Chapter 7: Photosynthesis

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1 Chapter 7: Photosynthesis

2 Electromagnetic Spectrum Shortest wavelength Longest wavelength Gamma rays X-rays UV radiation Visible light Infrared radiation Microwaves Radio waves

3 Photons Packets of light energy Each type of photon has fixed amount of energy Photons having most energy travel as shortest wavelength (blue-violet light)

4 Visible Light shortest wavelengths (most energetic) gamma rays x rays range of most radiation reaching Earth s surface ultraviolet radiation near-infrared radiation range of heat escaping from Earth s surface infrared radiation microwaves longest wavelengths (lowest energy) radio waves VISIBLE LIGHT Wavelengths of light (nanometers) Wavelengths humans perceive as different colors Violet (380 nm) to red (750 nm) Longer wavelengths, lower energy Fig. 7-2, p.108

5 Pigments Colors you can see are the wavelengths not absorbed These light catching particles capture energy from the various wavelengths.

6 Variety of Pigments Chlorophylls a and b Carotenoids - orange Anthocyanins - purple/red Phycobilins - red Xanthophylls - yellow

7 Wavelength absorption (%) Chlorophylls chlorophyll a chlorophyll b Wavelength (nanometers)

8 percent of wavelengths absorbed Accessory Pigments Carotenoids, Phycobilins, Anthocyanins beta-carotene phycoerythrin (a phycobilin) wavelengths (nanometers)

9 Pigments Fig. 7-3a, p.109

10 Pigments Fig. 7-3b, p.109

11 Pigments Fig. 7-3c, p.109

12 Pigments Fig. 7-3d, p.109

13 PB10o&feature=fvsr Fig. 7-3e, p.109

14 Pigments Fig. 7-3e, p.109

15 Pigments in Photosynthesis Bacteria Pigments in plasma membranes Plants Pigments and proteins organized in chloroplast membranes

16 T.E. Englemann s Experiment Background Certain bacterial cells will move toward places where oxygen concentration is high Photosynthesis produces oxygen

17 T.E. Englemann s Experiment

18 T.E. Englemann s Experiment Fig. 7-5, p.110

19 Linked Processes Photosynthesis Energy-storing pathway Releases oxygen Requires carbon dioxide Aerobic Respiration Energy-releasing pathway Requires oxygen Releases carbon dioxide

20 Photosynthesis Equation 12H 2 O + 6CO 2 Water Carbon Dioxide LIGHT ENERGY 6O 2 + C 2 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O Oxygen Glucose Water In-text figure Page 111

21 Chloroplast Structure two outer membranes stroma inner membrane system (thylakoids connected by channels) Fig. 7-6, p.111

22 Photosynthesis Fig. 7-6a, p.111

23 Photosynthesis two outer membranes thylakoid compartment thylakoid membrane system inside stroma stroma Fig. 7-6b, p.111

24 Photosynthesis SUNLIGHT H 2 O O 2 CO 2 lightdependant reactions NADPH, ATP NADP +, ADP sugars lightindependant reactions CHLOROPLAST Fig. 7-6c, p.111

25 Where Atoms End Up Reactants 12H 2 O 6CO 2 Products 6O 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 6H 2 O

26 Two Stages of Photosynthesis sunlight water uptake carbon dioxide uptake ATP LIGHT- DEPENDENT REACTIONS ADP + P i NADPH NADP + LIGHT- INDEPENDENT REACTIONS P glucose oxygen release new water

27 Light-Dependent Reactions Pigments absorb light energy, give up e -, which enter electron transfer chains Water molecules split, ATP and NADH form, and oxygen is released Pigments that gave up electrons get replacements

28 LIGHT- HARVESTING COMPLEX PHOTOSYSTEM II sunlight PHOTOSYSTEM I H + NADPH e - e - e - e - e - e - H 2 O e - O 2 H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + NADP + + H + thylakoid compartment thylakoid membrane stroma cross-section through a disk-shaped fold in the thylakoid membrane ADP + P i H + ATP Fig. 7-8, p.113

29 Arrangement of Photosystems water-splitting complex thylakoid compartment H 2 O 2H + 1/2O 2 P680 P700 acceptor acceptor PHOTOSYSTEM II pool of electron carriers stroma PHOTOSYSTEM I

30 Photosystem Function: Harvester Pigments Most pigments in photosystem are harvester pigments When excited by light energy, these pigments transfer energy to adjacent pigment molecules Each transfer involves energy loss

31 Photosystem Function: Reaction Center Energy is reduced to level that can be captured by molecule of chlorophyll a This molecule (P700 or P680) is the reaction center of a photosystem Reaction center accepts energy and donates electron to acceptor molecule

32 Electron Transfer Chain Adjacent to photosystem Acceptor molecule donates electrons from reaction center As electrons pass along chain, energy they release is used to produce ATP

33 Pigments in a Photosystem reaction center

34 Cyclic Electron Flow Electrons are donated by P700 in photosystem I to acceptor molecule flow through electron transfer chain and back to P700 Electron flow drives ATP formation No NADPH is formed

35 Cyclic Electron Flow electron acceptor e e electron transfer chain e Electron flow through transfer chain sets up conditions for ATP formation at other membrane sites. ATP e

36 Noncyclic Electron Flow Two-step pathway for light absorption and electron excitation Uses two photosystems Produces ATP and NADPH Involves photolysis - splitting of water

37 Machinery of Noncyclic Electron Flow photolysis H 2 O e second electron transfer chain PHOTOSYSTEM II first electron transfer chain NADP + PHOTOSYSTEM I e NADPH ADP + P i ATP SYNTHASE ATP

38 Potential to transfer energy (volts) Energy Changes e e first transfer chain e e second transfer chain NADPH (Photosystem I) (Photosystem II) H 2 O 1/2O 2 + 2H +

39 PHOTOSYSTEM II p680* PHOTOSYSTEM I p700* e - NADPH NADH + photon p700 p680 2H 2 O 4H + + O 2 Noncyclic Pathway of ATP and NADPH Formation Fig. 7-9b, p.114

40 Chemiosmotic Model of ATP Formation Electrical and H + concentration gradients are created between thylakoid compartment and stroma H + flows down gradients into stroma through ATP synthesis Flow of ions drives formation of ATP

41 Chemiosmotic Model for ATP Formation Photolysis in the thylakoid compartment splits water H + is shunted across membrane by some components of the first electron transfer chain Gradients propel H + through ATP synthases; ATP forms by phosphate-group transfer H 2 O e acceptor PHOTOSYSTEM II ADP + P i ATP SYNTHASE ATP

42 Light-Independent Reactions Synthesis part of photosynthesis Can proceed in the dark Take place in the stroma Calvin-Benson cycle

43 Calvin-Benson Cycle Overall reactants Carbon dioxide ATP NADPH Overall products Glucose ADP NADP +

44 6CO 2 Calvin- ATP Benson 6 RuBP 12 PGA 12 Cycle 6 ADP ATP Calvin-Benson cycle 12 ADP + 12 P i 12NADPH 4 P i 12 NADP + 10 PGAL 12 PGAL 1 P i 1 phosphorylated glucose Fig. 7-10b, p.115

45 6 CO 2 (from the air) Calvin- Benson Cycle CARBON FIXATION 6 6 RuBP unstable intermediate 12 PGA 6 ADP 6 ATP 4 P i 10 PGAL 2 PGAL P i 12 PGAL 12 ATP 12NADPH 12 ADP 12 P i 12 NADP + P glucose

46 Calvin- Benson Cycle THESE REACTIONS PROCEED IN THE CHLOROPLAST S STROMA Fig. 7-10a, p.115

47 The C3 Pathway In Calvin-Benson cycle, the first stable intermediate is a three-carbon PGA Because the first intermediate has three carbons, the pathway is called the C3 pathway

48 Photorespiration in C3 Plants On hot, dry days stomata close Inside leaf Oxygen levels rise Carbon dioxide levels drop Rubisco attaches RuBP to oxygen instead of carbon dioxide Only one PGAL forms instead of two

49 C3 Plants Fig. 7-11a1, p.116

50 C3 Plants upper epidermis palisade mesophyll spongy mesophyll lower epidermis stoma leaf vein air space Basswood leaf, cross-section. Fig. 7-11a2, p.116

51 Stomata closed: CO 2 can t get in; O 2 can t get out C3 Plants Rubisco fixes oxygen, not carbon, in mesophyll cells in leaf RuBP Calvin-Benson Cycle 6 PGA + 6 glycolate 5 PGAL 6 PGAL 1 PGAL CO 2 + water Twelve turns of the cycle, not just six, to make one 6-carbon sugar Fig. 7-11a3, p.117

52 C4 Plants Carbon dioxide is fixed twice In mesophyll cells, carbon dioxide is fixed to form four-carbon oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate is transferred to bundle-sheath cells Carbon dioxide is released and fixed again in Calvin-Benson cycle

53 C4 Plants Fig. 7-11b1, p.117

54 C4 Plants upper epidermis mesophyll cell bundlesheath cell lower epidermis Basswood leaf, cross-section.

55 Carbon fixed in the mesophyll cell, malate diffuses into adjacent bundlesheath cell In bundle-sheath cell, malate gets converted to pyruvate with release of CO 2, which enters Calvin-Benson cycle pyruvate C4 cycle oxaloacetate malate CO 2 RuBP Calvin- 12 PGAL Benson Cycle 10 PGAL 2 PGAL PEP Stomata closed: CO 2 can t get in; O 2 can t get out 12 PGAL C4 Plants 1 sugar Fig. 7-11b3, p.117

56 CAM Plants Carbon is fixed twice (in same cells) Night Carbon dioxide is fixed to form organic acids Day Carbon dioxide is released and fixed in Calvin- Benson cycle

57 CAM Plants Fig. 7-11c1, p.117

58 stoma epidermis with thick cuticle mesophyll cell air space CAM Plants Fig. 7-11c2, p.117

59 Stomata stay closed during day, open for CO 2 uptake at night only. CAM Plants C4 cycle operates at night when CO 2 from aerobic respiration fixed C4 CYCLE CO 2 that accumulated overnight used in C3 cycle during the day Calvin- Benson Cycle 1 sugar Fig. 7-11c3, p.117

60 Summary of Photosynthesis light 12H 2 O LIGHT-DEPENDENT REACTIONS 6O 2 ADP + P i ATP NADP + NADPH LIGHT-INDEPENDENT REACTIONS 6CO 2 PGA RuBP CALVIN- BENSON CYCLE PGAL 6H 2 O P C 6 H 12 O 6 (phosphorylated glucose) end product (e.g., sucrose, starch, cellulose) Figure 7-14 Page 120

61 Photoautotrophs Capture sunlight energy and use it to carry out photosynthesis Plants Some bacteria Many protistans

62 Photoautotrophs Winter NORTH AMERICA ATLANTIC OCEAN SPAIN AFRICA Spring Fig. 7-13, p.119

63 Satellite Images Show Photosynthesis Atlantic Ocean Photosynthetic activity in spring Figure 7-13 Page 119

64 sunlight Light- Dependent Reactions 12H 2 O 6O 2 ADP + P i ATP NADPH NADP + Light- Independent Reactions 6CO 2 6 RuBP Calvin- Benson cycle 12 PGAL 6H 2 O phosphorylated glucose end products (e.g., sucrose, starch, cellulose) Fig. 7-14, p.120

65 Fig. 7-15, p.121

66 Fig. 7-16a, p.121

67 Fig. 7-16b, p.121

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