The main form of energy from the sun is in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Visible radiation (white light) used for photosynthesis ROY G.

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1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS

2 The main form of energy from the sun is in the form of electromagnetic radiation Visible radiation (white light) used for photosynthesis ROY G. BIV

3 The electromagnetic spectrum

4 A Red Object absorbs the blue and green wavelengths and reflects the red wavelengths

5 Why are plants green?

6 pigment a compound that absorbs light different pigments absorb different wavelengths of white light. chlorophyll is a pigment that absorbs red & blue light (photons) so green is reflected or transmitted. Chlorophyll is located in the thylakoid membranes So, Plants are green because the green wavelength is reflected, not absorbed.

7 2 types of chlorophyll Chlorophyll a involved in light reactions Chlorophyll b assists in capturing light energy accessory pigment Carotenoids accessory pigments captures more light energy Red, orange & yellow

8 During the fall, what causes the leaves to change colors?

9 Photosynthesis is - conversion of light energy into chemical energy that is stored in organic compounds (carbohydrates > glucose) Used by autotrophs such as: Plants Algae Some bacteria (prokaryotes)

10

11 Photosynthesis equation Light energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Chlorophyll Reactants: Carbon dioxide and water Products: glucose and oxygen which is a byproduct

12 Where does photosynthesis take place?

13 Plants Mainly occurs in the leaves: a. stoma - pores b.mesophyll cells Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast Stoma

14 Stomata (stoma) Pores in a plant s cuticle through which water vapor and gases (CO 2 & O 2 ) are exchanged between the plant and the atmosphere. Stoma Oxygen (O 2 ) Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Guard Cell Guard Cell Found on the underside of leaves

15 Chloroplast Organelle where photosynthesis takes place. Outer Membrane Inner Membrane Stroma Thylakoid Granum Thylakoid stacks are connected together

16 Parts Ø chloroplasts dbl membrane organelle that absorbs light energy Ø Thylakoids flattened sacs contain pigment - chlorophyll Ø Grana (pl: granum) layered thylakoids (like pancakes) Ø Stroma solution around thylakoids Ø Stomata pore on underside of leaf where O 2 is released and CO 2 enters Ø Stroma : chloroplast :: cytosol : cytoplasm

17 What do cells use for energy?

18 Energy for Life on Earth Sunlight is the ULTIMATE energy for all life on Earth Plants store energy in the chemical bonds of sugars Chemical energy is released as ATP during cellular respiration

19 Photosynthesis 1. Light Reaction - Produces energy from solar power (photons) in the form of ATP and NADPH. SUN 2. Calvin Cycle (Also know as the Dark Reaction) Also called Carbon Fixation or Carbon Cycle, Uses energy (ATP and NADPH) from light reaction to make sugar (glucose).

20 Stages: STAGE 1 - LIGHT REACTIONS - energy from sun is used to split water into H+ an O2 STAGE 2 energy is converted to chemical energy & stored in ATP & NADPH in stroma STAGE 3 - CALVIN CYCLE where carbon is fixed into glucose

21 Light Reaction (Electron Flow) Occurs in the Thylakoid membranes 2 possible routes for electron flow: Use Photosystem I and Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and generate ATP only OR use Photosystem II and Photosystem I with ETC and generate O 2, ATP and NADPH

22 Calvin Cycle - Biochemical pathway in photosynthesis that produces organic compounds using ATP & NADPH Carbon fixation carbon atoms from CO 2 are bonded or fixed into carbohydrates occurs in stroma

23 Calvin Cycle Carbon Fixation C 3 plants (80% of plants on earth) Occurs in the stroma Uses ATP and NADPH from light reaction as energy Uses CO 2 To produce glucose: it takes 6 turns and uses 18 ATP and 12 NADPH.

24 Calvin Cycle Remember: C 3 = Calvin Cycle C 3 Glucose

25 Rate of photosynthesis is effected by - light intensity, CO 2 or temperature High intensity or high CO 2 = high rate Growth graph levels off (plateau) High temp = initial high rate but peaks Rate drops when stomata closes

26 Recap Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy thru series of biochemical pathways oxygen is byproduct ATP synthesized across thylakoid Calvin cycle carbon is fixed & sugar produced

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