# Academic Physics Spring Semester Final Review

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1 Spring Semester Final Review The Final will be 70 multiple choice questions. This review is intended to be a review and not all inclusive. You must study your notes, labs, quizzes and tests in order to be successful on the spring final exam. Please see your teacher for assistance. 1. What is the formula for momentum? p=mv 2. What are the units for momentum? kg m/s 3. What is impulse? Force added to an object over a period of time. 4. What is the equation for impulse? J=FΔt=mΔv 5. What is the Law of Conservation of Momentum? The total momentum of a system before a collision equals the total momentum of a system after a collision. 6. Describe what happens to momentum during a collision. The total momentum of a system before a collision equals the total momentum of a system after a collision. 7. What is an elastic collision? When two objects collide and bounce off each other. 8. What is an inelastic collision? When two objects collide and join together. 9. What is the formula Work? W=Force x distance 10. What is the unit for work? Joules 11. What is the formula for power? Power = Work / change in time 12. What is the unit for power? Watts

2 13. What is the formula for kinetic energy? KE = ½ m v What is the formula for potential energy? PE = m g h 15. How are kinetic and potential energy alike/different? Both are energy. KE is energy of motion, PE is stored energy. 16. How is sound produced? By vibrating objects 17. What is the physics definition of a wave? (Describe what happens to the matter and energy) A traveling disturbance from a vibrating source of energy that transfers energy but not matter. 18. Be able to label and or identify parts of a wave. (Transverse and Longitudinal) 19. What is the Doppler Effect? The effect produced by a moving source of waves in which there is an apparent upward shift in frequency for observers towards whom the source is approaching and an apparent downward shift in frequency for observers from whom the source is receding. 20. Describe the sound in terms of pitch and wavelength when an object is moving toward you. The pitch or frequency increases and the wavelength decreases. 21. Describe the sound in terms of pitch and wavelength when an object is moving away from you. The pitch or frequency decreases and the wavelength increases. 22. What type of matter does sound travel the fastest in? (solid, liquid or gas) Solid 23. What type of waves does not need a medium to travel through? Transverse or electromagnetic waves 24. What is wave interference? When two waves meet while traveling along the same medium. 25. What is reflection? A change in direction of waves when they bounce off a barrier. 26. What is refraction? A change in direction of waves as they pass from one medium to another. (the bending of the path of the waves)

3 27. What is diffraction? A change in direction of waves as they pass through an opening or around a barrier in their path 28. What is the equation for wave velocity? v=λf 29. What is infrasound? Sound waves that cannot be heard by humans and are less that 20 Hz 30. Give an example of an organism that uses infrasound. Elephants and whales 31. What are some examples of transverse waves? Electromagnetic waves and water waves 32. What are mechanical waves? Waves that need a medium. (examples are sound and water waves) 33. What are electromagnetic waves? They are transverse waves that do not need a medium. Examples include: radio waves, microwaves, light, x-rays 34. What is an example of a longitudinal, or compression wave? Sound waves 35. Draw two waves, one with a high frequency and one with low frequency. 36. What is the formula for Period (T)? 1/f 37. What is the formula for Frequency? 1/T or v/λ 38. What is the equation for Coulomb s Law? FE = kq1q2/d What is the unit for charge? Coulomb (C) 40. What is conduction? A method of charging a neutral object by contact with a charged object. (friction or contact) 41. What is induction? A method of charging an object with no direct contact (close but not touching)

4 42. What is polarization? The process of separating opposite charges within an object and it occurs in insulators. 43. What happens to electrons as two objects are rubbed together? The electrons are transferred. 44. Where are electrical charges the strongest? The charge is greatest where there are more field lines. 45. What is conservation of charge? The same number of electrons that leave one object enters another object. Electrons are not made or destroyed. 46. What is the direction of electric field lines? Positive towards negative 47. Know how to use the equation: OMIT 48. What is potential difference? voltage 49. What things affect the resistance of a wire? Thickness, material, length, temperature 50. What three things do you have to have for a circuit? Source, load, wire 51. What are the units for current? Amperes, amps (A) 52. What are the units for voltage? Volts (V) 53. What direction does current move in? Positive to negative 54. Give examples of a source. Battery, electrical outlet 55. Give examples of a load. Light bulb, resistor, motor 56. What are the symbols in a schematic diagram of a circuit for: a. Battery/cell b. Light bulb c. Resistor d. Wire

5 57. Compare and contrast series and parallel circuits. Series circuits have only one path for the electricity to travel. Parallel circuits have multiple paths for the electricity to travel. 58. What is the equation for resistance in a series circuit? RT = R1 +R2 +R3 59. What is the equation for resistance in a parallel circuit? 1/RT =1/ R1 +1/R2 +1/R3 60. What is the equation for Ohm s Law? V = IR 61. Where is a magnetic field the strongest? At the magnetic poles 62. How can you destroy/demagnetize a magnet? Heat or melt the magnet Expose the magnet to a stronger magnetic field Drop the magnet or hit it hard on something 63. What is the equation for magnetic field strength? OMIT 64. What are the ends of a magnet called? Poles 65. What is the direction of a magnetic field? North to South 66. What are magnetic field lines? Lines drawn to show the direction and strength of a magnetic field. 67. What three things affect the strength of an electromagnet? OMIT 68. Why does the Earth have a magnetic field? The earth s core is made of molten rock and metal (iron, nickel, and cobalt. The molten rock and metal moves by convection currents inside the earth and cause the magnetic field. 69. How to like magnetic poles act? Like poles repel. 70. Draw the magnetic field lines between two like poles.

6 71. How do opposite magnetic poles act? Opposite poles attract. 72. Draw the magnetic field lines between two opposite poles. 73. What is the electromagnetic spectrum? The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including light, radio waves, and x-rays. 74. Name the different types of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum and put them in order according to their wavelength, frequency, and energy. The following are listed in order of decreasing wavelength, and increasing frequency and energy: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma rays 75. Know when to use the speed of light constant (c). 76. Know how to use the wave equation to find the frequency or wavelength. 77. Know how to use the wave energy equation. OMIT 78. Compare and contrast plane mirrors, concave mirrors, and convex mirrors. Plane mirror flat reflective surface Concave mirror reflecting surface that is curved inward Convex mirror - reflecting surface that is curved outward 79. What is the difference between a real and a virtual image? Real images are always inverted. (For mirrors the real image is on the same side as the object, and for lenses the real image is on the opposite side as the object) Virtual images are always upright. (For mirrors the virtual image is on the opposite side as the object, and for lenses the virtual image is on the same side as the object) 80. Be able to locate an image, and identify the orientation and type of image it is. 81. What is the thin lens equation? 1/f = 1/di + 1/do (make sure you know when to use a negative)

7 82. What is the magnification equation. M=-di/do (make sure you know what a negative number means)

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