Study Guide for Physics 1100 Final Exam

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1 Study Guide for Physics 1100 Final Exam Dr. Fazzini s Physics 1100 Final Exam will take place on Wednesday, May 16 th, 2018 from 9:00AM-10:50AM in Room BIC Click on the Detailed Class Information link on our class web page to locate the Course Objectives in the syllabus. Summary by Topics: Measurement / Variables / Hypotheses Be able to keep track of units and be able to use conversions. For example: Given: Speed = 60 mile per hour, what is this speed in meters per second? (You would be given that 1.6 km = 1 mile, and 1000 m = 1 km). Be able to identify the independent variable, the dependent variable, and any controlled variables in an experiment that is described and be able to evaluate the validity of such an experiment. Newton s 1 st Law of Motion Be able to cite Newton s 1 st law. What is the behavior of an object when there are no net forces (pushes or pulls) on that object? What is inertia? What does it mean to be in equilibrium? Distinguish between static equilibrium and dynamic equilibrium. Linear Motion Be able to distinguish position, displacement, path, average speed, average velocity and average acceleration. Be able to calculate these. Distinguish between instantaneous speed and instantaneous velocity. Be able to interpret position vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs. Be able to deduce a velocity graph from a position graph. Be able to apply v = at and d= (1/2)at 2 in appropriate situations. (Take the acceleration due to gravity as 10 m/s 2 downward near the Earth s surface.) Newton s 2 nd Law of Motion

2 Be able to sketch a force vector diagram on an object showing all the forces that act on that object. Be able to sketch the resultant vector from the addition of 2 or more vectors. Be able to resolve a given vector into components parallel and perpendicular to some chosen set of coordinate axes. Be able to distinguish between mass and weight. Newton s 3 rd Law of Motion Momentum Energy Be able to identify action/reaction pairs of forces. Remember action/reaction pairs act on different objects. For example: Earth pulls down on apple = Action. Then the reaction is: Apple pulls up on Earth. (Does it really make a difference which one of the pair is called the action? ) Distinguish between internal and external forces acting on a given system. Be able to distinguish momentum and impulse. (Impulse is a CHANGE IN momentum). Remember that change in (whatever) = whatever (after) whatever (before). The symbol for change in is. The symbol for momentum is p. Impulse = p = (mv). Also, p = F( t). Be able to deduce the outcome of a collision. That is, be able to solve problems such as PROBLEMS 2, 4, 6, 8 at the end of Chapter 6 in our textbook. Use conservation of momentum p (before) = p (after) for a system with no external forces acting it. Be able to compute the work done by a force (W = F (parallel) x displacement) and the rate at which work is done (Power = W/t). Distinguish different forms of mechanical energy: Kinetic Energy = (1/2)mv 2 Gravitational Potential Energy = mgh Be able to solve problems such as: How fast does object go at the bottom ramp given some conditions by using conservation of energy.

3 Rotational Motion Gravity Be able to distinguish rotational and linear variables (like Linear Velocity and Angular Velocity). What is rotational inertia? What keeps an object moving in a circle? What is center-of-mass? What determines the stability of an object? Be able to solve simple balancing problems like you did (or will do) in the lab. What is angular momentum? (Angular momentum = I ) Be able to describe the behavior of rotating objects using conservation of angular momentum. Be able to calculate the gravitational force between two objects whose centers are separated by some distance. Know what it means when something obeys an inverse-square law. What interpretation of gravity did Albert Einstein promote? Projectile / Satellite Motion Be able to determine the position of an object thrown at some angle near the surface of the Earth at some later time. What are the components of the object s velocity? How do the vertical and horizontal components of velocity behave when an object is thrown at an arbitrary angle near the surface of the Earth? What are Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion? What do they mean? Atomic Nature of Matter Solids Be able distinguish elements, compounds, mixtures, atoms, molecules. Know structure of atoms: Where are the protons, neutrons, electrons in an atom? What are protons and neutrons made of? Be able to use a periodic table (it will be provided), to use information regarding atomic number & atomic mass. (Look at questions 22 & 23 in Chapter 11). What is antimatter? What is dark matter? Be able to distinguish mass, volume, weight, density.

4 Liquids Be able to calculate density if given the mass and volume of a substance. Be familiar with elasticity: that the amount of stretch force (or compression force) is proportional to the change in length (Hooke s law). (See p. 231) If given diagrams (like those on page 232), be able to tell where the tension occurs and where the compression occurs. Be able to describe scaling effects (for example, surface area to volume ratio ). Be able to calculate pressure in a liquid at a given depth. Be able to calculate buoyant force on a submerged or floating object knowing that the magnitude of the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. (Archimedes Principle) Be able to relate the density of a floating object to the fluid it is in by noting the fraction of the submerged portion. Be able to use Pascal s Principle to explain a hydraulic lever (see page 255). What is surface tension? What is capillarity? Be able to distinguish between cohesive forces and adhesive forces between atoms and molecules. Gasses & Plasmas Be able to use Boyle s Law to relate pressure and volume. For example: If the volume of a container of gas is cut in half, what happens to the pressure? Note that air is fluid and that an object in air also experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the air displaced by the object (see p ). Bernoulli s Principle: where the speed of a fluid increases, the pressure decreases and vice versa. What is plasma? What are some examples? Temperature, Heat & Expansion Be able to distinguish temperature, heat, and internal energy. Be able to convert between Celsius scale and the Kelvin scale. Understand the fundamental meaning of specific heat capacity and be able to use Q = mc T. (See Problems: at the end of Chapter 15 on p. 298)

5 Heat Transfer Expansion of materials: L/L = T Be able to distinguish between conduction, convection and radiation. Which is hotter: a red-hot object or a blue-hot object? Why? What is Newton s law of cooling? (What does T represent in the equation?) Change of Phase Know whether evaporation or condensation is a cooling or warming process and why. Be able to use Q = ml to calculate latent heat of transformation. For example: How much heat is required to change 10 g of ice at 0 C to water at 0 C? For example, try Problem 37 at the end of Chapter 17 (p. 333). Thermodynamics Be able to cite the first 2 laws of thermodynamics. What is an adiabatic process? Be able to calculate the efficiency of a heat engine operating between 2 temperatures or the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator. (Be sure to use Kelvin temperature!) What is entropy? Be able to calculate the probability for a simple event (for example, like we did in class with the rolling of dice). Vibrations, Waves & Sound Be able to identify the amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period and wave speed for a wave if given a picture and/or numbers. Be able to distinguish transverse and longitudinal waves. What is interference? Be able to distinguish between constructive and destructive interference. What is the Doppler effect? What are beats? What is resonance? Be able to describe how the angle of a bow wave or Mach cone varies for speeds greater than the speed of the wave through that medium.

6 Electrostatics Be able to identify resonance modes of a vibrating air column or string from numbers or a picture. Where are the nodes? Where are the antinodes? numbers or a picture. Where are the nodes? Where are the antinodes? Be able to find the magnitude and direction of electrical forces between charges using Coulomb s Law. (How do 2 like changes behave if near each other? How do opposites behave?) What are the conventional directions of electric field lines due to charges? Distinguish between conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, insulators. Know the relationship between electrical potential energy, electrical potential and charge. Electric Current Be able to apply Ohm s Law to relate voltage (electrical potential), current and resistance. Be able to identify and use electrical units properly (for example: Volts, Amperes, Coulombs, Ohms). Be able to distinguish between series and parallel circuits. Be able to predict bulb brightness in various circuits. Be able to determine equivalent resistance for a network of resistors in series or parallel. Be able to compute electric power delivered by a battery or dissipated by a resistor. Magnetism & Magnetic Induction Be able to recall experiences in the lab and lecture: Opposite poles attract, like poles repel and induced currents are caused by changing magnetic fields. Be able to distinguish different devices: electromagnets, motors, generators, transformers. Be able to calculate input and output voltage, current and power for a transformer.

7 Light Be able to describe the relationship between the color of a glowing object and its temperature. (See Heat Transfer above.) Compare color mixing of light and color mixing of paints in terms of absorption, reflection, and transmission. (Examples: Why is the sky blue and why are sunsets red?) Be able to describe the behavior of light interacting with by plane, concave, and convex mirrors and lenses. Explain the phenomena of reflection and refraction. What is total internal reflection? Be able to identify components of the electromagnetic spectrum (for example: radio waves, infra-red, X-rays, etc.) Be able to explain in terms of vector components, the intensity of light passing through a system of polarizing filters. Be able to distinguish incandescence, fluorescence, and phosphorescence in light emission. Be able to calculate interpret energy level diagrams and photon energies using E = hf. (For example, see Chapter 30 Exercises 29 (p. 579) and 76 on (p. 580). What is the photoelectric effect? What is the evidence for wave-like and particlelike properties of light and matter? Atomic and Nuclear Physics Be able to explain the Bohr model of the atom and origin of atomic spectra. What is radioactivity? Why atoms are radioactive? Be able to calculate half-life. Distinguish the different types of radiation: alpha, beta, gamma. What is transmutation? Be able to identify the products in a decay series. Distinguish nuclear fission and fusion. What is a critical mass? What is meant by mass-energy equivalence? Be able to describe nuclear fission and fusion processes and their importance in society.

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