# Introduction. Introduction. Forces An. Forces An. Forces in Action. Forces in Action. Pressure and Pressure. Pressure and Pressure.

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1 Forces An Introduction A force is a vector quantity. What does this mean? Forces An Introduction A vector quantity, such as force, has a direction as well as a magnitude. 1 1 Forces in Action The moment of a force about a pivot is given by M = Fd. Describe fully what d represents. Forces in Action d is the perpendicular distance from the pivot to the line of action of the force. 2 2 Pressure and Pressure Differences A liquid is under a constant pressure. The larger the area of surface on which the pressure acts, the larger the force on that surface. True or false? 3 Pressure and Pressure Differences True. p = F A so F = pa. For a particular pressure, p, the force F is proportional to the area A. 3 Forces and Motion What is a typical speed for a person walking? Choose from: 2.5 m/s 1.5 m/s 0.5 m/s 4 Forces and Motion A typical speed for a person walking is 1.5 m/s. 2.5 m/s would be running. 0.5 m/s would be very slow walking. 4 Forces and Acceleration Which equation is used to summarise Newton s Second Law? 5 Forces and Acceleration We can use this equation to summarise Newton s Second Law: force = mass acceleration 5

2 Terminal Velocity and Momentum What can you say about the forces on an object that is falling at its terminal velocity? 6 Terminal Velocity and Momentum The resistive force acting upwards equals the weight acting downwards. The forces are balanced and there is no resultant force on the object. 6 Stopping and Braking List factors that will increase the braking distance of a vehicle. 7 Stopping and Braking Factors that increase the braking distance include: higher vehicle speed; ice, snow or water on the road; poorly functioning brakes; worn tyres; incorrectly inflated tyres. 7 Energy Stores and Transfers In the equation E e = 1 2 ke2 for calculating the elastic potential energy stored in a stretched spring, what does k represent and what is its unit? 8 Energy Stores and Transfers k is the spring constant of the spring, which is a measure of its stiffness: force applied to spring = k extension The unit of k is N/m. 8 Energy Transfers and Resources Complete this sentence correctly. On a very cold day, a hut with thin metal walls will cool down very quickly because of the metal s low thermal conductivity high thermal conductivity 9 Energy Transfers and Resources On a very cold day, a hut with thin metal walls will cool down very quickly because of the metal s high thermal conductivity. The higher the thermal conductivity of a material, the higher the rate of energy transfer by conduction through the 9 material. Waves and Wave Properties What is the relationship between wave speed, wave frequency and wavelength? 10 Waves and Wave Properties wave speed = frequency wavelength 10

3 Reflection, Refraction and Sound Light travels across a boundary from a material of high refractive index into air. Describe its change of direction. 11 Reflection, Refraction and Sound The light changes direction (is refracted) away from the normal (the perpendicular to the boundary) unless the light is travelling perpendicular to the boundary, in which case it will continue straight. 11 Waves for Detection and Exploration One type of seismic wave is a transverse wave that cannot travel through a liquid. Another type of seismic wave is a longitudinal wave that travels much faster. Give the names of each of these types of seismic wave. 12 Waves for Detection and Exploration S-waves (secondary seismic waves) are transverse and cannot travel through a liquid. P-waves (primary seismic waves) are longitudinal and travel much faster than S-waves. 12 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Which type of electromagnetic radiation correctly fills the gap in these sentences? In an energy efficient lamp, waves are produced by the gas inside when an electric current passes. These waves are absorbed by the coating on the lamp, which 13 then gives off visible light. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Ultraviolet (UV) 13 Lenses Describe the difference between a convex lens and a concave lens. 14 Lenses A convex lens is thicker in the middle than at the edges. Parallel rays of light converge to the principal focus after passing through a convex lens. A concave lens is thicker at the edges than in the middle. Parallel rays of light spread out (diverge) after passing through a concave lens, so that they appear to have come from the principal focus on the side of the lens from which 14 they came. Light and Black Body Radiation When we study emission and absorption of radiation, what is meant by a perfect black body? 15 Light and Black Body Radiation A perfect black body absorbs all of the radiation incident on it. It does not reflect or transmit any of the radiation. 15

4 An Introduction to What is the equation relating the potential difference across, the current through and the resistance of a component in a circuit? 16 An Introduction to Potential difference = current resistance 16 Circuits and Resistance State the behaviour of an LDR in a circuit when the light intensity falling on it decreases. 17 Circuits and Resistance An LDR is a light-dependent resistor. Its electrical resistance increases when the light intensity decreases. 17 Circuits and Power State the equation for calculating the electrical power P of a device of resistance R, when the current through it is I, and state the unit of power. 18 Circuits and Power Power P = I 2 R The unit of power is the watt, W (equivalent to J/s). 18 Domestic Uses of State the colours of the wires in the cable of a domestic appliance: the live wire, the neutral wire and the earth wire. 19 Domestic Uses of Live wire: brown Neutral wire: blue Earth wire: green and yellow (stripes) 19 Electrical Energy in Devices True or false? If all of the electrical energy supplied to an efficient kettle is used to heat the water, this equation determines the change in temperature of the water, θ. I V t = m c θ 20 Electrical Energy in Devices True. The electrical energy supplied to the kettle is power time = I V t. The rise in temperature of the water θ depends on the mass m and the specific heat capacity c of the water. Energy change of water = m c θ. 20

5 Static What is meant by an electric field? 21 Static An electric field is a region around an electrically charged object in which another electrically charged object will experience a force. 21 Magnetism and Electromagnetism Which of these sentence endings makes the statement correct? A magnetic material brought close to a magnet is always attracted to the N pole of the magnet. is attracted to the nearest pole of the magnet. 22 Magnetism and Electromagnetism A magnetic material brought close to a magnet is attracted to the nearest pole of the magnet. The strong magnetic field near either magnet pole makes the nearby magnetic material an induced magnet and this always causes attraction. 22 The Motor Effect List the factors that affect the size of the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field. 23 The Motor Effect The magnetic flux density, the size of the current and the length of the conductor that is in (and perpendicular to) the magnetic field. 23 Induced Potential and Transformers What is an alternator and how does it work? 24 Induced Potential and Transformers An alternator is an electromagnetic device that generates an alternating current. A magnet rotates close to a coil of wire. The changing magnetic field through the coil induces an alternating potential difference between its ends and so generates an alternating current in its circuit. 24 Specific heat capacity is the energy Particle Model of Matter What is the difference between the specific heat capacity and the specific latent heat of a material? 25 Particle Model of Matter needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the material by 1 C, with no change of state. Specific latent heat is the energy needed to change the state of 1 kg of the material, with no change in temperature. 25

7 Orbital Motion and Red-Shift How does red-shift provide evidence supporting the Big Bang theory? 31 Orbital Motion and Red-Shift Light from all distant galaxies shows red-shift an increase in wavelength which tells us they are all moving away from us. More distant galaxies have greater red-shift, which means they are moving away with greater speed. This agrees with the Big Bang theory, which proposes that the universe began from a very small, hot and dense region. 31

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