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1 AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 Introduction: Plant Power Plants use water and atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce a simple sugar and liberate oxygen Earth s plants produce 160 billion metric tons of sugar each year through photosynthesis, a process that converts solar energy to chemical energy Sugar is food for humans and for animals that we consume Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Light energy 6 CO H 2 O C 6 H 12 O O 2 Carbon dioxide Water Glucose Oxygen gas Photosynthesis

4 7.1 Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere Autotrophs are living things that are able to make their own food without using organic molecules derived from any other living thing Autotrophs that use the energy of light to produce organic molecules are called photoautotrophs Most plants, algae and other protists, and some prokaryotes are photoautotrophs Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 7.1 Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere The ability to photosynthesize is directly related to the structure of chloroplasts Chloroplasts are organelles consisting of photosynthetic pigments, enzymes, and other molecules grouped together in membranes Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 7.2 Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts in plant cells Chloroplasts are the major sites of photosynthesis in green plants Chlorophyll, an important light absorbing pigment in chloroplasts, is responsible for the green color of plants Chlorophyll plays a central role in converting solar energy to chemical energy Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 7.2 Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts in plant cells Chloroplasts are concentrated in the cells of the mesophyll, the green tissue in the interior of the leaf Stomata are tiny pores in the leaf that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to exit Veins in the leaf deliver water absorbed by roots Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 7.2 Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts in plant cells An envelope of two membranes encloses the stroma, the dense fluid within the chloroplast A system of interconnected membranous sacs called thylakoids segregates the stroma from another compartment, the thylakoid space Thylakoids are concentrated in stacks called grana Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Leaf Cross Section Leaf Mesophyll Vein CO 2 O Stoma 2 Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast Outer and inner membranes Stroma Thylakoid Granum Thylakoid space Intermembrane space

10 Leaf Cross Section Leaf Mesophyll Vein CO 2 O Stoma 2 Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast

11 Chloroplast Outer and inner membranes Stroma Thylakoid Granum Thylakoid space Intermembrane space

12

13 Reduction 6 CO H 2 O C 6 H 12 O O 2 Oxidation

14 7.4 Photosynthesis is a redox process, as is cellular respiration Recall that cellular respiration uses redox reactions to harvest the chemical energy stored in a glucose molecule This is accomplished by oxidizing the sugar and reducing O 2 to H 2 O The electrons lose potential as they travel down an energy hill, the electron transport system In contrast, the food-producing redox reactions of photosynthesis reverse the flow and involve an uphill climb Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 Oxidation C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O Reduction

16 7.4 Photosynthesis is a redox process, as is cellular respiration In photosynthesis, electrons gain energy by being boosted up an energy hill Light energy captured by chlorophyll molecules provides the boost for the electrons As a result, light energy is converted to chemical energy, which is stored in the chemical bonds of sugar molecules Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 7.5 Overview: The two stages of photosynthesis are linked by ATP and NADPH Actually, photosynthesis occurs in two metabolic stages One stage involves the light reactions In the light reactions, light energy is converted in the thylakoid membranes to chemical energy and O 2 Water is split to provide the O 2 as well as electrons Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 7.5 Overview: The two stages of photosynthesis are linked by ATP and NADPH H + ions reduce NADP + to NADPH, which is an electron carrier similar to NADH NADPH is temporarily stored and then shuttled into the Calvin cycle where it is used to make sugar Finally, the light reactions generate ATP Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 7.5 Overview: The two stages of photosynthesis are linked by ATP and NADPH The second stage is the Calvin cycle, which occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast It is a cyclic series of reactions that builds sugar molecules from CO 2 and the products of the light reactions During the Calvin cycle, CO 2 is incorporated into organic compounds, a process called carbon fixation Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 7.5 Overview: The two stages of photosynthesis are linked by ATP and NADPH NADPH produced by the light reactions provides the electrons for reducing carbon in the Calvin cycle ATP from the light reactions provides chemical energy for the Calvin cycle The Calvin cycle is often called the dark (or lightindependent) reactions Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 H 2 O Chloroplast Light NADP + ADP P LIGHT REACTIONS (in thylakoids)

22 H 2 O Chloroplast Light NADP + ADP P LIGHT REACTIONS (in thylakoids) ATP NADPH O 2

23 H 2 O Chloroplast CO 2 Light LIGHT REACTIONS (in thylakoids) NADP + ADP P ATP CALVIN CYCLE (in stroma) NADPH O 2 Sugar

24 THE LIGHT REACTIONS: CONVERTING SOLAR ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENERGY Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 7.6 Visible radiation drives the light reactions Sunlight contains energy called electromagnetic energy or radiation Visible light is only a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum, the full range of electromagnetic wavelengths Electromagnetic energy travels in waves, and the wavelength is the distance between the crests of two adjacent waves Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 7.6 Visible radiation drives the light reactions Light behaves as discrete packets of energy called photons A photon is a fixed quantity of light energy, and the shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 Increasing energy 10 5 nm 10 3 nm 1 nm 10 3 nm 10 6 nm 1 m 10 3 m Gamma rays X-rays UV Infrared Microwaves Radio waves Visible light Wavelength (nm) 650 nm

28 7.6 Visible radiation drives the light reactions Pigments, molecules that absorb light, are built into the thylakoid membrane Plant pigments absorb some wavelengths of light and transmit others We see the color of the wavelengths that are transmitted; for example, chlorophyll transmits green Animation: Light and Pigments Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 Light Reflected light Chloroplast Thylakoid Absorbed light Transmitted light

30 Chlorophyll Molecules Absorb the Light Energy that Drives Photosynthesis

31 7.6 Visible radiation drives the light reactions Chloroplasts contain several different pigments and all absorb light of different wavelengths Chlorophyll a absorbs blue violet and red light and reflects green Chlorophyll b absorbs blue and orange and reflects yellow-green The carotenoids absorb mainly blue-green light and reflect yellow and orange Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Light Intensity, Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Temperature Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis

33 Measuring Photosynthesis in an Aquatic Plant Use an indirect method Measure the ph of the solution with an indicator dye When photosynthesis is active the CO2 in the solution declines and the ph goes up Elodea plants in test tubes

34 Respiration

35 Cellular Respiration Stores the Energy from Glucose in ATP Molecules

36 Cellular Respiration Occurs in Both the Cytoplasm and the Mitochondria There are Two Types of Cellular Respiration Aerobic (with O 2 ) and Anaerobic (without O 2 ) Aerobic Respiration: 1. Glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid 2. Pyruvic acid is oxidized to CO 2 2 ATPs 36 ATPs

37 Anaerobic Respiration Occurs in the Absence of Oxygen There are two main types of anaerobic respiration

38 Anaerobic Respiration is Important in the Food Industry

39 Mung Bean Seed Germination Experiment When CO2 is dissolved in water the solution becomes more acidic During respiration CO2 is produced lowering the ph

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