3) 4) Which car has the greatest acceleration during the time interval 10. seconds to 15 seconds? 1) A 2) B 3) C 4) D

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1 1. A cart travels with a constant nonzero acceleration along a straight line. Which graph best represents the relationship between the distance the cart travels and time of travel? 1) 2) 3) 4) 2. On a highway, a car is driven 80. kilometers during the first 1.00 hour of travel, 50. kilometers during the next 0.50 hour, and 40. kilometers in the final 0.50 hour. What is the car s average speed for the entire trip? 8. The graph below shows the relationship between the speed and elapsed time for an object falling freely from rest near the surface of a planet. 1) 45 km/h 2) 60. km/h 3) 85 km/h 4) 170 km/h 3. A skater increases her speed uniformly from 2.0 meters per second to 7.0 meters per second over a distance of 12 meters. The magnitude of her acceleration as she travels this 12 meters is 1) 1.9 m/s 2 2) 2.2 m/s 2 3) 2.4 m/s 2 4) 3.8 m/s 2 4. A truck with an initial speed of 12 meters per second accelerates uniformly at 2.0 meters per second 2 for 3.0 seconds. What is the total distance traveled by the truck during this 3.0-second interval? 1) 9.0 m 2) 25 m 3) 36 m 4) 45 m 5. A car having an initial velocity of 12 meters per second east slows uniformly to 2 meters per second east in 4.0 seconds. The acceleration of the car during this 4.0-second interval is 1) 2.5 m/s 2 west 2) 2.5 m/s 2 east 3) 6.0 m/s 2 west 4) 6.0 m/s 2 east 6. A rock is dropped from a bridge. What happens to the magnitude of the acceleration and the speed of the rock as it falls? [Neglect friction.] 1) Both acceleration and speed increase. 2) Both acceleration and speed remain the same. 3) Acceleration increases and speed decreases. 4) Acceleration remains the same and speed increases. 7. A rock falls freely from rest near the surface of a planet where the acceleration due to gravity is 4.0 meters per second 2. What is the speed of this rock after it falls 32 meters? 1) 8.0 m/s 2) 16 m/s 3) 25 m/s 4) 32 m/s What is the total distance the object falls during the first 3.0 seconds? 1) 12 m 2) 24 m 3) 44 m 4) 72 m 9. The diagram below represents the relationship between velocity and time of travel for four cars, A, B, C, and D, in straight-line motion. Which car has the greatest acceleration during the time interval 10. seconds to 15 seconds? 1) A 2) B 3) C 4) D

2 10.Which pair of graphs represents the same motion of an object? 1) 2) 3) 4) 11. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows a 1-kilogram mass and a 2-kilogram mass being dropped from a building 100 meters high. Halfway down, the acceleration is 1) greater for the 1-kilogram mass 2) greater for the 2-kilogram mass 3) the same for both masses 12. A clam dropped by a sea gull takes 3.0 seconds to hit the ground. What is the sea gull's approximate height above the ground at the time the clam was dropped? 1) 15 m 2) 30. m 3) 45 m 4) 90. m 13. Which quantity is a vector? 1) impulse 2) power 3) speed 4) time 14. An object is allowed to fall freely near the surface of a planet. The object has an acceleration due to gravity of 24 m/s 2. How far will the object fall during the first second? 1) 24 meters 2) 12 meters 3) 9.8 meters 4) 4.9 meters 15. Which color of light has a wavelength of meter in air? 1) blue 2) green 3) orange 4) violet

3 16. The data table below lists the mass and speed of four different objects. 22. The graph below shows the relationship between weight and mass for a series of objects on the Moon. Which object has the greatest inertia? 1) A 2) B 3) C 4) D 17. Which graph best represents the motion of an object that has no unbalanced force acting on it? 1) 2) The acceleration due to gravity on the Moon is approximately 1) 0.63 m/s 2 2) 1.6 m/s 2 3) 9.8 m/s 2 4) 32 m/s The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. 3) 4) What is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by ball A on ball B? 18. A 25-newton horizontal force northward and a 35-newton horizontal force southward act concurrently on a 15-kilogram object on a frictionless surface. What is the magnitude of the object's acceleration? 1) 0.67 m/s 2 2) 1.7 m/s 2 3) 2.3 m/s 2 4) 4.0 m/s A net force of 25 Newtons is applied horizontally to a 10.-kilogram block resting on a table. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the block? 1) 0.0 m/s 2 2) 0.26 m/s 2 3) 0.40 m/s 2 4) 2.5 m/s A baseball bat exerts a force of magnitude F on a ball. If the mass of the bat is three times the mass of the ball, the magnitude of the force of the ball on the bat is 1) F 2) 2F 3) 3F 4) F/3 21. A 70.-kilogram astronaut has a weight of 560 Newtons on the surface of planet Alpha. What is the acceleration due to gravity on planet Alpha? 1) 0.0 m/s 2 2) 8.0 m/s 2 3) 9.8 m/s 2 4) 80. m/s 2 1) N 2) N 3) N 4) N 24. If a 40-Newton force is required to accelerate a 2-kilogram object at 10 meters per second 2, over a level floor, then the magnitude of the frictional force acting on the object is 1) 0 N 2) 10 N 3) 20 N 4) 30 N 25. When a 12-newton horizontal force is applied to a box on a horizontal tabletop, the box remains at rest. The force of static friction acting on the box is 1) 0 N 2) between 0 N and 12 N 3) 12 N 4) greater than 12 N 26. Jim wishes to push a 100. N wood crate across a wood floor.what is the minimum horizontal force that would be required to start the crate moving? 1) 30. N 2) 42 N 3) 72 N 4) 100 N 27. A child walks 5.0 meters north, then 4.0 meters east, and finally 2.0 meters south. What is the resultant displacement of the child after the entire walk? 1) 5.0 m 2) 1.0 m 3) 3.0 m 4) 11.0 m 28. A subatomic particle could have a charge of 1) C 2) C 3) C 4) C

4 29. Which graph represents the relationship between the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by Earth on a spacecraft and the distance between the center of the spacecraft and center of Earth? [Assume constant mass for the spacecraft.] 31. The diagram below represents two concurrent forces. 1) Which vector represents the force that will produce equilibrium with these two forces? 1) 2) 2) 3) 3) 4) 4) 30. A child pulls a wagon at a constant velocity along a level sidewalk. The child does this by applying a 22-newton force to the wagon handle, which is inclined at 35 to the sidewalk as shown below. 32. What is the speed of a kilogram car that has a momentum of kilogram meters per second east? 1) m/s 2) m/s 3) m/s 4) m/s 33. A kilogram car traveling 20.0 meters per second east experiences an impulse of newton seconds west. What is the final velocity of the car after the impulse has been applied? 1) 18.0 m/s east 2) 19.5 m/s east 3) 20.5 m/s west 4) 22.0 m/s west 34. The diagram below shows an 8.0-kilogram cart moving to the right at 4.0 meters per second about to make a head-on collision with a 4.0-kilogram cart moving to the left at 6.0 meters per second. What is the magnitude of the force of friction on the wagon? 1) 11 N 2) 13 N 3) 18 N 4) 22 N After the collision, the 4.0-kilogram cart moves to the right at 3.0 meters per second. What is the velocity of the 8.0-kilogram cart after the collision? 1) 0.50 m/s left 2) 0.50 m/s right 3) 5.5 m/s left 4) 5.5 m/s right

5 35. A 1.2-kilogram block and a 1.8-kilogram block are initially at rest on a frictionless, horizontal surface. When a compressed spring between the blocks is released, the 1.8-kilogram block moves to the right at 2.0 meters per second, as shown. 41. The diagram below shows a moving, 5.00-kilogram cart at the foot of a hill 10.0 meters high. For the cart to reach the top of the hill, what is the minimum kinetic energy of the cart in the position shown? [Neglect energy loss due to friction.] What is the speed of the 1.2-kilogram block after the spring is released? 1) 1.4 m/s 2) 2.0 m/s 3) 3.0 m/s 4) 3.6 m/s 36. As an object moves upward at a constant speed, its kinetic energy 1) decreases 2) increases 3) remains the same 37. A car travels at constant speed v up a hill from point A to point B, as shown in the diagram below. 1) 4.91 J 2) 50.0 J 3) 250. J 4) 491 J 42. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below. The diagram represents a 1.00 kilogram object being held at rest on a frictionless incline. As the car travels from A to B, its gravitational potential energy 1) increases and its kinetic energy decreases 2) increases and its kinetic energy remains the same 3) remains the same and its kinetic energy decreases 4) remains the same and its kinetic energy remains the same 38. What is the maximum amount of work that a watt motor can do in 10. seconds? 1) J 2) J 3) J 4) J 39. A boat weighing Newtons requires a horizontal force of Newtons to move it across the water at meters per second. The boat s engine must provide energy at the rate of 1) J 2) W 3) J 4) W 40. A catapult with a spring constant of newtons per meter is required to launch an airplane from the deck of an aircraft carrier. The plane is released when it has been displaced 0.50 meter from its equilibrium position by the catapult. The energy acquired by the airplane from the catapult during takeoff is approximately 1) J 2) J 3) J 4) J The object is released and slides the length of the incline. When it reaches the bottom of the incline, the object's kinetic energy will be closest to 1) 19.6 J 2) 2.00 J 3) 9.81 J 4) 4.00 J 43. A ball is thrown vertically upward. As the ball rises, its total energy (neglecting friction) 1) decreases 2) increases 3) remains the same 44. Two electrically neutral metal spheres, A and B, on insulating stands are placed in contact with each other. A negatively charged rod is brought near, but does not touch the spheres, as shown in the diagram below. How are the spheres now charged? 1) A is positive and B is positive. 2) A is positive and B is negative. 3) A is negative and B is positive. 4) A is negative and B is negative.

6 45. What is the magnitude of the electrostatic force between two electrons separated by a distance of 1.00 l0 8 meter? 1) N 2) N 3) N 4) N 46. The diagram below represents the electric field surrounding two charged spheres. A and B. 51. A 2700-ohm resistor in an electric circuit draws a current of 2.4 milliamperes. The total charge that passes through the resistor in 15 seconds is 1) 1.6 x 10-4 C 2) 3.6 x 10-2 C 3) 1.6 x 10-1 C 4) 3.6 x 10 1 C 52. The resistance of a circuit remains constant. Which graph best represents the relationship between the current in the circuit and the potential difference provided by the battery? 1) What is the sign of the charge of each sphere? 1) Sphere A is positive and sphere B is negative. 2) Sphere A is negative and sphere B is positive. 3) Both spheres are positive. 4) Both spheres are negative 47. The diagram below represents a positively charged particle about to enter the electric field between two oppositely charged parallel plates. 2) 3) The electric field will deflect the particle 1) into the page 2) out of the page 3) toward the top of the page 4) toward the bottom of the page 48. An electron is located in an electric field of magnitude 600. newtons per coulomb. What is the magnitude of the electrostatic force acting on the electron? 1) N 2) N 3) N 4) N 49. What is the magnitude of the electric field intensity at a point where a proton experiences an electrostatic force of magnitude newton? 1) N/C 2) N/C 3) N/C 4) N/C 50. What is the total amount of work required to move a proton through a potential difference of 100. volts? 1) J 2) J 3) J 4) J 4) 53. Which circuit segment has an equivalent resistance of 6 ohms? 1) 2) 3) 4) 54. A circuit consists of a 10.0-ohm resistor, a 15.0-ohm resistor, and a 20.0-ohm resistor connected in parallel across a 9.00-volt battery. What is the equivalent resistance of this circuit? 1) ) ) ) 45.0

8 65. The diagram below shows a periodic wave. Which two points on the wave are 180. out of phase? 1) A and C 2) B and E 3) F and G 4) D and H 66. The diagram below represents a wave. 72. Two speakers, S1 and S2, operating in phase in the same medium produce the circular wave patterns shown in the diagram below. What is the speed of the wave if its frequency is 9 hertz? 1) 54 m/s 2) 27 m/s 3) 18 m/s 4) 1.5 m/s 67. As a car approaches a pedestrian crossing the road, the driver blows the horn. Compared to the sound wave emitted by the horn, the sound wave detected by the pedestrian has a 1) higher frequency and a lower pitch 2) higher frequency and a higher pitch 3) lower frequency and a higher pitch 4) lower frequency and a lower pitch 68. What is characteristic of both sound waves and electromagnetic waves? 1) They require a medium. 2) They transfer energy. 3) They are mechanical waves. 4) They are longitudinal waves. 69. What is the frequency of a light wave with a wavelength of meter traveling through space? 1) Hz 2) Hz 3) Hz 4) Hz 70. Which phenomenon is best explained by the wave theory? 1) reflection 2) illumination 3) interference 4) the photoelectric effect 71. An antibaryon composed of two antiup quarks and one antidown quark would have a charge of 1) +1e 2) 1e 3) 0e 4) 3e At which two points is constructive interference occurring? 1) A and B 2) A and D 3) B and C 4) B and D 73. The diagram below shows a standing wave in a string clamped at each end. What is the total number of nodes and antinodes in the standing wave? 1) 3 nodes and 2 antinodes 2) 2 nodes and 3 antinodes 3) 5 nodes and 4 antinodes 4) 4 nodes and 5 antinodes 74. As a monochromatic light ray passes from air into water, two characteristics of the ray that will not change are 1) wavelength and period 2) frequency and period 3) wavelength and speed 4) frequency and speed 75. A ray of light (f = Hz) traveling in air strikes a block of sodium chloride at an angle of incidence of 30.. What is the angle of refraction for the light ray in the sodium chloride? 1) 19 2) 25 3) 40. 4) 49

9 Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information below. Auroras over the polar regions of Earth are caused by collisions between charged particles from the Sun and atoms in Earth's atmosphere. The charged particles give energy to the atoms, exciting them from their lowest available energy level, the ground state, to higher energy levels, excited states. Most atoms return to their ground state within 10. nanoseconds. In the higher regions of Earth's atmosphere, where there are fewer interatom collisions, a few of the atoms remain in excited states for longer times. For example, oxygen atoms remain in an excited state for up to 1.0 seconds. These atoms account for the greenish and red glows of the auroras. As these oxygen atoms return to their ground state, they emit green photons and red photons. These emissions last long enough to produce the changing aurora phenomenon. 76. Explain what is meant by an atom being in its ground state. 77. Calculate the energy of a photons, in joules, that accounts for the red glow of the aurora. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] 78. A ray of monochromatic light traveling in air is incident on a plane mirror at an angle of 30., as shown in the diagram below. The angle of reflection for the light ray is 1) 15 2) 30. 3) 60. 4) A metal surface emits photoelectrons when illuminated by green light. This surface must also emit photoelectrons when illuminated by 1) blue light 2) yellow light 3) orange light 4) red light 80. When 2.0 x kilogram of matter is converted into energy, how much energy is released? 1) 1.8 x 10-1 J 2) 1.8 x 10 1 J 3) 6.0 x J 4) 6.0 x 10-8 J 81. Which force is responsible for producing a stable nucleus by opposing the electrostatic force of repulsion between protons? 1) strong 2) weak 3) frictional 4) gravitational

10 Base your answers to questions 82 through 84 on the information below. A photon with a wavelength of meter strikes a mercury atom in the ground state. 82. Based on your answer to the question above, state if this photon can be absorbed by the mercury atom. Explain your answer. 83. Determine the energy, in electronvolts, of this photon. ev 84. Calculate the energy, in joules, of this photon. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.]

11 Answer Key Final Review The ground state is the lowest available energy level that an atom can have or that the ground state is the most stable energy state. 77. E = J photon can be absorbed and that the energy of the photon is exactly equal to the energy-level difference between the ground state and level d ev 84.

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