Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

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1 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

2 What you will learn: GPS Standard SB3a Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. IN OTHER WORDS Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration are complementary processes that depend on each other.

3 You should know All cells (plant or animal) need energy to live, grow, and reproduce. Plant cells get their energy from the sun Animal cells get their energy from food

4 About Photosynthesis It s a chemical reaction!!! Reactants Products *Reactants are the needed materials. *Products are the things being made. Molecules used in Photosynthesis CO 2 carbon dioxide O 2 oxygen H 2 O water C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose (a sugar)

5 Photosynthesis Reaction What is the equation for photosynthesis? carbon dioxide + water + energy glucose + oxygen 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

6 Photosynthesis Reaction This is why plants take in carbon dioxide from the air. Plants use this as food energy. We can eat plants to get energy. 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 This is why plants need sunlight. This is why plants need water. This is why plants produce oxygen.

7

8 Where Does it Occur? Photosynthesis Occurs in the Chloroplast Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, the green pigment that can trap sunlight. Plants, algae, and certain bacteria contain these chloroplasts.

9 Stages of Photosynthesis Stage 1: Light-Dependent Reactions Light energy is absorbed and converted into chemical energy (ATP and NADPH). Stage 2: Light-Independent Reaction (also called Calvin Cycle) ATP and NADPH are used to make glucose.

10 Stages of Photosynthesis

11 Stage 1: Light-Dependent Reactions Light hits the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts. Electron transport chains form ATP and NADPH (energystoring molecules) Oxygen that is formed will leave the leaf Thylakoid: flat disc-shaped sacs arranged in stacks called granum/grana Pigments: light-absorbing colored molecules in thylakoid membranes (chlorophyll) Label the chloroplast on your green sheet.

12 Stage 2: Light-Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle Occurs in stroma of the chloroplasts. Stores chemical energy from ATP and NADPH in glucose, an organic molecule (carbohydrate) Can happen in light or dark Stroma: fluid filled space outside the grana

13 Label your sheet

14 About Cellular Respiration It s also a chemical process!!! The word respiration means breathing, but cellular respiration is different from breathing. Cellular respiration is the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food.

15 Equation for Cellular Respiration Glucose Oxygen Water Energy Visual Summary 6.3

16 Equation for Cellular Respiration This is why we eat. Plants don t eat; they make this with sunlight. The energy released from the glucose is stored in molecules of ATP for later use. Glucose Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water Energy This is why we breathe in oxygen. This is why we breathe out carbon dioxide. The water we can use.

17 Where Does it Occur? Cellular Respiration Occurs in the mitochondria Here the energy released from glucose is stored in ATP molecules. Most organisms have these.

18 Stages of Cellular Respiration Stage 1: Glycolysis (anaerobic) Occurs in cytoplasm: 1 molecule of Glucose is broken down. 2 net molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of pyruvate are formed. (4 total ATP are made.) Stage 2: Kreb s Cycle (aerobic) Occurs in mitochondrial matrix: Pyruvate produced in glycolysis is converted to carbon dioxide. 2 molecules of ATP are formed. **aka tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or citric acid cycle** Stage 3: Electron Transport (aerobic) Occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria: Produces 32 ATP as electrons and hydrogen ions from NADH and FADH 2 convert ADP to ATP

19 Stage 1: Glycolysis Occurs in cytoplasm Anaerobic Produces 4 ATP Uses 2 ATP to split 1 glucose (6 C) into 2 pyruvate (3 C) molecules Energy and hydrogen are used to make NADH (electron carrier).

20 Stage 2: Kreb s Cycle Occurs in mitochondrial matrix Aerobic 2 turns of cycle for each molecule of glucose Pyruvate from glycolysis is broken down into 6 CO 2 NADH and FADH 2 are used in electron transport

21 Stage 3: Electron Transport Chain Occurs in membrane of mitochondria Aerobic NADH and FADH 2 from Kreb s cycle release electrons which move from protein to protein 34 ATP are produced in eukaryotes

22 Label your sheet

23 Respiration vs. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis and respiration are complementary processes in the living world. They are opposite processes, and neither can exist without the other.

24 Cellular Respiration -vs- Photosynthesis Organisms Reactants (What is needed?) Products (What is being made?) Photosynthesis Plants, algae, some bacteria CO 2, H 2 O, chlorophyll, sun Glucose, O 2 Respiration Most organisms (Including plants) Glucose, O 2 CO 2, H 2 O, ATP When it occurs daylight night and day Where it occurs Chloroplast in cell Mitochondria of cell

25 SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS Heat Sunlight Photosynthesis Cellular respiration

26 FERMENTATION NO OXYGEN AVAILABLE!!! When cells run out of oxygen, cellular respiration can not take place. Cells will use the process called FERMENTATION to get small amounts of energy. FERMENTATION OCCURS IN THE CYTOPLASM. Products of Fermentation: Lactic acid Alcohol

27 FERMENTATION Anaerobic process Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells Pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis is either converted to lactic acid (lactic acid fermentation) or it forms alcohol (alcoholic fermentation).

28 FERMENTATION

29 FERMENTATION

30 Review Question # 1 1. What of these is not needed for photosynthesis? A. carbon dioxide B. oxygen C. water D. energy

31 Review Question # 1 1. What of these is not needed for photosynthesis? A. carbon dioxide B. oxygen C. water D. energy

32 Review Question # 2 2. Respiration happens in A. animals B. plants C. neither plants nor animals D. both plants and animals

33 Review Question # 2 2. Respiration happens in A. animals B. plants C. neither plants nor animals D. both plants and animals

34 Review Question # 3 3. In respiration the released energy is stored in molecules of A. glucose B. DNA C. carbon dioxide D. ATP

35 Review Question # 3 3. In respiration the released energy is stored in molecules of A. glucose B. DNA C. carbon dioxide D. ATP

36 Review Question # 4 4. Which statement about photosynthesis is most correct? A. The reaction is exothermic. B. Energy is required to construct the glucose molecules. C. Energy is released in the reaction. D. ATP molecules are used to start the reaction.

37 Review Question # 4 4. Which statement about photosynthesis is most correct? A. The reaction is exothermic. B. Energy is required to construct the glucose molecules. C. Energy is released in the reaction. D. ATP molecules are used to start the reaction.

38 Review Question # 5 5. Which statement about respiration is not correct? A. The reaction is exothermic. B. Energy is required to construct the glucose molecules. C. Energy is released in the reaction. D. Energy released is used to create ATP molecules.

39 Review Question # 5 5. Which statement about respiration is not correct? A. The reaction is exothermic. B. Energy is required to construct the glucose molecules. C. Energy is released in the reaction. D. Energy released is used to create ATP molecules.

40 Review Question # 6 6. Which chemical is not a product of respiration? A. carbon dioxide B. ATP C. oxygen D. water

41 Review Question # 6 6. Which chemical is not a product of respiration? A. carbon dioxide B. ATP C. oxygen D. water

42 Review Question # 7 7. Chlorophyll A. makes glucose B. traps sunlight energy C. produces oxygen D. produces carbon dioxide

43 Review Question # 7 7. Chlorophyll A. makes glucose B. traps sunlight energy C. produces oxygen D. produces carbon dioxide

44 Review Question # 8 8. Where does respiration happen? A. in the mitochondria B. in ATP C. in the chloroplast D. in glucose molecules

45 Review Question # 8 8. Where does respiration happen? A. in the mitochondria B. in ATP C. in the chloroplast D. in glucose molecules

46 Review Question # 9 9. We breathe oxygen because A. it is needed to make glucose molecules. B. it is needed to make ATP molecules. C. it is needed to break apart ATP molecules. D. it is needed to break apart glucose molecules.

47 Review Question # 9 9. We breathe oxygen because A. it is needed to make glucose molecules. B. it is needed to make ATP molecules. C. it is needed to break apart ATP molecules. D. it is needed to break apart glucose molecules.

48 Review Question # Which is the correct formula for photosynthesis? A) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O B) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy C) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 D) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy

49 Review Question # Which is the correct formula for photosynthesis? A) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O B) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy C) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 D) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy

50 Review Question # Which is the correct formula for cellular respiration? A) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O B) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy C) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 D) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy

51 Review Question # Which is the correct formula for cellular respiration? A) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O B) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy C) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 D) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy

52 Review Question # Which statement best shows the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? A) They both need the same reacting chemicals. B) They both produce the same products. C) They are opposite processes, each needing the other s products. D) They are opposite processes, each needing oxygen to occur.

53 Review Question # Which statement best shows the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? A) They both involve oxygen as a part of the chemical reaction. B) They both are processes involving energy. C) They are opposite processes, each needing the other s products. D) They are opposite processes, each needing oxygen to occur.

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