2015 AP Biology PRETEST Unit 3: Cellular Energetics Week of October

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1 Name: Class: _ Date: _ 2015 AP Biology PRETEST Unit 3: Cellular Energetics Week of October Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction? C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O + Energy A) C 6 H 12 O 6 is oxidized and O 2 is reduced. B) O 2 is oxidized and H 2 O is reduced. C) CO 2 is reduced and O 2 is oxidized. D) C 6 H 12 O 6 is reduced and CO 2 is oxidized. E) O 2 is reduced and CO 2 is oxidized. 2) When a molecule of NAD + (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule becomes A) dehydrogenated. B) oxidized. C) reduced. D) redoxed. E) hydrolyzed. 3) Where does glycolysis take place in eukaryotic cells? A) mitochondrial matrix B) mitochondrial outer membrane C) mitochondrial inner membrane D) mitochondrial intermembrane space E) cytosol 1

2 Name: 4) The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by A) substrate level phosphorylation. B) electron transport. C) photophosphorylation. D) chemiosmosis. E) oxidation of NADH to NAD +. 5) The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event? A) glycolysis B) accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain C) the citric acid cycle D) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA E) the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP 6) Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O 2 ) is present or absent? A) electron transport B) glycolysis C) the citric acid cycle D) oxidative phosphorylation E) chemiosmosis 2

3 Name: 7) Starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy containing products of glycolysis are A) 2 NAD +, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP. B) 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP. C) FADH 2, 2 pyruvate, and 4 ATP. D) 6 CO 2, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP. E) 6 CO 2, 2 pyruvate, and 30 ATP. 8) Which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO 2 ) from one molecule of pyruvate? A) lactate B) glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate C) oxaloacetate D) acetyl CoA E) citrate 9) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration? A) glycolysis and the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA B) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle C) the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation D) oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation E) fermentation and glycolysis 3

4 Name: 10) Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located? A) cytosol B) mitochondrial outer membrane C) mitochondrial inner membrane D) mitochondrial intermembrane space E) mitochondrial matrix 11) In cellular respiration, the energy for most ATP synthesis is supplied by A) high energy phosphate bonds in organic molecules. B) a proton gradient across a membrane. C) converting oxygen to ATP. D) transferring electrons from organic molecules to pyruvate. E) generating carbon dioxide and oxygen in the electron transport chain. 12) In chemiosmosis, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP + i to ATP? A) energy released as electrons flow through the electron transport system B) energy released from substrate level phosphorylation C) energy released from dehydration synthesis reactions D) energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase, down their electrochemical gradient E) No external source of energy is required because the reaction is exergonic. 4

5 Name: 13) Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H + into which location in eukaryotic cells? A) cytosol B) mitochondrial outer membrane C) mitochondrial inner membrane D) mitochondrial intermembrane space E) mitochondrial matrix 14) Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion? A) cytosol B) electron transport chain C) outer membrane D) inner membrane E) mitochondrial matrix 15) Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water? A) glycolysis B) fermentation C) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA D) citric acid cycle E) oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis) 5

6 Name: 16) In liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membranes are about five times the area of the outer mitochondrial membranes. What purpose must this serve? A) It allows for an increased rate of glycolysis. B) It allows for an increased rate of the citric acid cycle. C) It increases the surface for oxidative phosphorylation. D) It increases the surface for substrate level phosphorylation. E) It allows the liver cell to have fewer mitochondria. 17) In prokaryotes, the respiratory electron transport chain is located A) in the mitochondrial inner membrane. B) in the mitochondrial outer membrane. C) in the plasma membrane. D) in the cytoplasm. E) in the bacterial outer membrane. 18) Which metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation? A) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA B) the citric acid cycle C) oxidative phosphorylation D) glycolysis E) chemiosmosis 6

7 Name: 19) One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to A) reduce NAD + to NADH. B) reduce FAD + to FADH 2. C) oxidize NADH to NAD +. D) reduce FADH 2 to FAD +. E) do none of the above. 20) When skeletal muscle cells undergo anaerobic respiration, they become fatigued and painful. This is now known to be caused by A) buildup of pyruvate. B) buildup of lactate. C) increase in sodium ions. D) increase in potassium ions. E) increase in ethanol. 21) Phosphofructokinase is an allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of fructose 6 phosphate to fructose 1,6 bisphosphate, an early step of glycolysis. In the presence of oxygen, an increase in the amount of ATP in a cell would be expected to A) inhibit the enzyme and thus slow the rates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. B) activate the enzyme and thus slow the rates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. C) inhibit the enzyme and thus increase the rates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. D) activate the enzyme and increase the rates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. E) inhibit the enzyme and thus increase the rate of glycolysis and the concentration of citrate. 7

8 Name: Figure 9.2 The citric acid cycle. 22) Starting with one molecule of isocitrate and ending with fumarate, how many ATP molecules can be made through substrate level phosphorylation (see Figure 9.2)? A) 1 B) 2 C) 11 D) 12 E) 24 23) For each mole of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) oxidized by cellular respiration, how many moles of CO 2 are released in the citric acid cycle (see Figure 9.2)? A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 12 E) 3 8

9 Name: 24) For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (see Figure 9.2), what is the total number of NADH + FADH 2 molecules produced? A) 4 B) 5 C) 6 D) 10 E) 12 25) When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs? A) The ph of the matrix increases. B) ATP synthase pumps protons by active transport. C) The electrons gain free energy. D) The cytochromes phosphorylate ADP to form ATP. E) NAD + is oxidized. 26) Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle? A) CO 2 and glucose B) H 2 O and O 2 C) ADP, i, and NADP + D) electrons and H + E) ATP and NADPH 9

10 Name: 27) Where does the Calvin cycle take place? A) stroma of the chloroplast B) thylakoid membrane C) cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplast D) interior of the thylakoid (thylakoid space) E) outer membrane of the chloroplast 28) When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by product of A) reducing NADP +. B) splitting water molecules. C) chemiosmosis. D) the electron transfer system of photosystem I. E) the electron transfer system of photosystem II. 29) In the thylakoid membranes, what is the main role of the pigment molecules in a light-harvesting complex? A) split water and release oxygen to the reaction center chlorophyll B) transfer light energy to the reaction center chlorophyll C) synthesize ATP from ADP and i D) transfer electrons to ferredoxin and then NADPH E) concentrate photons within the stroma 10

11 Name: 30) Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II? A) Light energy excites electrons in the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain. B) Photons are passed along to a reaction center chlorophyll. C) The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADP +, which is thus converted to NADPH. D) The electron vacancies in P680 + are filled by electrons derived from water. E) The splitting of water yields molecular carbon dioxide as a by product. 31) Which of the following are directly associated with photosystem I? A) harvesting of light energy by ATP B) receiving electrons from the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain C) generation of molecular oxygen D) extraction of hydrogen electrons from the splitting of water E) passing electrons to the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain 32) As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find 30,000 molecules of ATP consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH. Where did the extra ATP molecules come from? A) photosystem II B) photosystem I C) cyclic electron flow D) linear electron flow E) chlorophyll 11

12 Name: 33) Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes? A) the splitting of water B) the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll C) the flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I D) the synthesis of ATP E) the reduction of NADP + 34) What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve? A) establishment of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane B) diffusion of electrons through the thylakoid membrane C) reduction of water to produce ATP energy D) movement of water by osmosis into the thylakoid space from the stroma E) formation of glucose, using carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP 35) Reduction of NADP + occurs during A) photosynthesis. B) respiration. C) both photosynthesis and respiration. D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration. E) the dark reactions. 12

13 Name: 36) Carotenoids are often found in foods that are considered to have antioxidant properties in human nutrition. What related function do they have in plants? A) They serve as accessory pigments to increase light absorption. B) They protect against oxidative damage from excessive light energy. C) They shield the sensitive chromosomes of the plant from harmful ultraviolet radiation. D) They reflect orange light and enhance red light absorption by chlorophyll. E) They take up and remove toxins from the groundwater. 37) In thylakoids, protons travel through ATP synthase from the thylakoid space to the stroma. Therefore, the catalytic "knobs" of ATP synthase would be located A) on the side facing the thylakoid space. B) on the ATP molecules themselves. C) on the pigment molecules of photosystem I and photosystem II. D) on the stromal side of the membrane. E) built into the center of the thylakoid stack (granum). 38) What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle? A) use ATP to release carbon dioxide B) use NADPH to release carbon dioxide C) split water and release oxygen D) transport RuBP out of the chloroplast E) synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide 13

14 Name: 39) Photorespiration occurs when rubisco reacts RuBP with A) CO 2. B) O 2. C) glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate. D) 3 phosphoglycerate. E) NADPH. 40) Why are C 4 plants able to photosynthesize with no apparent photorespiration? A) They do not participate in the Calvin cycle. B) They use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO 2. C) They are adapted to cold, wet climates. D) They conserve water more efficiently. E) They exclude oxygen from their tissues. 41) CAM plants keep stomata closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they A) fix CO 2 into organic acids during the night. B) fix CO 2 into sugars in the bundle sheath cells. C) fix CO 2 into pyruvate in the mesophyll cells. D) use the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which outcompetes rubisco for CO 2. E) use photosystem I and photosystem II at night. 14

15 Name: 42) The alternative pathways of photosynthesis using the C 4 or CAM systems are said to be compromises. Why? A) Each one minimizes both water loss and rate of photosynthesis. B) C 4 compromises on water loss and CAM compromises on photorespiration. C) Both minimize photorespiration but expend more ATP during carbon fixation. D) CAM plants allow more water loss, while C 4 plants allow less CO 2 into the plant. E) C 4 plants allow less water loss but CAM plants allow more water loss. 43) Plants photosynthesize only in the light. Plants respire A) in the dark only. B) in the light only. C) both in light and dark. D) never they get their ATP from photophosphorylation. E) only when excessive light energy induces photorespiration. 15

16 Name: 44) Figure 10.1 shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis. Why are they different? A) Green and yellow wavelengths inhibit the absorption of red and blue wavelengths. B) Bright sunlight destroys photosynthetic pigments. C) Oxygen given off during photosynthesis interferes with the absorption of light. D) Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a. E) Aerobic bacteria take up oxygen, which changes the measurement of the rate of photosynthesis. 45) What wavelength of light in the figure is most effective in driving photosynthesis? A) 420 mm B) 475 mm C) 575 mm D) 625 mm E) 730 mm 16

17 Name: 46) Which of the following statements is true concerning Figure 10.3? A) It represents a C 4 photosynthetic system. B) It represents the type of cell structures found in CAM plants. C) It represents an adaptation that maximizes photorespiration. D) It represents a C 3 photosynthetic system. E) It represents a CAM photosynthetic system. 17

18 Name: 47) Referring to Figure 10.3, oxygen would inhibit the CO 2 fixation reactions in A) cell I only. B) cell II only. C) neither cell I nor cell II. D) both cell I and cell II. E) cell I during the night and cell II during the day. 48) The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with A) light energy. B) CO 2 and ATP. C) H 2 O and NADPH. D) ATP and NADPH. E) sugar and O 2. 49) How is photosynthesis similar in C 4 plants and CAM plants? A) In both cases, only photosystem I is used. B) Both types of plants make sugar without the Calvin cycle. C) In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially. D) Both types of plants make most of their sugar in the dark. E) In both cases, thylakoids are not involved in photosynthesis. 18

19 Name: 50) In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to A) substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis. B) oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration. C) the Calvin cycle. D) carbon fixation. E) reduction of NADP +. 19