Photosynthesis and Life

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1 7-1 Chapter 7

2 Photosynthesis and Life During photosynthesis Organisms use the energy of light to build highenergy organic molecules. Plants, algae, and some bacteria can do this. Can make their own food using light Called photosynthetic autotrophs 99.9% of all life on earth relies on photosynthesis for their energy. Heterotrophs eat autotrophs. 7-2

3 An Overview of Photosynthesis 7-3 Photosynthesis occurs in Chloroplasts Contain the pigment that captures the energy in light Chlorophyll Found in membranous sacs called grana A stack of grana is called a thylakoid. Grana are suspended in a fluid-filled space called the stroma. During photosynthesis The energy in light is used to make ATP. The energy in ATP is used to make organic molecules such as glucose.

4 Photosynthesis, Chloroplasts, and the Structure of a Leaf 7-4

5 An Overview of Photosynthesis 7-5 The chemical equation of photosynthesis: Light energy + carbon dioxide + water glucose and oxygen The three events of photosynthesis Light-capturing events The pigment chlorophyll absorbs certain wavelengths of light and some of its electrons become excited. Light-dependent reactions These reactions use the energy in the excited electrons to make ATP and NADPH. Light-independent reactions ATP and NADPH from the light reactions is used to reduce carbon dioxide to make glucose.

6 An Overview of Photosynthesis 7-6

7 Light-Capturing Events: Fundamental Concepts 7-7 Visible light Combinations of different wavelengths of light Can be seen as different colors Pigments are molecules that absorb light. Each pigment absorbs certain wavelengths of light. The wavelengths that they do not absorb, they reflect. This is the color we see. In photosynthesis, only the wavelengths that are absorbed can be used to do work. Chlorophyll: The main photosynthetic pigment Two forms: a and b Absorb light in the blue and red portions of the spectrum Reflect green wavelengths

8 The Electromagnetic Spectrum, Visible Light and Chlorophyll 7-8

9 Light-Dependent Reactions: Fundamental Concepts 7-9 The excited electrons from chlorophyll Are passed through an electron transport chain The energy released is used to pump protons up their concentration gradient. When protons diffuse through ATP synthase, ATP is made. Excited electrons passed to NADP + to make NADPH Water is split Electrons are donated to chlorophyll to replace the donated electrons. Oxygen is produced. Occurs in the thylakoid membrane ATP and NADPH move to the stroma to be used in the dark reactions.

10 Light-Independent Reactions: Fundamental Concepts The ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions Provide the energy and electrons needed to build sugar from carbon dioxide CO 2 is captured by an enzyme called RuBisCO Combines CO 2 with ribulose to form a 6-carbon molecule This is immediately split into two 3-C molecules. NADPH is used to reduce these molecules. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is formed. Can be used to make sugars, proteins, or fats 7-10

11 Photosynthesis: Fundamental Description 7-11

12 Light-Capturing Events: The Details Light Packaged as photons Each photon has a distinct wavelength. The energy in a photon is related to its wavelength. When a photon hits a pigment molecule, electrons are excited. This means that the electrons jump up to a higher energy level. 7-12

13 Light-Capturing Events: The Details Continued 7-13 Photosystems Structures in which the light-capturing events take place Found in the thylakoid membranes Made up of antenna complexes and a reaction center Networks of chlorophyll and accessory pigments Capture the energy in many different wavelengths of light and pass it to the reaction center The reaction center is a special chlorophyll molecule that passes its excited electrons to an electron acceptor. There are two photosystems, I and II.

14 Light Independent Reactions: The Details Takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast Uses CO 2 (from the atmosphere) ATP and NADPH (from the light-independent reactions) Ribulose (recycled) Also called the dark reactions Also called the Calvin cycle 7-14

15 Carbon Fixation and Sugar Formation Carbon dioxide gas is combined with a 5-carbon sugar called ribulose. Accomplished with an enzyme called ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) Forms a 6-carbon molecule Immediately broken down into two 3-carbon molecules These 3-carbon molecules are Energized by ATP Reduced by NADPH Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is formed. 7-15

16 The Calvin Cycle 7-16

17 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate: The Product of Photosynthesis 7-17 Glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate can be used for many things. Used to make glucose Used to recycle ribulose for the Calvin cycle Used to make the sugars needed to build ATP, DNA, and RNA Can be converted into lipids Can be converted into amino acids to make proteins Can be broken down in glycolysis

18 Other Aspects of Plant Metabolism Plant cells can use the organic molecules produced in photosynthesis to make Fats, proteins, and other carbohydrates Toxins for their protection Many of these are useful medicines. Some can be used as natural insecticides. Vitamins Molecules that we cannot make, but that we need 7-18

19 Interrelationships Between Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Autotrophs use the energy in light to make food. Autotrophs use the food they make in cellular respiration. Plants use the sugar they make! Plants use the oxygen they make! Heterotrophs eat the autotrophs. Then use the food from the autotrophs to fuel cellular respiration They also use the excess oxygen given off by autotrophs. All organisms respire! The circle of life: Animals get sugar, oxygen, amino acids, fats, and vitamins from plants. Plants get carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen from animals. 7-19

20 The Relationship between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration 7-20

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