4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.

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1 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.

2 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATP. Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds. Starch molecule Glucose molecule

3 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions. Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed. ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added. phosphate removed

4 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP. Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP. not stored in large amounts up to 36 ATP from one glucose molecule tri=3 adenosine triphosphate adenosine diphosphate di=2

5 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Fats store the most energy. 80 percent of the energy in your body about 146 ATP from a triglyceride Proteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP. amino acids not usually needed for energy about the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate

6 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP A few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy. Some organisms live in places that never get sunlight. In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to build carbon-based molecules. similar to photosynthesis uses chemical energy instead of light energy

7 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis KEY CONCEPT The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy.

8 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic organisms are producers. Producers make their own source of chemical energy. Plants use photosynthesis and are producers. Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.

9 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Chlorophyll is a molecule that absorbs light energy. In plants, chlorophyll is found in organelles called chloroplasts. chloroplast leaf cell leaf

10 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis in plants occurs in chloroplasts. Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts. grana (thylakoids) stroma grana (thylakoids) chloroplast stroma

11 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis The light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight. take place in thylakoids water and sunlight are needed chlorophyll absorbs energy energy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactions oxygen is released

12 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis The light-independent reactions make sugars. take place in stroma needs carbon dioxide from atmosphere use energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions

13 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis The equation for the overall process is: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 1 chloroplast granum (stack of thylakoids) 6H 2 O 2 6O 2 6CO 2 thylakoid energy stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids) 1 six-carbon sugar 3 4 C 6 H 12 O 6

14 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail KEY CONCEPT Photosynthesis requires a series of chemical reactions.

15 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail The first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy. The light-dependent reactions include groups of molecules called photosystems.

16 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail Photosystem II captures and transfers energy. chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight energized electrons enter electron transport chain water molecules are split oxygen is released as waste hydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane

17 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail Photosystem I captures energy and produces energycarrying molecules. chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight energized electrons are used to make NADPH NADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions

18 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail The light-dependent reactions produce ATP. hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the thylakoid membrane ATP synthase attached to the channel makes ATP

19 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail The second stage of photosynthesis uses energy from the first stage to make sugars. Light-independent reactions occur in the stroma and use CO 2 molecules.

20 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight. carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle energy is added and carbon molecules are rearranged a high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle

21 4.3 Photosynthesis in Detail A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight. two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar remaining molecules stay in the cycle

22 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen.

23 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars. Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen. Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria. mitochondrion animal cell

24 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration Glycolysis must take place first. anaerobic process (does not require oxygen) takes place in cytoplasm splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules produces two ATP molecules

25 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis. The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron transport chain. takes place in mitochondrial matrix breaks down three-carbon molecules from glycolysis makes a small amount of ATP releases carbon dioxide transfers energy-carrying molecules Krebs Cycle 1 3 energy from glycolysis and 6O 2 mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) energy 2 inner membrane and 6CO 2 ATP ATP and 6H 2 O 4

26 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP. takes place in inner membrane energy transferred to electron transport chain oxygen enters process ATP produced water released as a waste product 1 Electron Transport 3 energy from glycolysis and 6O 2 mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) energy 2 6CO 2 inner membrane and ATP ATP and 6H 2 O 4

27 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration The equation for the overall process is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.

28 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail KEY CONCEPT Cellular respiration is an aerobic process with two main stages.

29 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail Glycolysis is needed for cellular respiration. The products of glycolysis enter cellular respiration when oxygen is available. two ATP molecules are used to split glucose four ATP molecules are produced two molecules of NADH produced two molecules of pyruvate produced

30 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail The Krebs cycle is the first main part of cellular respiration. Pyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle. carbon dioxide released NADH produced coenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule

31 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.

32 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules. NADH and FADH 2 are made intermediate molecule with CoA enters Krebs cycle citric acid (six-carbon molecule) is formed citric acid is broken down, carbon dioxide is released, and NADH is made five-carbon molecule is broken down, carbon dioxide is released, NADH and ATP are made four-carbon molecule is rearranged

33 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH 2 to make ATP. high-energy electrons enter electron transport chain energy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner membrane hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the membrane

34 4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH 2 to make ATP. The breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to 38 molecules of ATP. ATP synthase produces ATP oxygen picks up electrons and hydrogen ions water is released as a waste product

35 4.6 Fermentation KEY CONCEPT Fermentation allows the production of a small amount of ATP without oxygen.

36 4.6 Fermentation Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable. Fermentation is an anaerobic process. occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respiration does not produce ATP

37 4.6 Fermentation Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable. NAD + is recycled to glycolysis Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells. glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules pyruvate and NADH enter fermentation energy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acid NADH is changed back into NAD +

38 4.6 Fermentation Fermentation and its products are important in several ways. Alcoholic fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation. glycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermentation energy from NADH is used to split pyruvate into an alcohol and carbon dioxide NADH is changed back into NAD + NAD + is recycled to glycolysis

39 4.6 Fermentation Fermentation is used in food production. yogurt cheese bread