and NADPH 10

40 Noncyclic Electron Flow Primary Electron Acceptor Noncyclic Electron Flow 2e - 2e - ETC Primary Electron Acceptor 2e - Enzyme Reaction SUN 2e - 2e - P700 NADPH Photon ATP H 2 O P680 Photon Photosystem I ½ O 2 + 2H+ Photosystem II H 2 O is split in PSII & ATP is made, while the energy carrier NADPH is made in PSI 11

41 Noncyclic Electron Flow P ADP + ATP NADP + + H NADPH Oxygen comes from the splitting of H 2 O, not CO 2 (Photolysis) H 2 O ½ O 2 + 2H + 12

42 Chemiosmosis Powers ATP synthesis Located in the thylakoid membranes Uses ETC C and ATP synthase (enzyme) to make ATP Photophosphorylation: addition of phosphate to ADP to make ATP 13

43 Chemiosmosis Thylakoid SUN H + H + (Proton Pumping) E PS II T PS I C high H H + H + + concentration H + H + H+ H + H + ATP Synthase Thylakoid Space ADP + P H + ATP low H + concentration 14

44 Calvin Cycle Carbon Fixation (light independent reaction) C 3 plants (80% of plants on earth) Occurs in the stroma Uses ATP and NADPH from light reaction as energy Uses CO 2 To produce glucose: : it takes 6 turns and uses 18 ATP and 12 NADPH. 15

45 Chloroplast Outer Membrane Inner Membrane STROMA where Calvin Cycle occurs Thylakoid Granum 16

46 Calvin Cycle (C 3 fixation) 17

47 Calvin Cycle Remember: C 3 = Calvin Cycle C 3 Glucose 18

48 Photorespiration Occurs on hot, dry, bright days Stomates close Fixation of O 2 instead of CO 2 Produces 2-C C molecules instead of 3-C C sugar molecules Produces no sugar molecules or no ATP 19

49 Photorespiration Because of photorespiration, plants have special adaptations (alternative pathways) to limit the effect of photorespiration: 1.C 4 plants 2. CAM plants 20

50 C 4 Plants Hot, moist environments 15% of plants (grasses, corn, sugarcane) Photosynthesis occurs in 2 places Light reaction - mesophyll cells Calvin cycle - bundle sheath cells 21

51 C 4 Plants 22

52 CAM Plants Hot, dry environments 5% of plants (cactus and ice plants) Stomates closed during day Stomates open during the night Light reaction - occurs during the day Calvin Cycle - occurs when CO 2 is present 23

53 Stomata Open Stomata Closed 24

54 CAM Plants Night (Stomates Open) Day (Stomates Closed) Vacuole CO 2 C-C-C-C Malate C-C-C-C Malate C-C-C-C Malate CO 2 C3 C-C-C PEP ATP C-C-C Pyruvic acid glucose 25

55 26

56 Question: Why do CAM plants close their stomata during the day? 27

57 Cam plants close their stomata in the hottest part of the day to conserve water

58 Rates of Photosynthesis 1. Light Intensity 2. CO 2 3. Temperature 29

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) requiring process that uses light energy (photons) and water (H 2 O) to produce organic macromolecules (glucose). photons SUN

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Botany Department B.N.D. College

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Botany Department B.N.D. College PHOTOSYNTHESIS Botany Department B.N.D. College Photosynthesis An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) requiring process that uses light energy (photons) and water (H 2 O) to produce organic macromolecules

More information

Cell Energy Notes ATP THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY. CELL ENERGY Cells usable source of is called ATP stands for. Name Per

Cell Energy Notes ATP THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY. CELL ENERGY Cells usable source of is called ATP stands for. Name Per Cell Energy Notes Name Per THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY The Endosymbiotic theory is the idea that a long time ago, engulfed other prokaryotic cells by. This resulted in the first First proposed by Explains

More information

The summary equation of photosynthesis including the source and fate of the reactants and products. How leaf and chloroplast anatomy relates to

The summary equation of photosynthesis including the source and fate of the reactants and products. How leaf and chloroplast anatomy relates to 1 The summary equation of photosynthesis including the source and fate of the reactants and products. How leaf and chloroplast anatomy relates to photosynthesis. How photosystems convert solar energy to

More information

THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Almost all plants are photosynthetic autotrophs, as are some bacteria and protists Autotrophs generate their own organic matter through photosynthesis Sunlight energy is transformed

More information

AP Biology. Chloroplasts: sites of photosynthesis in plants

AP Biology. Chloroplasts: sites of photosynthesis in plants The summary equation of photosynthesis including the source and fate of the reactants and products. How leaf and chloroplast anatomy relates to photosynthesis. How photosystems convert solar energy to

More information

Chemical Energy and ATP. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs. Living things need to survive.

Chemical Energy and ATP. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs. Living things need to survive. 8-1 Energy And Life Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Living things need to survive. This energy comes from food. The energy in most food comes from the. Where do plants get the energy they need to produce food?

More information

Photosynthesis Prep Test

Photosynthesis Prep Test Photosynthesis Prep Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What are the three parts of an ATP molecule? a. adenine, thylakoid, and a phosphate

More information

Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air

Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wi60tqa8jfe Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air 2011-2012 Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy consumers producers Heterotrophs (Animals) obtain

More information

Chapter 10 Photosynthesis

Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Photosynthesis is the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, certain other

More information

Photosynthesis. All Materials Cmassengale

Photosynthesis. All Materials Cmassengale Photosynthesis All Materials Cmassengale I. Capturing the Energy of Life A. All organisms require energy B. Some organisms (autotrophs) obtain energy directly from the sun and store it in organic compounds

More information

AP Biology

AP Biology Chapter 10. Photosynthesis: Life from Light Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy Heterotrophs get their energy from eating others consumers of other organisms consume organic

More information

AP Biology

AP Biology Chapter 10. Photosynthesis: Life from Light Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy Heterotrophs get their energy from eating others consumers of other organisms consume organic

More information

6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. sun. Occurs in chloroplasts ATP. enzymes CO 2 O 2 H 2 O. sugars

6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. sun. Occurs in chloroplasts ATP. enzymes CO 2 O 2 H 2 O. sugars 4.2 8.2 Overview Photosynthesis: of Photosynthesis An Overview Photosynthesis process by which plants make food using energy from the sun Plants are autotrophs that make their own source of chemical energy.

More information

pigments AP BIOLOGY PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 10 Light Reactions Visible light is part of electromagnetic spectrum

pigments AP BIOLOGY PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 10 Light Reactions Visible light is part of electromagnetic spectrum AP BIOLOGY PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 10 Light Reactions http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/chloroplasts.html Sunlight is made up of many different wavelengths of light Your eyes see different

More information

Cellular Energetics. Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Energetics. Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Cellular Energetics Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation TEKS B.4 Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that

More information

Energy Conversions. Photosynthesis. Plants. Chloroplasts. Plant Pigments 10/13/2014. Chapter 10 Pg

Energy Conversions. Photosynthesis. Plants. Chloroplasts. Plant Pigments 10/13/2014. Chapter 10 Pg Energy Conversions Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Pg. 184 205 Life on Earth is solar-powered by autotrophs Autotrophs make their own food and have no need to consume other organisms. They are the ultimate source

More information

Photosynthesis (Outline)

Photosynthesis (Outline) Photosynthesis (Outline) 1. Overview of photosynthesis 2. Producers, consumers, and decomposers of the ecosystem (source of carbon and energy) 3. Plant structures: organ, tissue, cells, sub-cellular organelle,

More information

Section 1 The Light Reactions. Section 2 The Calvin Cycle. Resources

Section 1 The Light Reactions. Section 2 The Calvin Cycle. Resources How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: THE LIGHT REACTIONS

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: THE LIGHT REACTIONS PHOTOSYNTHESIS: THE LIGHT REACTIONS ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis CO 2 +H 2 O Organic + O molecules 2 Cellular respiration in mitochondria 1 PHOTOAUTOTROPHS The producers of the biosphere AUTOTROPH means self

More information

Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

Section 2 The Calvin Cycle Section 2 The Calvin Cycle Objectives Summarize the main events of the Calvin cycle. Describe what happens to the compounds that are made in the Calvin cycle. Distinguish between C 3, C 4, and CAM plants.

More information

Harvesting energy: photosynthesis & cellular respiration part 1

Harvesting energy: photosynthesis & cellular respiration part 1 Harvesting energy: photosynthesis & cellular respiration part 1 Agenda I. Overview (Big Pictures) of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration II. Making Glucose - Photosynthesis III. Making ATP - Cellular

More information

Photosynthesis is the main route by which that energy enters the biosphere of the Earth.

Photosynthesis is the main route by which that energy enters the biosphere of the Earth. Chapter 5-Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the main route by which that energy enters the biosphere of the Earth. To sustain and power life on Earth, the captured energy has to be released and used in

More information

Light form the sun is composed of a range of wavelengths (colors). The visible spectrum to the left illustrates the wavelengths and associated color

Light form the sun is composed of a range of wavelengths (colors). The visible spectrum to the left illustrates the wavelengths and associated color Photosynthesis Englemann Experiment In 1883, Thomas Engelmann of Germany used a combination of aerobic bacteria and a filamentous alga to study the effect of various colors of the visible light spectrum

More information

ATP. Pentose Sugar (ribose) 3 phosphate groups. adenine. Does this structure look familiar?

ATP. Pentose Sugar (ribose) 3 phosphate groups. adenine. Does this structure look familiar? Photosynthesis The Big Picture Photosynthesis and Respiration work together in plants to make energy for the plant they are autotrophs Animals only use cellular respiration why? They are heterotrophs!

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration All cellular activities require energy. Directly or indirectly nearly all energy for life comes from the sun. Autotrophs:

More information

Photosynthesis Prep Test 2

Photosynthesis Prep Test 2 Photosynthesis Prep Test 2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Energy is released from ATP when a. a phosphate group is added. b. adenine bonds

More information

Ch. 10- Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air

Ch. 10- Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air Ch. 10- Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air 2007-2008 Ch. 10 Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air 2007-2008 Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy consumers Heterotrophs

More information

Lecture 9: Photosynthesis

Lecture 9: Photosynthesis Lecture 9: Photosynthesis I. Characteristics of Light A. Light is composed of particles that travel as waves 1. Comprises a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum B. Radiation varies in wavelength

More information

Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reac<ons

Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reac<ons Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reac

More information

Chapter 10 Photosynthesis

Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Process by which plants use light energy to make food. A reduction process that makes complex organic molecules from simple molecules. Ps General Equation 6 CO

More information

Name 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light To Make Food Test Date Study Guide You must know: How photosystems convert solar energy to chemical energy.

Name 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light To Make Food Test Date Study Guide You must know: How photosystems convert solar energy to chemical energy. Name _ 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light To Make Food Test Date Study Guide You must know: How photosystems convert solar energy to chemical energy. How linear electron flow in the light reactions results

More information

Lecture Series 13 Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun

Lecture Series 13 Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun Lecture Series 13 Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun A. Identifying Photosynthetic Reactants and Products B. The Two Pathways of Photosynthesis: An Overview C. Properties

More information

Where It Starts - Photosynthesis

Where It Starts - Photosynthesis Where It Starts - Photosynthesis What Is Photosynthesis? The Rainbow Catchers Making ATP and NADPH Making Sugars Alternate Pathways What is Photosynthesis? Energy flow through ecosystems begins when photosynthesizers

More information

Just Like the Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis

Just Like the Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis Just Like the Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis An Overview of Photosynthesis Most of the energy used by almost all living cells ultimately comes from the sun plants, algae, and some bacteria capture the

More information

Photosynthesis. Dr. Bertolotti

Photosynthesis. Dr. Bertolotti Photosynthesis Dr. Bertolotti Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air How do plants and other organisms capture energy from the sun? What is ATP and why is it useful in cells? Plants are energy producers

More information

photosynthesis notes Biology Junction Everything you need in Biology Photosynthesis All Materials Cmassengale I. Capturing the Energy of Life

photosynthesis notes Biology Junction Everything you need in Biology Photosynthesis All Materials Cmassengale I. Capturing the Energy of Life Biology Junction Everything you need in Biology photosynthesis notes Photosynthesis All Materials Cmassengale I. Capturing the Energy of Life 1. All organisms require energy 2. Some organisms (autotrophs)

More information

Photosynthesis. Chapter 8

Photosynthesis. Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Overview Energy for all life on Earth ultimately comes from photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O + 6O 2 Oxygenic photosynthesis is carried out by

More information

Chapter 6. Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis. Lectures by Gregory Ahearn. University of North Florida. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 6. Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis. Lectures by Gregory Ahearn. University of North Florida. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.1 What Is Photosynthesis? Life on earth depends on photosynthesis.

More information

Energy can be transformed from one form to another

Energy can be transformed from one form to another LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this lecture you will be able to: Photosynthesis 1. Understand that ENERGY can be transformed from one form to another. 2. Know that energy exist in two forms; free energy

More information

light-dependent reactions (i.e., light reactions)

light-dependent reactions (i.e., light reactions) LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this lecture you will be able to: 1. Understand that ENERGY can be transformed from one form to another. 2. Know that energy exist in two forms; free energy - available

More information

Biology: Life on Earth

Biology: Life on Earth Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Lecture for Chapter 7 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis Chapter 7 Outline 7.1 What Is Photosynthesis? p. 118 7.2 Light-Dependent Reactions: How Is Light Energy

More information

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Photosynthesis is the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy Directly or indirectly, photosynthesis nourishes almost

More information

Cell Energetics. How plants make food and everyone makes energy!

Cell Energetics. How plants make food and everyone makes energy! Cell Energetics How plants make food and everyone makes energy! Carbon Cycle Where did the mitochondria and chloroplast come from? Endosymbiotic Theory Endosymbiotic theory = a theory that some of the

More information

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis Name: KEY Class: Date Chapter 8: Photosynthesis Section 8-1 Energy and Life (pages 201-203) Autotrophs and Heterotrophs (page 201) 1. Where does the energy of food originally come from? The sun, plants

More information

Life on Earth is solar powered. Photosynthesis => conversion of light energy to chemical energy (stored in sugars and other organic molecules).

Life on Earth is solar powered. Photosynthesis => conversion of light energy to chemical energy (stored in sugars and other organic molecules). Photosynthesis Life on Earth is solar powered. Photosynthesis => conversion of light energy to chemical energy (stored in sugars and other organic molecules). Organisms obtain organic compounds by one

More information

Energy in the World of Life

Energy in the World of Life Cellular Energy Energy in the World of Life Sustaining life s organization requires ongoing energy inputs Assembly of the molecules of life starts with energy input into living cells Energy Conversion

More information

A. Structures of PS. Site of PS in plants: mostly in leaves in chloroplasts. Leaf cross section. Vein. Mesophyll CO 2 O 2. Stomata

A. Structures of PS. Site of PS in plants: mostly in leaves in chloroplasts. Leaf cross section. Vein. Mesophyll CO 2 O 2. Stomata PS Lecture Outline I. Introduction A. Structures B. Net Reaction II. Overview of PS A. Rxns in the chloroplast B. pigments III. Closer looks A. LD Rxns B. LI Rxns 1. non-cyclic e- flow 2. cyclic e- flow

More information

Photosynthesis Overview. Photosynthesis Overview. Photosynthesis Overview. Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis Overview. Photosynthesis Overview. Photosynthesis Overview. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Overview Chapter 8 Energy for all life on Earth ultimately comes from photosynthesis. 6CO2 + 12H2O C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2 Oxygenic photosynthesis is carried out by: cyanobacteria,

More information

Ch. 6 & 7 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Ch. 6 & 7 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Ch. 6 & 7 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration 6.1 Energy Reactions The Cycle of Energy Sun CO 2 H 2 O Photosynthesis (energy stored) Cellular Respiration (energy released) O 2 Glucose Obtaining Energy

More information

Photosynthesis (Outline)

Photosynthesis (Outline) Photosynthesis (Outline) 1. Overview of photosynthesis 2. Producers, consumers, and decomposers of the ecosystem (source of carbon and energy) (Autotrophs: photo-autotrophs, chemo-autotrophs, electro-autotrophs,

More information

ATP. Chapter 4. Photosynthesis. Cell Respiration. Energy of Life. All organisms need energy in order to survive

ATP. Chapter 4. Photosynthesis. Cell Respiration. Energy of Life. All organisms need energy in order to survive ATP Chapter 4 Photosynthesis Energy of Life All organisms need energy in order to survive 2 Major groups of organisms: A. autotrophs make their own food Ex: plants B. heterotrophs must eat others living

More information

All Cells need energy. (Ability to perform work) What do cells use energy for? Mitosis. Repair. Active transport. Movement.

All Cells need energy. (Ability to perform work) What do cells use energy for? Mitosis. Repair. Active transport. Movement. Cell Energetics All Cells need energy. (Ability to perform work) What do cells use energy for? Mitosis. Repair. Active transport. Movement. What Is ATP? ATP adenosine triphosphate is a chemical molecule

More information

Pearson Biology Chapter 8 Class Notes

Pearson Biology Chapter 8 Class Notes Pearson Biology Chapter 8 Class Notes Photosynthesis Chemical Energy and ATP Why is ATP useful to cells? Energy is the Ability to do Work. Cells use Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to Store and Release Energy

More information

Where It Starts: Photosynthesis. Chapter 5

Where It Starts: Photosynthesis. Chapter 5 Where It Starts: Photosynthesis Chapter 5 Photosynthesis Metabolic Pathways Converts light energy to chemical energy. Photoautotrophs Organisms that can perform photosynthesis Cyanobacteria (prokaryotic-no

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 6

PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 6 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 6 5.1 Matter and Energy Pathways in Living Systems Chapter 5 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration 1 2 5.1 Matter and Energy Pathways in Living Systems In this section you will:

More information

2/22/ Photosynthesis & The Greenhouse Effect. 4.1 The Greenhouse Effect. 4.2 The Flow of Carbon

2/22/ Photosynthesis & The Greenhouse Effect. 4.1 The Greenhouse Effect. 4.2 The Flow of Carbon 4.1 Photosynthesis & The Greenhouse Effect Solar radiation warms the Earth. Most radiates back into space. Only 2% is captured for use by plants Nearly all life depends on that 2%! Earth Sun rays 2% captured

More information

AP Biology. Warm-up. Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air. Energy needs of life. Energy needs of life. Objective: Warm-up:

AP Biology. Warm-up. Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air. Energy needs of life. Energy needs of life. Objective: Warm-up: Warm-up Objective: Explain how photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy. Warm-up: In the light reactions, what is the electron donor? Where do the electrons end up? 2006-2007 Photosynthesis:

More information

Photosynthesis and Respiration

Photosynthesis and Respiration Photosynthesis and Respiration 1 of 20 Chemical Energy and ATP Chemical Energy and ATP An important chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy is adenosine triphosphate, abbreviated ATP.

More information

Photosynthesis. Chapter 10. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Photosynthesis. Chapter 10. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 10 Photosynthesis PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Chapter 10

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Chapter 10 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 10 Modes of Nutrition Autotrophs self-feeders Capture free energy from physical sources in the environment Photosynthetic organisms = sunlight Chemosynthetic organisms = small inorganic

More information

Energy Exchanges Exam: What to Study

Energy Exchanges Exam: What to Study Energy Exchanges Exam: What to Study Here s what you will need to make sure you understand in order to prepare for our exam: Free Energy Conceptual understanding of free energy as available energy in a

More information

Energy can be transformed from one form to another. FREE ENERGY (available for work) vs. HEAT (not available for work)

Energy can be transformed from one form to another. FREE ENERGY (available for work) vs. HEAT (not available for work) PHOTOSYNTHESIS Energy can be transformed from one form to another FREE ENERGY (available for work) vs. HEAT (not available for work) THE SUN: MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR LIFE ON EARTH THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

More information

The conversion of usable sunlight energy into chemical energy is associated with the action of the green pigment chlorophyll.

The conversion of usable sunlight energy into chemical energy is associated with the action of the green pigment chlorophyll. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water. This glucose can be converted

More information

Overview - the process that feeds the biosphere. Photosynthesis: transformation of solar energy into chemical energy.

Overview - the process that feeds the biosphere. Photosynthesis: transformation of solar energy into chemical energy. Chapter 7 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis Overview - the process that feeds the biosphere Photosynthesis: transformation of solar energy into chemical energy. Responsible for O 2 in our atmosphere

More information

Outcome: Explain the process of photosynthesis.

Outcome: Explain the process of photosynthesis. Outcome: Explain the process of photosynthesis. Warm-up: 1. Compare the two types of cells. Give examples for each. 2. Using double bubble map, differentiate plants and animal cells. 3. What organelles

More information

Overview of Photosynthesis

Overview of Photosynthesis Overview of Photosynthesis Introduction to Biochemistry - Part II 1 Autotrophs & Heterotrophs The energy available in most food comes from the sun, whether directly or indirectly Plants and some other

More information

Photosynthesis. Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis

Photosynthesis. Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O Pigments

More information

AP Biology Day 22. Monday, October 10, 2016

AP Biology Day 22. Monday, October 10, 2016 AP Biology Day 22 Monday, October 10, 2016 Discuss: Do-Now Group Discussion What is the equation for photosynthesis, and why is it a redox reaction? What are the steps of photosynthesis, and where does

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: converts light energy to the chemical energy of food 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: converts light energy to the chemical energy of food 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosynthesis Life on Earth is solar powered Photosynthesis nourishes almost all the living world directly or indirectly All organisms use organic compounds for energy and for carbon skeletons. Organisms

More information

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Section 8-1 Notes Energy and Life Energy is the ability to do work. Living things depend on energy. Without the ability to obtain and use energy, life would cease to exist. Where does the energy that living

More information

Overall, photosynthesis is the conversion of the Sun s energy to stored chemical energy. (glucose) The overall reaction for photosynthesis:

Overall, photosynthesis is the conversion of the Sun s energy to stored chemical energy. (glucose) The overall reaction for photosynthesis: A.P. Biology Chapter 10- Photosynthesis Scale: 0 - No understanding of the concept and chemical process of photosynthesis. 1- With help, a partial understanding of the reactants and products of the photosynthesis

More information

CP Biology Unit 5 Cell Energy Study Guide. Electron Carriers Electron Transport Chain Fermentation Glycolysis Krebs cycle Light-Dependent Reactions

CP Biology Unit 5 Cell Energy Study Guide. Electron Carriers Electron Transport Chain Fermentation Glycolysis Krebs cycle Light-Dependent Reactions Name: KEY CP Biology Unit 5 Cell Energy Study Guide Vocabulary to know: ATP ADP Aerobic Anaerobic ATP Synthases Cellular Respiration Chlorophyll Chloroplast Electron Carriers Electron Transport Chain Fermentation

More information

Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air

Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air 2007-2008 Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy consumers producers Heterotrophs (Animals) get their energy from eating others eat food

More information

(A) Calvin cycle (B) Cyclic electron transfer (C) Non-cyclic electron transfer (D) Photorespiration (E) Cellular respiration

(A) Calvin cycle (B) Cyclic electron transfer (C) Non-cyclic electron transfer (D) Photorespiration (E) Cellular respiration AP Biology - Problem Drill 08: Photosynthesis No. 1 of 10 #01 1. What term does the statement below refer to? In a photosynthesis process, an electron is excited from P700 and delivered to its receptor,

More information

1 Which of the following organisms do NOT carry on photosynthesis?

1 Which of the following organisms do NOT carry on photosynthesis? 1 Which of the following organisms do NOT carry on photosynthesis? plants algae some bacteria 2 3 animals The correct description of the relationship between photosynthesis and the living world is. herbivores,

More information

Metabolism 2 Photosynthesis

Metabolism 2 Photosynthesis Metabolism 2 Photosynthesis Light energy is trapped in the form of high energy electrons. High energy electrons are used to synthesize ATP and reduce CO 2 to form carbohydrates. Oxygen is produced as a

More information

Name AP Biology Photosynthesis Notes Mrs. Laux Photosynthesis: Capturing Energy I. Chloroplasts A. Facts: 1. double membrane 2.

Name AP Biology Photosynthesis Notes Mrs. Laux Photosynthesis: Capturing Energy I. Chloroplasts A. Facts: 1. double membrane 2. Photosynthesis: Capturing Energy I. Chloroplasts A. Facts: 1. double membrane 2. not part of endomembrane system 3. semi-autonomous organelles, grow and reproduce 4. found in plants, algae, cyanobacteria,

More information

How do cells obtain energy from food molecules? Unit 5: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. It is an extremely simple cellular process.

How do cells obtain energy from food molecules? Unit 5: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. It is an extremely simple cellular process. Unit 5: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis How do cells obtain energy from food molecules? 1. Cellular respiration release energy from food molecules 2. Glycolysis begins the production of Energy

More information

Energy Transfer. Photosynthesis

Energy Transfer. Photosynthesis Energy Transfer Photosynthesis Energy All living organisms use energy. Energy is needed for metabolism to function. When organisms use energy they use it in the chemical form, ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Unit

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Unit Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Unit All cellular activities require energy. Directly or indirectly nearly all energy for life comes from the sun. Autotrophs: organisms that can make their own

More information

Energy and Life. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 8.1 Energy and Life

Energy and Life. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 8.1 Energy and Life 8.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is the ability to do work. Your cells are busy using energy to build new molecules, contract muscles, and carry out active transport. Without the ability to obtain and

More information

Photosynthesis: Life from Light AP Biology

Photosynthesis: Life from Light AP Biology Photosynthesis: Life from Light Supporting a biosphere On global scale, photosynthesis is the most important process for the continuation of life on Earth u each year photosynthesis synthesizes 160 billion

More information

Where does most of our society s energy come from (think of fossil fuels), how does that energy become fixed for human use?

Where does most of our society s energy come from (think of fossil fuels), how does that energy become fixed for human use? Where does most of our society s energy come from (think of fossil fuels), how does that energy become fixed for human use? The Photosynthesis equation 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + Light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 +

More information

Bio Ch 6 Photosynthesis Notes

Bio Ch 6 Photosynthesis Notes Bio Ch 6 Photosynthesis Notes I. Photosynthesis Basics A. What is photosynthesis? 1. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction in which light energy is converted to chemical energy in glucose. 2. It is the

More information

Sunday, August 25, 2013 PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Sunday, August 25, 2013 PHOTOSYNTHESIS PHOTOSYNTHESIS PREFACE The sun is the ultimate source of energy. The sun powers nearly all life forms. Photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy. Photoautotrophs use solar energy to synthesize

More information

Chapter 10: PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Chapter 10: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 10: PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1. Overview of Photosynthesis 2. Light Absorption 3. The Light Reactions 4. The Calvin Cycle 1. Overview of Photosynthesis Chapter Reading pp. 185-190, 206-207 What is Photosynthesis?

More information

2.A.2- Capture and Storage of Free Energy

2.A.2- Capture and Storage of Free Energy 2.A.2- Capture and Storage of Free Energy Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. EU 2.A- Growth, reproduction

More information

Chapter 8 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow

Chapter 8 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow COLLEGE BIOLOGY PHYSICS Chapter 8 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow Figure 8.0 Photosynthesis Figure 8.1 Earth s distribution of photosynthesis as seen via chlorophyll a

More information

Photosynthesis. Chapter 10. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Photosynthesis. Chapter 10. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Chapter 10 Photosynthesis PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:

More information

BIOLOGY. Photosynthesis CAMPBELL. Concept 10.1: Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food. Anabolic pathways endergonic

BIOLOGY. Photosynthesis CAMPBELL. Concept 10.1: Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food. Anabolic pathways endergonic 10 Photosynthesis CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick energy ECOSYSTEM CO 2 H 2 O Organic O 2 powers

More information

1. Photosynthesis is the process of making a simple organic molecule from inorganic compounds (molecules) utilizing light energy.

1. Photosynthesis is the process of making a simple organic molecule from inorganic compounds (molecules) utilizing light energy. PHOTOSYNTHESIS A. INTRODUCTION 1. Photosynthesis is the process of making a simple organic molecule from inorganic compounds (molecules) utilizing light energy. a. It takes energy input for synthesis.

More information

Complete the notes on photosynthesis in the spaces below.

Complete the notes on photosynthesis in the spaces below. Section: 3.2 Name: Opening Activity: What type of energy is absorbed by pigment molecules in plant cells to start photosynthesis? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: ATP then provides the energy

More information

Chapter 6 Where It Starts Photosynthesis

Chapter 6 Where It Starts Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Where It Starts Photosynthesis 6.1 Biofuels Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are fossil fuels the remains of ancient forests, a limited resource Biofuels such as oils, gases, or alcohols are

More information

2015 AP Biology PRETEST Unit 3: Cellular Energetics Week of October

2015 AP Biology PRETEST Unit 3: Cellular Energetics Week of October Name: Class: _ Date: _ 2015 AP Biology PRETEST Unit 3: Cellular Energetics Week of 19-23 October Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which

More information

Chapter 7 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis. Chapter 7: Photosynthesis. What is Photosynthesis?

Chapter 7 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis. Chapter 7: Photosynthesis. What is Photosynthesis? Chapter 7 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis What is Photosynthesis? Answer: The capture of sunlight energy and the subsequent storage of that energy in the chemical bonds (e.g., glucose) Chemical

More information

Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Lecture Outline. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Lecture Outline. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis converts solar energy

More information

Photosynthesis. Excitation of chlorophyll in a chloroplast

Photosynthesis. Excitation of chlorophyll in a chloroplast Photosynthesis The process of photosynthesis begins with light-absorbing pigments in plant cells. A pigment molecule is able to absorb the energy from light only within a narrow range of wavelengths. In

More information

Cell Energy: The Big Picture. So, What Exactly is ATP. Adenosine Triphosphate. Your turn to Practice converting ATP to ADP:

Cell Energy: The Big Picture. So, What Exactly is ATP. Adenosine Triphosphate. Your turn to Practice converting ATP to ADP: Understanding How Living Things Obtain and Use Energy. Cell Energy: The Big Picture Most Autotrophs produce food (sugar) using light energy during Photosynthesis. Then, both Autotrophs and Heterotroph

More information

What cellular structure carries out respiration?

What cellular structure carries out respiration? What cellular structure carries out photosynthesis? Label it s parts Chloroplast double membrane grana thylakoid membrane with chlorophyll stroma What cellular structure carries out respiration? Mitochondrian

More information