Chemical Energy and ATP. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs. Living things need to survive.

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1 8-1 Energy And Life Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Living things need to survive. This energy comes from food. The energy in most food comes from the. Where do plants get the energy they need to produce food? Chemical Energy and ATP Energy comes in many forms including light, heat, and electricity. Energy can be stored in chemical compounds, too. An important chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy is, abbreviated ATP. ATP is used by all types of cells as their basic source. 8-1 Energy And Life Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Plants and some other types of organisms are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food. ATP consists of: adenine ribose (a 5-carbon sugar) 3 phosphate groups Organisms, such as plants, which make their own food, are called. Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups Organisms, such as animals, that must obtain energy from the foods they consume are. ATP The three phosphate groups are the key to ATP's ability to store and release energy.

2 Storing Energy ADP has two phosphate groups instead of three. A cell can store small amounts of energy by adding a phosphate group to ADP. ADP + Energy ATP The energy from ATP is needed for many cellular activities, including active transport across cell membranes, protein synthesis and muscle contraction. ATP s characteristics make it exceptionally useful as the basic of all cells. Energy Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) What is the structure, function, and importance of ATP Releasing Energy Energy stored in ATP is released by the chemical bond between the second and third phosphates. Structure 2 Phosphate groups Importance P ADP Function

3 8-1 Energy And Life Using Biochemical Energy Using Biochemical Energy Most cells have small amount of ATP ATP is not a good way to store large amounts of energy. Cells can get more ATP from ADP from. 8-2 Photosynthesis: An Overview Light and Pigments What is the role of light and chlorophyll in photosynthesis? Plants get energy from the process of. Plants use to convert and into and. 8-2 Photosynthesis: An Overview The Photosynthesis Equation What is the overall equation for photosynthesis? 8-2 Photosynthesis: An Overview Light and Pigments In addition to water and carbon dioxide, photosynthesis requires light and. - light-absorbing molecules that gather the sun's energy - main pigment in plants is. There are two main types of chlorophyll: chlorophyll a chlorophyll b End

4 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Inside a 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Inside a Inside a In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Photosynthesis requires two reactions - - reactions takes place in membranes - - reactions (Calvin cycle) takes place in the - the region outside the thylakoid membranes. Plant cells 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Inside a 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Inside a Granum Single thylakoid Light H 2 O CO 2 NADP + stroma Lightdependent reactions ADP + P Calvin Cycle cycle Photosystems O 2 Sugars

5 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Electron Carriers Electron Carriers When electrons in chlorophyll absorb sunlight, the electrons gain a great deal of energy. Cells use electron to transport these highenergy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules. One carrier molecule is. Electron carriers, such as NADP +, electrons. NADP + accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion (H + ). This converts the NADP + into NADPH. 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Electron Carriers The conversion of NADP + into NADPH is one way some of the energy of sunlight can be trapped in chemical form. The NADPH carries high-energy to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell. high-energy electrons - help build a variety of molecules the cell needs, including.