1 Curriculum Map-- Kings School District Honors Physics Big ideas Essential Questions Content Skills/Standards Assessment + Criteria Activities/Resources Motion of an object can be described by its position, speed, direction and acceleration. How do you describe the motion of an object? Analyze velocity as a rate of change of position: Average velocity. Instantaneous velocity. Identify a frame of reference for measurement of position and identify the initial position of the object. velocity as the rate of change of position conceptually, mathematically and graphically Boat crossing river lab to several applications where objects are moving with constant velocity: v ave = x/ t X f = x i + vt Compare and contrast as scalar and vector quantities: Speed and velocity. Distance and displacement. incorporating magnitude and direction. Apply concepts of speed and velocity to solve conceptual and quantitative problems. and displacement conceptually and mathematically. involving distance and displacement. ositive value for velocity indicates motion in one direction while a negative value indicates motion in the opposite direction
2 Analyze acceleration as rate of change in velocity. constant (uniform) acceleration as the rate of change of velocity conceptually, mathematically, and graphically. representations of constant and changing velocity. acceleration: x f = x i + v i 2 + ½ at 2 v = v i + at v f 2 = v i 2 + 2a x x f = x i + ½ (v i + v)t (uniform) acceleration to situations including objects in free fall. Motion of an object can be described graphically. How do you graphically describe the motion of an object? Using graphical and mathematical tools, design and conduct investigations of linear motion and the relationships among: Position. Average velocity. Instantaneous velocity Acceleration. Time. Constant velocity: of an object moving with constant velocity. graph of the measurements. relationship is linear and construct a best-fit line. line as the change in position over time (velocity) and the y- intercept as the initial position for the given time interval. Motion detector lab
3 -intercept equation (y = mx + b) from the graphs above, derive the mathematical relationships: -final position=average velocity*time + initial position -final position - initial position=average velocity*time v ave = x/ t displacement. Constant acceleration: position and time of an object moving with constant acceleration. of the measurements. relationship is not linear but fits the shape of a parabola indicating that position is proportional to time squared. eral examples of and compare position vs. time, velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. the line on an instantaneous velocity vs. time graph is the acceleration. Projectile motion can be described by horizontal and How can projectile motion be described and predicted? Analyze and evaluate projectile motion in a defined frame of reference. and horizontal components: Steel ball trajectory Rocket lab
4 vertical components. projectile both horizontally and vertically. Recognize that the horizontal component of velocity does not change (neglecting air resistance). Recognize that the vertical component of velocity does change due to gravity at the rate of 9.8m/s 2 downward. Design and conduct investigations of twodimensional motion of objects. measurements for an investigation of projectile motion. affect results. path of the projectile including horizontal range, maximum height, and time in flight (such as a projectile launched horizontally or from the ground at a given angle) Analyze and evaluate independence of the vector components of projectile motion. components are independent of each other. uniform velocity to the horizontal component. accelerated motion to the vertical component of velocity.
5 initial vertical velocity (such as a projectile launched horizontally or from the ground at a given angle). of projectile, time and initial horizontal velocity (such as a projectile launched horizontally or from the ground at a given angle). air to the initial vertical velocity time in flight and initial horizontal velocity Given variables regarding one component of motion (horizontal or vertical), calculate time and solve for variables regarding the other component. An object undergoing circular motion is undergoing acceleration. How can circular motion be described and predicted? Evaluate, measure, and analyze circular motion. may move with constant speed but changing velocity. directions of the velocity and acceleration vectors are perpendicular to each other. circular motion lab acceleration is a consequence of the changing velocity due to change in direction.
6 that a net force is required to change the direction of a velocity vector. circular motion the net force is called the centripetal force. centripetal force is not the result of circular motion but must be provided by an interaction with an external source. force and acceleration vectors as pointing to the center of the circle in the case of constant speed but not constant acceleration. Investigate, evaluate and analyze the relationship among: Centripetal force Centripetal acceleration Mass Velocity Radius. investigation of circular motion. combine proportional relationships into a single equation. locity using radius or circumference of the circle and time to complete one or more circuits. acceleration as the velocity squared divided by the radius: a c = v 2 /r
7 centripetal force as mass times centripetal acceleration using the following equations: F c = mv 2 /r Develop a conceptual understanding of period and frequency. Calculate a c and F c using radius or circumference. Calculate minimum and maximum forces for vertical circles. Equate F c to F f to solve for variables such as coefficient of friction. Forces cause changes in motion How does inertia affect a change in motion? Determine that an object will continue in its state of motion unless acted upon by a net outside force (Newton's First Law of Motion, The Law of Inertia). force diagrams for objects moving at constant velocity with very little friction (examples: air track, air puck, balloon puck, dry ice) Static equilibrium lab Force vector lab motion must be a constant velocity, including zero velocity, unless acted upon by a net force.. Assess measure and calculate the conditions required to maintain a body in a state of interactions between two objects, including contact and
8 static equilibrium. forces at a distance. vector quantity. on an object using a force diagram. calculate the net force on an object. force acting on an object in static equilibrium is zero. investigations of objects in static equilibrium. How does Newton s second law affect motion? Assess, measure, and calculate the relationship among the force acting on a body, the mass of the body, and the nature of the acceleration produced (Newton's Second Law of Motion). proportional relationships among acceleration, force and mass. rtional reasoning to the relationship between force and acceleration when mass is constant. Friction lab Incline plane lab to the inverse relationship between mass and acceleration when force is constant. grams for accelerating objects. (solve for mass, acceleration, various forces) Resolve vectors into
9 components and calculate the net force of three vectors of varying magnitudes and angles. Investigate, measure, and analyze the nature and magnitude of frictional forces. contact force. static friction and kinetic friction. roblems with frictional forces, applying the coefficient of friction. solve quantitative problems relative to an object s motion on an incline plane in both equilibrium and non equilibrium situations. Assess the independence of the vector components of forces. Apply Newton s Laws of Motion to the perpendicular components of force in the following examples: a. objects pulled or pushed along a horizontal surface by a force. b. three concurrent forces acting on an object in static equilibrium. How does Newton s third law affect motion? Analyze and mathematically describe forces as interactions between bodies (Newton's Third Law of Motion). forces for contact forces and forces at a distance. as the relationship evidenced by Force of Object A on
10 Object B = -Force of Object B on Object A measure equal and opposite forces using pairs of spring scales or force sensors. How does gravitational force affect motion? Assess and calculate the nature and magnitude of gravitational forces (Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation). between any two masses: Gmm/d = F g to the inverse square relationship between gravitational force and the distance between the centers of two known masses. to the direct relationship between gravitational force and the product of masses. gravity (weight) of an object: Fg = mg Equate F c to F g to solve for variables such as orbital speed. Develop an understanding of Kepler s law of planetary motion. Momentum is conserved for all How is momentum conserved in collisions? Assess the vector nature of momentum and its relation to Momentum lab
11 collisions as long as external forces don t interfere. the mass and velocity of an object. vector quantity because velocity is a vector quantity. proportional to mass and proportional to velocity. equation: p = mv Compare and contrast impulse and momentum. to change in momentum: FΔt = Δp = mδv in momentum of an object is proportional to the force applied to the object and to the time the force is applied to the object. Analyze the factors required to produce a change in momentum. and force. momentum of an object by finding the area under the curve on a force vs. time graph. mass of an object, the smaller the change in velocity of an object for a given impulse. various situations:
12 Analyze one-dimensional interactions between objects and recognize that the total momentum is conserved in both collision and recoil situations. momentum before an interaction is equal to the total momentum after an interaction as long as there are no outside forces. conservation of momentum in the following instances: o two objects initially at rest push each other apart; o a moving object collides with a stationary object and the two objects stick together; o a moving object collides with a stationary object and the two objects move off separately; o two moving objects collide and either stick together or move off separately. investigations verifying the conservation of momentum in the four situations listed above. elastic collision (recoil) where the objects do not stick together and both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved. Assess real world applications of the impulse and momentum, including but not limited to, baseball and golf, to explain that follow through is a
13 sports and transportation. strategy for increasing the impulse on the ball. (Momentum is conserved - assume the system is limited to the colliding objects. Example: car crash.) ze elastic collisions: (frictionless ice) Energy can change from one form to another without a net loss or gain How is energy transferred and conserved? Investigate and analyze energy storage and transfer mechanisms: Gravitational potential energy Elastic potential energy Thermal energy Kinetic energy energy as the ability to cause change. ansfer and storage in different physical systems, including but not limited to those involving gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, thermal energy, and kinetic energy. Hook s law lab Pendulum lab to the relationship between an object s kinetic energy and the object s mass and velocity according to the equation: KE 1/2mv 2 gravitational potential energy when an object s mass and/or height change: PE g = mgh to the relationship between a spring s potential energy and
14 its deformation, x, according to the equation: PE s = 1/2kx 2 a graph of Force vs. deformation (stretch or compression), where F = -kx The spring constant k is equal to the slope of the graph and is called the elastic constant. thermal energy increases when an object s temperature increases. y can be transferred when objects interact that in all situations, energy tends to dissipate throughout the environment. energy conservation by applying the idea that energy can be stored and transferred, but cannot be created or destroyed. the conservation of energy in words as well as charts, diagrams and graphs. Analyze, evaluate, and apply the principle of conservation mathematical formulas for
15 of energy. energy to determine amounts of energy stored as kinetic energy, elastic potential energy, gravitational potential energy, and amounts of energy transferred through work. relationship among kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy to see that total energy is conserved. (pendulum in various positions, ball in flight, stretching a rubber band, hand generator) amounts of energy stored and transferred applying the principle of conservation of energy. Analyze, evaluate, and measure the transfer of energy by a force; Work Power. transfer of energy by a force acting through a distance, when that force acts in the direction of motion of the object: W = FΔx transferring energy or the rate of doing work. solve mathematical problems involving transfer of energy through work: P = W/t = F ave
16 cause displacement in order for work to be done. Design and conduct investigations of: Mechanical energy. Power. the conservation of energy in situations involving transfer of energy among kinetic energy, elastic potential energy and gravitational potential energy.. Energy can be transferred in waves. How is energy transferred in waves? Analyze, investigate, and evaluate the relationship among the characteristics of waves: Wavelength. Frequency. Period. Amplitude investigations to measure the basic properties of mechanical waves: amplitude, period, frequency, wavelength and wave speed. mechanical and electromagnetic waves. Slinky lab Sound lab transport energy, momentum, and information. characteristics of a transverse wave including: trough, crest, amplitude, frequency, wavelength, and period. characteristics of a longitudinal (compressional) wave including: period, rarefaction, and compression.
17 mechanical and electromagnetic waves in terms of the medium through which they travel. energy is related to its amplitude. between frequency and wavelength at a constant wave speed determined by the medium. period, frequency, wavelength and wave speed: v = f λ f waves to human perceptions of sound - such as pitch and loudness. Analyze the relationship between the phenomena of interference and the principle of superposition. superposition. constructive interference and destructive interference. analyze interference and superposition in traveling waves. Describe the behavior of waves in various media. reflects from and transmits through a boundary, including the speed of the wave in the new medium. Analyze the frequency and wavelength of sound produced frequency and wavelength change when a sound source is
18 by a moving source (the Doppler effect). moving toward or away from an observer. sources and explain how the motion changes the sound. frequency due to the Doppler effect Apply the principle of superposition and the Doppler effect to calculate mach speed. Visible light is part of the electromagnetic wave spectrum and as such contain the characteristics of all waves How is light energy carried, transmitted, reflected and diffracted through different medium. Analyze the behavior of light waves at boundaries between media: Reflection, including the Law of Reflection. Refraction, including Snell s Law. Diffraction, including Young s experiment wave in a new medium using the equation: n 1 v 1 = n 2 v 2 Reflection: incidence = θ reflection w: n 1 sinθ 1 = n 2 sinθ 2 e critical angles for total internal reflection: sinθ c = n 2 /n 1 Mirror lab Refraction lab investigations measuring angle of reflection, angle of refraction, and critical angle. Apply the wave model of light to describe the effects of diffraction of light from a narrow slit(s) Investigate the effects of light polarization Apply the wave model of light to describe the effects, in terms of magnitude and orientation, of light being
19 transmitted through polarizing filters at various angles. Some subatomic particles carry a charge and this electric charge provides a force. What is static electricity? Analyze the nature of electrical charges. Investigate the electrical charging of objects due to transfer of charge. Investigate the conservation of electric charge. igations involving static electricity. electrical charge. a. The two different kinds of electric charge are defined as positive and negative. b. Like charges repel and unlike charges attract. matter is neutral when charges are balanced and becomes charged when there is a transfer of electrons. Static electricity lab of charge transfer are friction, conduction, and induction. charge is conserved (neither created nor destroyed and may be transferred from one object to another). Analyze the relationship among force, charge and distance summarized in Coulomb's law. relationship between the force and the distance between the charges. relationship between the force and the product of the charges. om experiments to support the
20 existence of two kinds of charge, the neutrality of most matter, and explain charging by friction, conduction and induction. Moving electrons produce electricity. How do electrical currents work? Analyze and measure the relationship among potential difference, current, and resistance in a direct current circuit. complete circuit. current as the rate of flow of charge. Charge is everywhere in the circuit and does not enter or leave it. Resistance lab Rheostat lab resistance as due to the characteristics of the material. potential is related to energy. potential creates current and thus pushes charges around the circuit. required to move charges in a circuit. nergy is dissipated by or transferred to other devices such as light bulbs or motors. s Law: I = V/R o Solve simple circuit problems. difference, current and resistance affect the brightness of light bulbs in circuits with batteries.
21 investigations to measure potential difference and current in direct current circuits with resistors and batteries. How do current, resistance and voltage relate in a series, parallel and combination circuit Analyze and measure the relationship among potential difference, current, and resistance in a direct current circuit. Series circuits Recognize that current is the same throughout the circuit; I t = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 Recognize that voltage divides proportionately to the resistance The sum of the voltage drops across the circuit equals the potential difference supplied to the circuit: V t = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 Calculate equivalent resistance; R t = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 Apply Ohm s law to series circuits. Parallel circuits Recognize that the sum of the current through each branch equals the total current supplied to the circuit; I t = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 Recognize that the voltage drop across each branch is the same; V t = V 1 = V 2 = V 3 Calculate equivalent resistance; 1/R t = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2 + 1/R 3 Apply Ohm s law to parallel Series circuit lab Parallel circuit lab
22 circuits. Combination circuits Calculate equivalent resistance Calculate current and voltage drops at various locations throughout the circuit. Analyze and measure the nature of power in an electrical circuit. Develop the concept of power using the power equations for different parts of the circuit; P = VI = I 2 R = V 2 I A magnetic field surrounds a moving electric charge How do bar magnets work? Investigate the properties of a bar magnet; Electrons as magnetic dipoles Atoms (iron) as magnetic dipoles Magnetic clusters Bar magnets Describe a bar magnet at the following levels; electron, atom, magnetic cluster and bar magnet. Magnetize and demagnetize iron. Investigate and explain what happens to magnetic poles after cutting magnets in half. Explain how and why the Earth is a magnetic dipole. Examine the effects of the Earth s weakening magnetic field on the sun s solar wind. Magnetism lab Investigate the magnetic field produced by an electric current. electromagnet motor generator Develop the concept of magnetic induction. (Amperes law) Investigate and explain how a motor works. Investigate and explain how the relative motion between a conducting coil and a magnet can
23 produce an electric current. (generator)