Photosynthesis. From Sunlight to Sugar

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1 Photosynthesis From Sunlight to Sugar

2 What is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars used as food for producers. The light energy is stored as chemical energy in the sugars.

3 What is Photosynthesis? Autotrophs (producers) use sunlight energy to build carbohydrates. Organisms that can perform photosynthesis: Plants, Algae and some Bacteria

4 Where does it occur in the cell? Occurs in the Chloroplast of a cell Grana

5 The Chloroplast Contains Chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs and traps light energy from the sun. Grana: within the chloroplast. Stacks of thylakoids. Thylakoid: Membrane sacs that contain the chlorophyll. Stroma: Fluid filled space that surrounds the grana.

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7 Carotene Chlorophyll Membranes of the thylakoids contain chlorophyll. Absorbs most light; reflects green (and yellow) light (this is why we see it as green). Plants have other photosynthetic pigments: Carotenoids These are not green so they absorb and reflect other spectrums of light. They are less abundant so they get masked by chlorophyll making leaves look green. Xanthophyll

8 Chlorophyll Green (and yellow) light are Reflected.

9 What is the overall Photosynthesis Reaction? (light) 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O O 2 (Water + Carbon Dioxide) (chlorophyll) (Glucose + Oxygen) Some released into The atmosphere Taken into the leave Absorbed by the roots Transferred to all Parts of the plant

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11 Steps of Photosynthesis STEP 1 is the LIGHT REACTION The Photo part; Light is required Occurs in the Thylakoid of a chloroplast. Chlorophyll traps light energy

12 Steps of Photosynthesis STEP 2: CALVIN CYCLE The light Independent Reaction or Dark Reaction. The Synthesis part of photosynthesis; Glucose is made. Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. Stroma

13 Step 1: Light Reaction Detail Light energy causes chlorophyll electrons to get excited and gain energy. the excited electrons lose energy which is used to perform the following: Split water: 2 H 2 O 2H + + O 2 Trapped as ATP: ADP + P + energy from the e - Picked up by NADP (an electron carrying molecule): e - + 2H + + NADP NADPH + H + (The electron carrier)

14 Step 1: Light Reaction Split water releasing e - ATP formed NADPH picking up e -

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17 Overview: Used: H 2 O Step 1: Light Reaction Light Energy Produced: NADPH from NADP picking up free Hydrogen Ions O 2 from split H 2 O ATP from energy given off by excited chlorophyll electrons Sunlight + H 2 O ATP + NADPH + O 2

18 Step 2: Calvin Cycle Detail From the Light Reaction comes hydrogen ions (from NADPH), electrons, and ATP. Calvin Cycle: CO 2 and H + are cycled through a series of reactions with the help from ATP producing glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) which is used as food for the plant and has chemical energy stored in it.

19 Step 2: Calvin Cycle Carbon Molecule Complex Continues Cycle ADP + P To the Light Reaction Glucose NADP Back

20 Step 2: Calvin Cycle ATP from the Light Reaction provides energy to drive the cycle. Energy from ATP is stored in newly formed Carbon bonds of glucose.

21 Step 2: Calvin Cycle Overview No light needed Used: H + carried by NADPH ATP CO 2 Produced: C 6 H 12 O 6 (Glucose) ADP + P (Back to Light Reaction) NADP + (Back to Light reaction) ATP + NADPH + CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6

22 Reactants diffused into the chloroplast Products leaving Chloroplast

23 Steps of Photosynthesis (light/energy) 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O O 2 (chlorophyll) Step 1: Light Reaction: Sunlight + H 2 O ATP + NADPH + O 2 Step 2: Calvin Cycle (Dark Reaction): ATP + NADPH + CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6

24 Review What is the purpose of photosynthesis? Write the overall balanced equation and circle the main product. Underline the waste product.

25 Review What is the purpose of photosynthesis? To trap light energy in sugars which are used as food for the plant. Write the overall balanced equation and circle the main product. Underline the waste product. (light/energy) 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O O 2 (chlorophyll)

26 Review What is the purpose of the light reaction? What is the purpose of the Calvin Cycle? What is transferred from the Light Reaction to the Calvin Cycle?

27 Review What is the purpose of the light reaction? To absorb light energy What is the purpose of the Calvin Cycle? To produce simple sugar (glucose) What is transferred from the Light Reaction to the Calvin Cycle? ATP and NADPH

28 Review If you put a plant in green light and blue light, what would you expect in terms of its growth? A) Both plants will not grow since white light is necessary. B) Plant in green would grow, plant in blue light would not. C) Plant in green would not grow, plant in blue would grow. D) Both would grow

29 Review If you put a plant in green light and blue light, what would you expect in terms of its growth? A) Both plants will not grow since white light is necessary. B) Plant in green would grow, plant in blue light would not. C) Plant in green would not grow, plant in blue would grow. D) Both would grow

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