# Study Guide: Semester Two ( )

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1 Name Hour Study Guide: Semester Two ( ) Unit 5 Chapter 9 Momentum and its Conservation Chapter 10 Energy, Work and Simple Machines Chapter 11 Energy and its Conservation Vocabulary (define the following words) Note: You do not have to write these out. Just be sure you know what they are and understand the equations behind any definitions Energy Work Power Work-energy principle Kinetic energy Potential Energy Total Mechanical energy Kinetic energy Gravitational potential energy Conservation of Energy Impulse Impulse-momentum theorem Momentum Collisions (elastic and inelastic) Conservation of momentum Elastic collision inelastic collision 1. A kg hockey puck is moving across the ice. A player exerts a constant 55 N force over a distance of 2.00 m. a. How much work does the player do on the puck? b. What is the change in the puck s kinetic energy? c. If it took 5 seconds to move this distance, how much power did the player generate? 2. What is the kinetic energy of a 1000 kg roller coaster car that has a speed of 12 m/s? 3. What is the gravitational potential energy of a 1000 kg roller coaster car that is located 15 m above the ground? 4. What is meant by conservation of energy, specifically the conservation of total mechanical energy? 5. Consider a rollercoaster that has a mass of 250 kg on top of a hill that is 15 m tall and is at rest. At this point, calculate the KE, PE, TME 1

2 6. The roller coaster moves to the bottom of the hill. At this point, calculate the KE, PE, TME, and velocity 7. Finally, the roller coaster moves up a smaller hill, of height 12 m. At this point, calculate the KE, PE, TME, and velocity 8. Can a bullet and a car have the same momentum? How? 9. A 2000 kg SUV traveling at 30 m/s can be stopped in 20 s by gently stepping on the brakes, in 5 seconds in a panic stop, and in 0.2 s if it hits a concrete wall. Calculate the change in momentum and the average force applied to the SUV in each case. 10. Is the momentum of an object traveling in the positive x direction that same as an object traveling in the negative x direction, if they both have the same speed? 11. Which has more momentum, a large bus at rest at a stop sign, or a small insect flying across the road? Why? 12. What is meant by conservation of momentum? 13. A 2250 kg car going 25 m/s rear-ends a 850 kg compact car going 15 m/s (in the same direction). The two cars stick together. a. What is the velocity of the wreckage immediately after the collision? b. What is the kinetic energy before the collision? c. What is the kinetic energy after the collision? d. Is this collision elastic? How do you know? 14. An astronaut at rest in space fires her thruster pistol, expelling kg of hot gas at a speed of 900 m/s. The combined mass of the astronaut and pistol is 65 kg. How fast and in what direction does the astronaut go? 2

3 Unit 6 Chapter 20 Static Electricity Chapter 22 Current Electricity Chapter 23 Series and Parallel Circuits Electric charge elementary charge + and charge Charge conservation Coulomb Charge quantization Electric Field Coulomb s Law electric potential Potential difference Voltage or volt Electric current Amperes or Amps conventional current Electron current Ohm s Law resistance Ohm resistivity electrical power Direct current series circuit parallel circuit Effective resistance Kirchhoff s rules 15. What is the study of static charges and their effects called? 16. Explain the difference between charging by friction, conduction, induction 17. Explain the operation of an electroscope. 18. What are the appropriate units and symbols for electrostatic force, electric field, potential or voltage, work, capacitance? Consider two charges, one of 8.0 μc and the other of -22 μc, The two charges are separated by 25 cm. 19. Is the force between the two charges attractive or repulsive? 20. What is the force between the two objects? 21. Let s say you triple the distance between the charges. How does the force change? What is the force between them now? 22. Go back to the original distance, let s say that both charges now double. How does the force change? What is the force between them now? 23. What are the units for current, voltage, resistance? Coulombs of charge flows by a point on a wire in 2 hours. What is the current? 3

4 ma of current flows in 45 minutes. How much charge is that? 26. What is the difference between a series circuit and a parallel circuit? 27. In a series circuit what is the same for all resistors? What is different for all resistors? 28. In a parallel circuit what is the same for all resistors? What is different for all resistors? 29. What voltage will produce 550 ma of current through a 7.5 kω resistor? 30. An air conditioner draws 25.0 A of current when plugged into a 240 V outlet. Calculate the resistance of the AC and how much power the AC uses. 31. What is the voltage that can be applied to a 5.5 kω resistor that is rated at 0.50 W? Consider a set of three resistors. Resistor A has a resistance of 10 Ω, Resistor B has a resistance of 20 Ω, and Resistor C has a resistance of 60 Ω. There is also a battery of 180 V. 32. Draw a circuit with the battery and the three resistors in series with the each other. 33. In the circuit you just drew, find V across each resistor, I through each resistor, the power dissipated through each resistor, and the total current leaving the battery 34. Draw a circuit with the battery and the three resistors in parallel with the each other. 35. In the circuit you just drew, find V across each resistor, I through each resistor, the power dissipated through each resistor, and the total current leaving the battery 4

5 Unit 7 Chapter 14 Vibrations and Waves Chapter 15 - Sound Vibration Wave Amplitude Wavelength Frequency Hertz Period Crest Trough Node Antinode Interference (constructive and destructive) Reflection Transverse Wave equation Longitudinal Standing wave Surface wave Compression Rarefaction Resonance (dissonance and consonance) Pitch Beats Speed of sound Doppler Shift Harmonics Decibel Sound Intensity Threshold of hearing 10. When you shake a jump rope up and down, what kind of waves are you making? 11. When you and a group of friends get pushed in a crowded lunch line, what kind of waves are you making? 12. Suppose you are making waves on a jump rope, by shaking the end up and down. You then move you hand faster and faster up and down, without changing how far your hand moves. Describe what happens to the amplitude, frequency, period, and velocity of the wave. 13. Draw a picture showing two waves interfering constructively. 14. Draw a picture of two waves interfering destructively. 15. The time needed for a wave to make one complete cycle is its 16. The number of waves that pass by a fixed point in some fixed time is called its. 17. The temperature inside a building is 15 C. Calculate the speed of sound in this building. 18. What wave characteristic do we associate with the loudness of a sound wave? Frequency? 5

6 19. The intensity of a sound wave is 1.8 x 10-7 W/m 2. How loud is this in decibels? 20. If astronauts on the moon were to set off an explosive, would they hear it? Why or why not? 21. Which is faster- sound waves, light waves, or do they both travel at the same speed? 22. If a sound wave travels at 343 m/s with a frequency of 170 Hz, what is the wavelength? 23. You can hear beats when two tuning forks are sounded together. The tuning forks have labels showing them to be 242 Hz and 248 Hz frequencies. What is the frequency of the beats? 24. You have a open-closed tube that is 75 cm long. You use a 224 Hz tuning fork and you hear a resonance. a. What is the longest wavelength? b. What are the first 3 harmonics? c. What is the speed of sound in this location? 25. You have a fixed-fixed string that is 50 cm long. You use a 351 Hz tuning fork and you hear a resonance. a. What is the longest wavelength? b. What are the first 3 harmonics? c. What is the speed of sound in this location? 26. A train is approaching you at 20 m/s. It blows its whistle at a frequency of 440 Hz. If you are standing still, do you hear a higher or lower frequency? Now, after the train passes you, (and it is moving away from you) do you hear a higher or lower frequency? 6

7 Unit 8 Chapter 16 Fundamentals of Light Chapter 17 - Reflection and Mirrors Chapter 18 Refraction and Lenses Class notes Light and Color Angle of reflection Angle of incident Angle of refraction Critical angle Diffuse reflection Index of refraction Normal Snell s Law Total internal reflection Regular reflection Converging lens Diverging lens Concave mirror Convex mirror Plane mirror Images, upright and inverted Focal length Focal point Lens/mirror equation Magnification Objects Principal axis Real and virtual images Ray diagram Translucent Transparent Opaque Color by addition color by subtraction Color wheel RGB CYM Electromagnetic spectrum Visible light Radio waves Microwaves Infra-red Ultraviolet X-rays Gamma-rays A B C air 7 5 Water 6 E D 1. In the diagram above, identify, the normal, the incident ray, the reflected ray, the angle of incidence, the angle of reflection, and the angle of refraction. 2. Light travels from air into glass at an angle of incidence of 32º. The index of refraction of air is 1.0 and the index of refraction of glass is What is the angle of refraction? 3. For the same materials above, consider light traveling from glass into air. What is the critical angle? 4. What is the velocity of light in the glass? 5. What is the focal length of a plane mirror? 7

8 6. Describe the image formed by a plane mirror, if the object is located 2.2 m in front of the mirror. 7. Draw ray diagrams for a concave mirror with focal length of 10 cm a. With the object located 18 cm from the mirror b. With the object located 7.5 cm from the mirror c. In both cases, calculate the image location and magnification 8. Draw a ray diagram from a convex mirror with focal length of 15 cm a. With the object located 12 cm from the mirror b. Calculate the image location and magnification 9. Draw ray diagrams for a converging lens with focal length of 10 cm a. With the object located 22 cm from the lens b. With the object located 4.5 cm from the lens c. In both cases, calculate the image location and magnification 10. Draw a ray diagram from a diverging lens with focal length of 15 cm a. With the object located 8.5 cm from the mirror b. Calculate the image location and magnification 11. Fill in the color wheel for colors of light 12. The three primary colors of light addition are 13. The three primary colors of light subtraction are 14. What color results when red and blue are projected onto a white screen? 15. The complementary color of red is 8

9 16. Consider a blue object. a. What color does it appear if you shine white light on it? b. What color does it appear if you shine blue light on it? c. What color does it appear if you shine green light on it? d. What color does it appear if you shine magenta light on it? e. What color does it appear if you shine yellow light on it? 17. Consider a magneta object. a. What color does it appear if you shine white light on it? b. What color does it appear if you shine blue light on it? c. What color does it appear if you shine green light on it? d. What color does it appear if you shine magenta light on it? e. What color does it appear if you shine yellow light on it? 18. Consider an object that appears to be yellow a. What color could the object be if you were shining white light on it? b. What color could the object be if you were shining yellow light on it 19. Consider an object that appears to be green a. What color could the object be if you were shining white light on it? b. What color could the object be if you were shining yellow light on it 20. Find the color of the shadows for the situation below R B G 9

10 21. What are the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum? 22. A radio wave has a wavelength of 300 m. What is its frequency? (c = 3x10 8 m/s) What is the energy of a photon of this wave? (h = 6.63 x Js) 23. What is the difference between regular and diffuse reflection? 10

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