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1 PHYSICS 2 ND SEMESTER REVIEW Semester Test Notes: - You may use a 5 x 8 index card (NO LARGER) with equations, diagrams, and notes. - Your index card will be turned in with your test. - Most constants will be given. These include: G, k e, specific heats, heats of fusion and vaporization, linear expansion coefficients, indices of refraction, speed of light in air, and charges and masses of particles. - Bring a #2 pencil to the test!!!!! Chapter 12: Universal Gravitation History - Know the major contributions to the idea of universal gravitation by Newton and Cavendish. - Understand what the physical constant G represents. Universal Gravitation (Ch. 12 Questions #1 6) G m1 m2 - Use Fg = to calculate gravitational force. 2 d - Know how changes in mass or distance affect the gravitational force between two objects. Chapter 13: Effects of Gravity Gravity on Planets (Ch. 13 Questions #1 2, Lab 13.1) G m - Use a g = to calculate the acceleration of gravity on a planet. 2 r - Calculate the weight of an object based on the acceleration of gravity on that planet. - Know how changes in mass or radius affect the gravitational acceleration on a planet. Gravitational Phenomenon (Ch. 13 Questions #3 5) - Explain how black holes are formed. - Explain what happens to the mass and radius of a star as it becomes a black hole. Chapter 14: Satellite Motion Satellite Motion (Ch. 14 Questions #1 4, Lab 14.1) - Explain how Newton s Mountain Cannon drawing illustrated satellite motion. - Explain how tangential velocity determines if an object will... hit the ground without going into orbit... go into a circular orbit... go into an elliptical orbit... or escape Earth s gravity completely. G m - Use v = to calculate the tangential velocity of a satellite in a circular orbit. t r

2 Chapter 15: Special Relativity & Time Dilation History (Lab 15.1) - Know the significance of the Michelson-Morley experiment. - Know the two major postulates of Einstein s special theory of relativity. Time Dilation (Ch. 15 Questions #1 6, Lab 15.2) - Identify objects at rest and moving with respect to given events and frames of reference. - Explain why traveling at high speeds causes time to slow down. Chapter 16: Special Relativity Energy & Mass (Ch. 16 Questions #4 6) - Use E = m c 2 to calculate energy from rest mass. Chapter 19: Liquids Pressure from a Liquid (Ch. 19 Questions #1 5) - Calculate the weight density of a liquid. - Calculate pressure from a liquid. - Explain why pressure at equal depths does not depend on the total amount of liquid. (i.e. the water pressures 1 meter below a swimming pool and 1 meter below a large lake are equal.) Buoyant Forces (Ch. 19 Questions #6 13, Lab 19.1, Lab 19.2) - Use the weight difference method to calculate the buoyant force on an object. - Use the weight of displaced liquid method (Archimedes Principle) to calculate the buoyant force on an object. - Compare the weight of an object to the buoyant force on the object to determine if the object floats. Pascal s Principle (Ch. 19 Questions #14 17) - Explain how a hydraulic system functions as a type of simple machine. - Determine whether the force, area, distance, and pressure are relatively large or small on the input and output pistons of a hydraulic system. F1 F2 - Use P = = to calculate the pressure, force, or area of a piston in a hydraulics system. A A 1 2 Chapter 20: Gases Air Pressure (Ch. 20 Questions #1 6) - Identify the amount of standard atmospheric pressure. - Describe how a barometer is used to measure air pressure. - Calculate the height of a column of liquid in a barometer supported by standard air pressure. Bernoulli s Principle & the Lift Force (Ch. 20 Questions #7 16, Lab 20.1, Lab 20.2, Lab 20.3) - Use Bernoulli s Principle to calculate changes in fluid pressure caused by differences in velocity. - Use Bernoulli s Principle to explain why the lift force occurs on an airfoil. - Use the lift force equation to calculate the lift force on a given airfoil.

3 Chapter 21: Temperature, Heat, & Expansion Temperature Scales (Ch. 21 Questions #1 5, Lab 21.1) - Identify the freezing point and boiling point of water on each of the 3 temperature scales. - Convert temperatures from Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit. - Explain how to calibrate a thermometer using the freezing and boiling points of water. Thermal Energy & Heat (Ch. 21 Questions #6 15, Lab 21.2) - Use Q= m c ΔT to calculate the heat added to or removed from a substance. - Calculate the change in temperature of an object caused by adding or removing thermal energy. - Convert calories, kilocalories, and Joules. Thermal Expansion (Ch. 21 Questions #16 20) - Use L= α L0 Δ T to calculate expansion or contraction length caused by changing temperature. - Explain how a bimetallic strip works, and how it is used in a thermostat. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat (Ch. 21 Questions #21 23, Lab 21.3) - Understand that mechanical work and thermal energy are both forms of energy. - Explain why doing work on an object increases its temperature. - Use Q= m c ΔT and W = F d to compare the mechanical work and heat added to a substance. Chapter 22: Heat Transfer Conduction (Ch. 22 Questions #1 3) - Identify good conductors and poor conductors of thermal energy. - Identify factors which affect the conduction rate of an object. - Describe why good conductors of heat feel cold. Convection (Ch. 22 Questions #4 6) - Draw convection currents for a situation where an object is heated or cooled. - Identify situations that use convection currents to move heat. Chapter 23: Change of Phase Changes of State (Ch. 23 Questions #1 5) - Use Q= m to calculate the heat absorbed in melting and given off in fusion. H f - Use Q= m H v to calculate the heat absorbed in boiling and given off in condensation. - Identify phase changes when heat is given off and phase changes when heat is absorbed. Calorimetry & Changes of State (Ch. 23 Questions #6 10, Lab 23.1) - Use Q= m c ΔT to calculate the change in temperature needed before an object can change state. - Calculate the total heat needed to melt or boil a substance, including changes in temperature. Chapter 24: Thermodynamics Thermodynamics (Ch. 24 Questions #1 6) - Identify the parts of a Carnot heat engine. - Calculate the Carnot efficiency and actual efficiency of a heat engine. - Explain the difference between the Carnot efficiency and actual efficiency of a heat engine.

4 Chapter 25: Waves & Simple Harmonic Motion Pendulums (Ch. 25 Questions #1 4, Lab 25.1) - Identify the mass, amplitude, and length of a pendulum. - Use T p = 2π L g to calculate the time period of a pendulum. - Explain how a pendulum illustrates wave motion. Springs (Ch. 25 Questions #5 7, Lab 25.2) m - Use T s = 2π to calculate the time period of a spring. k - Use Hooke s Law to calculate the spring constant of a spring. - Explain how a spring illustrates wave motion. Types of Waves (Ch. 25 Questions #8 15) - Identify the crest, trough, amplitude, and wavelength of a wave. - Define and identify types of longitudinal and transverse waves - Use f = 1 to calculate the frequency or time period of a wave. T - Know the labels for frequency and time period. Chapter 26: Sound Sound Waves (Ch. 26 Questions #1 6, Lab 26.1) - Use v = f λ to calculate the velocity, frequency, and wavelength of a wave. - Know the speed of sound in air at room temperature. - Explain how the amplitude and frequency of a wave affect the sound heard. The Doppler Effect (Ch. 26 Questions #7 11) - Explain why moving sounds have variations in perceived frequency due to the Doppler Effect. ( v + v0 ) - Use f = f 0 to calculate the frequency of sound for a moving sound source or a moving listener. ( v v s ) - Explain what conditions can produce a sonic boom. Wave Interference (Lab 26.2) - Understand the conditions necessary for total constructive or destructive wave interference. - Sketch the resultant wave for a pair of waves with equal frequencies. Beat Frequencies (Ch. 26 Questions #12 14, Lab 26.2) - Understand the conditions necessary for a beat frequency to occur. - Explain the sound heard in a beat frequency. - Use fbeat = f1 f 2 to calculate the beat frequency in pairs of waves. Standing Waves (Ch. 26 Questions #15 25, Lab 26.3, Lab 26.4) - Explain the differences between standing waves in strings and standings waves in open-closed pipes. - Use diagrams to calculate the fundamental frequencies for strings and open-closed pipes of different lengths. - Identify nodes and antinodes in a standing wave. - Explain how standing waves affect the tones of a musical instrument.

5 Chapter 27: Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Waves (Ch. 27 Questions #1 12) - Identify types of electromagnetic waves. - Identify the relative wavelengths and frequencies of different types of electromagnetic waves. - Use v = f λ to calculate the frequency or wavelength of electromagnetic waves. - Know the velocity of light in air. - Compare the velocity of light in air to the velocity of light in different mediums. - Compare electromagnetic waves to sound waves. Chapter 28: Color & Spectra Color (Ch. 28 Questions #1 7) - Place colors in order of wavelength and frequency in the visible light spectrum. - Identify the primary colors for light and the colors produced when primary light colors are combined. - Explain how white and black colors are formed. Line Spectra (Ch. 28 Questions #8 12, Lab 28.1) - Explain how photons of light are produced. - Use E = h f to calculate the energy or frequency of a photon of light. Chapter 29: Reflection & Refraction Reflection (Ch. 29 Question #1 3) - Draw and identify the normal, angle of incidence, and angle of reflection on a diagram. - Use the angle of incidence to draw a reflected beam on a diagram. Refraction (Ch. 29 Question #4 5, Lab 29.1) - Explain how changes in the velocity of light cause light to refract when moving into a different medium. - Draw and identify the normal, angle of incidence, and angle of refraction on a diagram. - Use Snell s Law to calculate the angle of refraction of light in a material. - Explain why differences in the index of refraction cause prisms to form a spectrum. Chapter 30: Lenses Lenses (Ch. 30 Question #1 10, Lab 30.1, Lab 30.2) - Explain the difference between converging and diverging lenses. - Draw ray diagrams for objects in a converging lens. - Find the location and relative size of an image in a converging lens by using a ray diagram. - Calculate magnification of an image formed in a converging lens. - Calculate image distance of a converging or diverging lens using the lens equation. - Explain the term virtual image. Chapter 31: Interference & Diffraction Diffraction & Interference (Ch. 31 Question #1 5) - Explain what interference patterns look like and how they occur. - Explain why interference justifies the wave nature of light. - Use the interference equation to calculate the wavelength of light or the distance between bright spots.

6 Chapter 32: Electrostatics Coulomb s Law (Ch. 32 Questions #1 6) - Use Coulomb s Law to calculate the electrical force between two objects. - Determine if the electrical force between two objects is attractive or repulsive. - Compare the electrical force to the gravitational force. - Know the appropriate labels for charge and electrical force. Methods of Transferring Electrical Charge (Lab 32.1) - Identify and describe examples of charging by friction and conduction. - Determine the charges on two objects before and after charging by friction & conduction. Chapter 33: Electric Potential Electric Potential (Ch. 33 Question #1 6) - Understand the definitions of potential difference and potential energy. - Know the appropriate labels for potential difference and potential energy. PE - Use V = to calculate the potential energy of a particle in a potential difference. q - Use kinetic energy to calculate the speed of a particle after being accelerated by a potential difference. - Explain how the idea of potential difference is used in creating a battery. Chapter 34: Electric Circuits Electric Current (Ch. 34 Question #1) - Understand the definition of electric current. - Use electric current to calculate the charge moving through a circuit in a given amount of time. Ohm s Law (Ch. 34 Questions #2 4, Lab 34.1) - Use Ohm s Law to calculate the potential difference, current, and resistance of a circuit. - Know the appropriate labels for potential difference, current, and resistance. - Decide if a light bulb will be relatively bright or dim, based on measurements of potential difference, current, and resistance of a circuit. - Draw and label a schematic of an electrical circuit. - Understand how to use a Voltmeter, Ohmmeter, and Ammeter. Electric Power (Ch. 34 Questions #5 7) - Use P = I V to calculate the power, current, or electric potential of an electrical appliance. Chapter 35: Series & Parallel Circuits Series & Parallel Circuits (Ch. 35 Questions #1 4, Lab 35.1) - Explain the difference between a simple circuit, series circuit, and parallel circuit. - Calculate the equivalent resistance and total current for a series circuit or parallel circuit. - Draw a schematic for a series circuit or parallel circuit. - Explain the differences in distribution of current in a series circuit and parallel circuit. - Explain the differences in distribution of potential difference in a series circuit and parallel circuit. Chapter 36: Electromagnetism Magnetic Fields (Lab 36.1) - Sketch the shape and direction of magnetic field lines. - Explain how a magnetic compass needle can be used to determine the direction of a magnetic field line. Magnetic Force (Ch. 36 Questions #1 7) - Use the Right Hand Rule to determine the direction of a magnetic force. - Use F B = q v B and F B = I L B to calculate the amount of a magnetic force. - Know the appropriate labels for magnetic field and magnetic force.

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