# Final Worksheet. Equation And Constant Summary

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1 Equation And Constant Summary Final Worksheet These equations will be provided for you on the final. Know what they mean! Make notes on this page with which to study. v = d t t = d v d=vt If the speed is changing, v average = d t f = # of events time v = f l 1 f = 1 d o + 1 d i n = sini sinr P = W t P = V I E = P t Q = m c ΔT efficiency = work or energy out energy in cost = power in kw time in hours \$ kwh water: c = 4180 J/kg C, mass of 1 L = 1 kg For heaters: efficiency = heat energy added electricity used E K = 1 2 mv 2 v = 2E k m E P = mgh weight = mg F = ma F C = mv 2 r 1

2 Fill in the best word or phrase. Use each word once. Communications Chapter 1 1. the bending of waves as they pass into a new medium 2. curved outward 3. units of frequency, 1 / seconds 4. the distance a slinky or other medium is moved aside to make a pulse or wave 5. the number of actions, such as shakes, divided by time 6. the type of image that can be projected onto a screen 7. waves bounce off of a barrier 8. lying across 9. the material in which a wave is formed 10. the type of image that can be seen when looking at a mirror or lens 11. place in standing waves where no motion occurs 12. upside down 13. where light rays heading straight toward a mirror or lens come together 14. repeated disturbances in a medium that transfer energy 15. squeezed together 16. the length from crest to crest 17. lengthwise 18. large waves that seem not to move along the slinky 19. distance divided by time, or frequency times wavelength 20. a single disturbance in a slinky or other medium 21. the position of the slinky or other medium when no wave or pulse is present 22. any movement that repeats in a regular pattern 23. curved inward 24. causes the refracted ray exiting from a clear block to disappear amplitude compressed concave convex critical angle equilibrium focal point frequency Hertz inverted longitudinal medium node periodic pulse real reflection refraction speed standing waves transverse virtual wave wavelength 2

3 25. Sketch a pulse in a slinky. 26. Sketch a transverse wave in a slinky. 27. Sketch a longitudinal wave in a slinky. 28. Label the parts of a wave identified below as A through E. A B C A C D E D E B 29. For each of these figures, (a) say how many wavelengths are present, (b) measure and record the wavelength, (c) measure and record the amplitude. Measure to the nearest tenth of a centimeter. 3

4 30. The times in the table below were collected for a 650 cm long slinky. Fill in the remainder of the table. Time for pulse to travel from one end to the other (s) Average time (s) Wave Speed (cm/s) 31. A student makes 20 shakes on a slinky in 10.5 seconds. What is the frequency? The slinky is 450 cm long. The shakes make a standing wave that looks like this: What is the wavelength? What is the speed of the wave? 32. Classify these as transverse or longitudinal waves. water waves (on the surface) sound waves light waves 33. Changes in which of these items would affect the speed of a wave in a guitar string? tension amplitude frequency length string thickness 34. The pitch of a note is determined by the of the wave. 35. Give two ways to increase the pitch of a guitar string. 36. Draw a vibrating string in the space below. The wavelength is the length of the string. 37. Closing the bottom of a tube the pitch of the note. 4

5 38. Draw one complete wavelength of the sound waves generated in these tubes. Draw transverse standing waves, although we know the waves are longitudinal. What is the wavelength of the waves? 1 m 39. For an open tube, the wavelength of the sound is times the length of the tube. For a closed tube, the wavelength of the sound is times the length of the tube. 40. Assuming the speed of sound in air is 340 m/s, find the frequency of the waves in problem Name two electronic components that determine the pitch of a sound that is made electronically. 42. Explain how a speaker makes sounds. 43. What is a normal line? incident ray 44. In this figure, a. Draw and label a normal line at the point where the incident ray touches the mirror. b. Measure and label the angle of incidence. c. Draw and label the reflected ray. Label the angle of reflection. mirror 45. What is the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection for a plane mirror? 46. For a plane mirror, how are the angle of incidence and angle of reflection related? How are the object distance and image distance related? 5

6 47. In Figure 3, draw the reflected ray for incident ray A. Then draw another ray (call it incident ray B) also parallel to the center line. Finally, draw the reflected ray for incident ray B. A focal point center line Write a general rule about the path of reflected rays for incident rays like A and B that travel straight toward a concave mirror. 48. What is a real image, and where is it located in relation to the mirror that creates it? 49. What is a virtual image, and where is it located in relation to the mirror that creates it? 50. Convex mirrors and concave lenses both produce only images that are in size than the object. 6

7 51. Concave mirrors and convex lens can produce both and images. When the object is far away, a real image is produced, and the image position is the point (the point where rays directed straight at the lens or mirror come together). In this case, the image distance is equal to the. As the object is moved closer, the image in size, eventually becoming larger than the object. The image distance also. These images are all {right side up, inverted}. When the object reaches the focal point, the disappears. Moving the object inside the focal point produces a image. This image is in size than the object and {right side up, inverted}. 52. Draw the rays as they pass through this convex lens and continue on the other side of the lens. The focal length of this lens is 6 cm. 53. What is the focal length of a concave mirror that projects an image 36 cm from a mirror when the object is 56 cm from the mirror? 54. If you were designing a shaving mirror, would it be concave or convex? Explain. 55. Explain why side mirrors in cars and trucks are sometimes convex. 7

8 56. A beam of light enters a plastic block as shown below. The angle of refraction is 25. Make a drawing of the normal line and the refracted ray. Measure the angle of incidence. Write and label the angle of incidence and angle of refraction. Finally, calculate the index of refraction of this plastic. air clear plastic 57. When light rays enter a clear medium such as plastic, glass or water, they bend the normal. Rays at any angle up to 90 will enter the new medium. On the way out, moving back into the air, the ray bends the normal. At some angle, called the angle, the angle of refraction reaches 90 and no light leaves the clear medium. However, light does reflect back into the clear medium as though its edge were a. This effect is known as. 58. Color, like pitch, depends upon or. When paints are mixed, color occurs. In this case, only colors reflected by both paints are seen. When light bulbs of different colors overlap, color occurs. The color we see is ultimately determined by how the human interprets the signals it receives when light enters the. 8

9 Home Chapters 2 and 3 Fill in the best word or phrase. 59. makes work possible 60. type of circuit that has only one path for electrons 61. energy of motion 62. using a force to move an object 63. negatively charged particle 64. material that allows electrons to move easily 65. type of circuit that has multiple paths for electrons 66. measure of the opposition to the flow of electrons in a circuit 67. stored energy 68. objects with the same electrical charge do this 69. type of energy that involves the movement of electrons 70. closed path where electrons flow 71. material in which it is difficult for electrons to move 72. objects with opposite electrical charge do this 73. measure of the flow of electrons in a circuit 74. controls the flow of electrons in a circuit, turning it on and off 75. material from which light bulb filaments are made 76. work divided by time or voltage times current 77. the most efficient way to heat water, based on our experiments 78. the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a material by 1 C. 79. positively-charged particle 80. trips if the current in a household electrical circuit is too high 81. this uses the most electricity in the home, after the heater and air conditioner 82. measure of the push electrons get in a circuit, the work per unit charge attract circuit circuit breaker conductor current electricity electron energy immersion heater insulator kinetic parallel potential power proton repel resistance series specific heat switch tungsten voltage water heater work 9

10 83. List some forms of energy. 84. What is the law of conservation of energy? 85. Draw a series circuit, showing the generator, the wires and three light bulbs. Do the same for a parallel circuit. 86. TRUE FALSE In a series circuit, three identical bulbs will shine with equal brightness. 87. TRUE FALSE In a parallel circuit, three identical bulbs will shine with equal brightness. 88. TRUE FALSE Under equal voltage, the bulbs in a series circuit will be brighter than those in the parallel circuit. 89. TRUE FALSE Three bulbs in the series circuit are more difficult to light than three identical bulbs in the parallel circuit. 90. TRUE FALSE Removing a bulb in a series circuit will cause all bulbs to stop glowing. 91. TRUE FALSE Removing a bulb in a parallel circuit will cause all bulbs to stop glowing. 92. What happens when a single bulb is removed from a series circuit that has four bulbs? From a parallel circuit that has four bulbs? 93. Identical materials, a six volt battery and three light bulbs, are used to make series and parallel circuits. In each circuit, will all bulbs have equal brightness? In which circuit, the series or the parallel, will the bulbs shine more brightly? 10

11 94. Voltage is measured in, current in, resistance in and charge in. Energy is measured in and power in. The special unit used for household electrical energy use is the. One watt second is equal to one. One kilowatt equals watts. 95. Which lights will be controlled by each of the switches in this circuit? When you consider a particular switch, assume that all of the other switches are in the on position. 5 B 2 1 Switch Controls bulbs 1 2 A 4 C Fill in the missing numbers in this table. Assume a cost for electricity of \$0.11/kWh. Appliance Voltage (V) Current (A) Power (W) Power (kw) Time used / month (hrs) Refrigerator Cost (\$) Clothes Dryer Toaster Hair dryer A 250-watt immersion heater is operated for 4 minutes in a beaker filled with 0.75 L of water. The water temperature rises from 20 C to 35 C. (a) What is the energy supplied by the immersion heater, in Joules? (b) What is the heat energy added to the water? (c) What is the efficiency of the heater? 11

12 Fill in the best word. Use each word once. 98. a very sensitive meter that detects small amounts of current 99. a magnet made from a current-carrying coil of wire 100. the pole of a bar magnet that attracts the north end of a compass 101. the location where a bar magnet is the strongest 102. a magnet that does not require a current; example: a bar magnet 103. the source of energy for the electric motor you built 104. material that increases the strength of an electromagnet when placed in the core 105. the work done by your motor divided by the energy it used 106. the painted pole of a compass or bar magnet 107. any coil of wire battery efficiency electromagnet galvanometer iron north permanent pole solenoid south 108. An electric motor transforms energy into energy. A generator transforms energy into energy. In these and other energy conversions, some energy is always wasted as The shape of the magnetic field caused by current flowing in a straight wire is. When the wire is coiled, its magnetic field resembles that of a. The field is strongest Give two ways to change the polarity (that is, reverse the North and South poles) of an electromagnet Give three ways to increase the strength of an electromagnet. 12

13 112. Draw the shape of the magnetic field around a bar magnet. Show the direction of the field. Hint: Think about how a compass would point in different locations around the bar magnet Sketch a vertical wire with current moving up (label the direction of the current). Draw the direction of the magnetic field around the wire using the left hand rule. Repeat the above for a vertical wire with the current moving down, a horizontal wire with current moving to the right, and a horizontal wire with current moving to the left How many magnets are needed to create a magnetic force? How does a bar magnet attract a piece of iron? Why were both a coil of wire and a permanent magnet needed to make your electric motor spin? 13

14 115. The north side of a bar magnet is inserted into a solenoid connected to a galvanometer. The needle on the galvanometer moves to the right. N S Describe what would happen to the galvanometer needle under each of these conditions: (a) The bar magnet remains at rest inside the solenoid. N S (b) The bar magnet is pulled out of the solenoid. N S (c) The north side of the bar magnet is again inserted into the solenoid, this time with a faster speed. (d) The south side of the bar magnet is inserted into the solenoid. S N S N (e) The north side of the bar magnet is inserted into the other end of the solenoid. S N (f) The wires are connected to the galvanometer are switched and the bar magnet is inserted in the same way as at the beginning. switched N S 14

15 Fill in the best word or phrase. The Mechanics of Roller Coasters and Carousels 116. total distance divided by total time 117. the forces on a roller coaster rider expressed as a multiple of the rider s weight 118. the value of acceleration due to gravity on the Earth s surface 119. the speed of an object is given by this property of the curve on a distance vs. time graph 120. a change in speed or direction 121. an inward force that changes the direction of an object 122. stored energy due to the pull of the earth s gravity 123. the tendency of an object to keep moving at a constant speed in a straight line g = 9.8 m/s 2 acceleration average speed centripetal G-forces gravitational potential energy inertia slope 124. A roller coaster climbs the first hill as a motor does on it. The work done on the roller coaster increases its energy, and this energy is all the roller coaster has to continue its journey around the track. Since energy is being lost constantly due to between the roller coaster and the track, the hill of the roller coaster is the tallest. At the top of the first hill, almost all of the energy the roller coaster has is energy. This energy is converted to energy as the roller coaster glides to the bottom of the first hill What is the sensation as riders go over the tops of hills at a high rate of speed, or drop down very steep hills? What would be the force sensor reading at these points? 126. The G-forces on a roller coaster rider are usually the greatest at the of the first hill. The seat must not only support the of the rider, but must also put a on the rider to change the rider s direction from going to going back. The total force is often three or four times the rider s, so the force is 3 or 4 G s The Great American Scream Machine gives more G s at the bottom of the first hill than Nitro, even though Nitro is taller and faster. Why is this so? 15

16 128. At the top of a vertical loop, the rider is often still pressed into the seat, as the rider s continues to carry him or her upward. Forces such as those in a roller coaster loop that occur when objects move in a circle are known as forces. The direction of these forces is Explain why the floor of a Carousel is tilted inward Compare the linear speed of an inner horse on the Carousel to that of an outer horse. Compare the angular speeds of these horses. Explain the results What is the weight of 53-kg roller coaster rider? 132. Calculate the gravitational potential energy of a 72-kg roller coaster rider at the top of a 51-m high hill. What is the kinetic energy of this rider at the bottom of the hill? What is the speed of the rider at the bottom of the hill? 133. What is the centripetal force on a 60-kg rider going 25 m/s in a loop of radius 18 m? 16

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