# Optics Definitions. The apparent movement of one object relative to another due to the motion of the observer is called parallax.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Optics Definitions. The apparent movement of one object relative to another due to the motion of the observer is called parallax."

Transcription

1 Optics Definitions Reflection is the bouncing of light off an object Laws of Reflection of Light: 1. The incident ray, the normal at the point of incidence and the reflected ray all lie in the same plane. 2. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection (i = r) A Real Image is an image formed by the actual intersection of light rays. A Virtual Image is formed by the apparent intersection of light rays. The apparent movement of one object relative to another due to the motion of the observer is called parallax. Refraction is the bending of light as it passes from one medium to another. Laws of Refraction of Light: 1. The incident ray, the normal at the point of incidence and the refracted ray all lie in the same plane. 2. The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant The Refractive Index of a Medium is the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction when light travels from a vacuum into that medium. Snell s law of refraction states that the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant. When light travels from a denser to a rarer medium the angle of incidence whose corresponding angle of refraction is 90 is called the critical angle (C) for those two media. Total Internal Reflection: When light going from a denser to a rarer medium strikes the second medium with an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle, it does not enter the second medium. It is all reflected back in the denser medium. Optical Fibre is a very thin transparent rod (usually of glass) through which light can travel by total internal reflection. A short-sighted person can see nearby objects clearly but cannot bring distance objects into focus A long-sighted person can see distant objects clearly but cannot bring nearby objects into focus

2 Displacement is distance in a given direction. Mechanics Definitions Speed is the rate of change of distance with respect to time. Velocity is the rate of change of Displacement with respect to time. Acceleration is the rate of change of Velocity with respect to time. A Scalar Quantity is one which has magnitude only. A Vector Quantity is one which has both magnitude and direction. A Force is that which can cause an acceleration. The Newton is that force which gives a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 ms -2. Friction is a force which opposes the relative motion between two objects. The mass of a body is a measure of how difficult it is to accelerate that body. The weight of an object is the force of the Earth s gravity acting on it. Momentum is the product of Mass times Velocity. Newton s First Law of Motion states that every object will remain in a state of rest or travelling with a constant velocity unless an unbalanced external force acts on it. Newton s Second Law of Motion states that the rate of change of an object s momentum is directly proportional to the force which caused it. Newton s Third Law of Motion states that if an object A exerts a force on an object B, then B will exert an equal but opposite force on A. The Principle of Conservation of Momentum states that in any collision between two objects, the total momentum before impact equals total momentum after impact provided no external forces act on the system. The Density of a substance is a measure of its mass per unit volume. Pressure is defined as Force per unit Area. Archimedes Principle states that when an object is immersed in a fluid, the upthrust it experiences is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. The Law of Flotation states that the weight of a floating object is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Boyle s Law states that at constant temperature, the volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.

3 Newton s Law of Gravitation states that any two objects in the universe are attracted to each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Conditions for Equilibrium of an object under Coplanar Forces. If an object is in equilibrium then: 1. The vector sum of the forces in any direction is zero. (forces up = forces down) 2. The sum of the moments about any point is zero. The Moment of a Force is equal to the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance between the force and the fulcrum. Two parallel forces with the same magnitude acting in opposite directions is called a couple. Work is defined as the product of Displacement by Force (in the direction of the displacement). Energy is the ability to do work. The Principle of Conservation of Energy states that Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can only be converted from one form to another. The kinetic energy of a body is the energy that body has due to its motion. The potential energy of a body is the energy is has due to its position in a force field. Power is the rate at which work is done. Or Power is the rate at which energy is converted from one form to another. Angular Velocity is the rate of change of angle with respect to time. The force, acting in towards the centre, required to keep an object moving in a circle is called Centripetal Force. If a body is moving in a circle the acceleration it has towards the centre of the circle is called Centripetal acceleration. The time taken for a satellite to go once around the central body is called the periodic time or simply the period (T) of the orbit. Hooke s Law states that when an object is stretched the restoring force F is directly proportional to the displacement provided the elastic limit is not exceeded.

4 Heat and Temperature The Temperature of an object is a measure of the hotness or coldness of that object. A Thermometric Property is any physical property that changes measurably with temperature. No two types of thermometers will give exactly similar readings at all temperatures. This is because different thermometric properties do not change proportionally with the same change in degree of hotness. The heat capacity of an object is the heat energy needed to change its temperature by 1K The Specific Heat Capacity of a substance is the heat energy needed to change one kilogram of the substance by one Kelvin. The Specific Latent Heat (l) of a substance is the amount of heat energy needed to change the state of 1kg of that substance without a change in temperature. The Specific Latent of Fusion (l f ) is the amount of heat energy need to change 1 kg of the substance from a solid to a liquid without a change in temperature. The Specific Latent of Vaporisation (l v ) is the amount of heat energy needed to change 1 kg of the substance from a liquid to a gas without a change in temperature. Conduction is the movement of heat energy through a substance by the passing on of molecular vibration from molecule to molecule, without any overall movement of the substance. Convection is the transfer of heat through a fluid by means of circulating currents of fluid caused by the heat. Radiation is the transfer of heat energy from one place to another in the form of electromagnetic waves. The U-value of a structure is the amount of heat energy conducted per second through 1m 2 of that structure when a temperature difference of 1K is maintained between its ends. The average amount of the Sun s energy falling per second perpendicularly on 1 metre squared of the Earth s atmosphere is the solar constant. Its value is about 1.35 kwm -2.

5 Waves and Wave Motion A travelling mechanical wave is a disturbance carrying energy through a medium without any overall motion of that medium. A Transverse wave is a wave where the direction of vibration is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. A Longitudinal Wave is a wave where the direction of vibration is parallel to the direction in which the wave travels. Refraction is the changing of direction of a wave as it travels from one medium to another. Diffraction is the spreading of waves around an obstacle. Interference occurs when two waves combine to produce a wave of a different amplitude. Constructive interference occurs when two waves combine to produce a wave of greater amplitude. Destructive interference occurs when two waves combine to produce a wave of lower amplitude. Coherent Sources are sources which have the same frequency and are in phase with each other. A Polarised wave is a wave which vibrates in one plane only. Stationary waves are formed when two periodic travelling waves of the same frequency and amplitude travelling in opposite directions meet. The Doppler Effect is the apparent change in the frequency of a wave due to the motion of the observer or the source of the wave. The natural frequency of an object is the frequency at which the object will vibrate if free to do so. Resonance is the transfer of energy between two objects which have the same natural frequency. The Sound Intensity at a point is the rate at which sound energy is passing through unit area. The threshold of hearing is the smallest sound intensity detectable by the average human ear at a frequency of 1 KHz. The frequency limits of audibility are the highest and lowest frequencies that can be heard by a normal human ear. The range is 20 Hz 20,000 Hz. Overtones are frequencies which are multiples of the fundamental frequency. A diffraction grating consists of a piece of transparent material on which a very large number of parallel lines are engraved. Dispersion is the separating of white light into its different colours.

6 Electricity Definitions Any substance through which electric charge cannot flow is called an insulator Any substance through which electric charge can flow is called a conductor Coulomb s Law states that the force between two point charges is proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. An electric field is any region of space where a static electric charge experiences a force other than the force of gravity The Electric Field Strength (E) is the force per unit charge. The Potential Difference (p.d.) between two points is the work done in bringing a charge of one Coulomb from one point to the other. The Volt: The potential difference between two points is one volt if one Joule of work is done when bringing a charge of one Coulomb from one point to another. The potential at a point refers to the work done in bringing unit charge from that point to earth. The Capacitance of a conductor is the ratio of the charge on a conductor to its potential. Current is a flow of charge. A voltage when applied to a circuit is an emf. The resistance of a conductor is the ratio of the Potential Difference across it to the current flowing through it. Ohm s Law states that the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the Potential Difference across it, assuming constant temperature. Resistivity is the resistance of a cube of material of side 1 m. Joules Law states that the rate at which heat is produced in a conductor is proportional to the square of the current, provided its resistant is constant.

7 Semiconductors and Electromagnetic Induction A Semiconductor is a material whose resistivity is between that of a good conductor and a good insulator. Intrinsic Conduction is the movement of charges through a pure semiconductor. Extrinsic Conduction is the movement of charges through a doped semiconductor. Doping is the addition of a small amount of atoms of another element to a pure semiconductor to increase its conductivity. An n-type semiconductor is a semiconductor in which electrons are the majority charge carriers. A p-type semiconductor is a semiconductor in which holes are the majority charge carriers. The Ampere is that current which, if flowing in two, infinitely long parallel wires, of negligible cross-sectional area, one metre apart, in a vacuum, experiences a force of 2 x 10-7 N per metre. The Coulomb (C) is the amount of charge that passes any point in a circuit when a current of 1A flows for 1 second. A magnetic field is any region of space where magnetic forces can be felt. The direction of the magnetic field at a point is the direction of the force on a north pole if it were placed at that point. Magnetic Flux Density (B) at a point in a magnetic field, is a vector whose magnitude is equal to the force that would be experienced by a conductor of length 1m carrying a current of 1A at right angles to the field at that point and whose direction is the direction of the force on a north pole placed at that point. Magnetic Flux is the product of Flux Density by Area. The magnetic flux density at a point is 1 tesla (T) if a conductor of length 1m carrying a current 1A experiences a force of 1N when placed perpendicular to the field. Electromagnetic Induction: When a conductor cuts a magnetic flux an emf is induced. Faraday s Law states that the size of the induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of flux. Lenz s Law states that the direction of the induced emf is always such as to oppose the change producing it. If a changing magnetic field in one coil causes an induced emf to appear in a nearby coil there is said to be mutual induction between the two coils. Whenever the current passing through a coil changes, the magnetic field surrounding that coil changes. This changing magnetic field induces and emf in the coil that opposes the changing current (i.e. a back emf). This phenomenon is called self induction.

8 Modern Physics (which means Physics of the last 120 years) Ionisation occurs when an atom loses electrons. Thermionic Emission is the giving off of electrons from the surface of a hot metal. Cathode rays are streams of high speed electrons moving from the cathode. The Photoelectric Effect is the emission of electrons from a metal due to light of a suitable frequency falling upon it. For a given metal the frequency below which photoemission will not occur is called the Threshold Frequency. The Work Function of a metal is the minimum energy needed to remove the loosest electron from the surface of that metal. A photon is a discrete amount (packet) of electromagnetic radiation. The Electron Volt is the energy lost or gained by an electron when it moves through a potential difference of one volt. X-Rays are high frequency electromagnetic radiation produced when high speed electrons in a cathode ray tube strike a metal target that has a high melting point. The Atomic Number (Z) of an atom tells us the number of protons present in the atom. The Mass Number (A) of an atom tells us the number of protons plus neutrons present in the atom. Isotopes are atoms which have the same Atomic Number but different Mass Numbers. Radioactivity is the disintegration of unstable nuclei with the emission of alpha, beta or gamma radiation. The Activity (A) of a radioactive substance is the number of nuclei of that substance decaying per second. 1 Becquerel is equal to 1 radioactive disintegration per second. The half-life (T 1/2 ) of an element is the time taken for half of the nuclei in a sample to decay. Or The half-life (T 1/2 ) of an element is the time taken for the activity of a sample to decrease to half of its original value. The Law of Radioactive Decay states that the number of disintegrations per second is proportional to the number of nuclei present. The Mass Number of any element expressed in grams contains Avogadro s No. of atoms. Nuclear Fission is the breaking up of a large nucleus into two smaller nuclei with the release of energy. Nuclear Fusion is the joining together of two small nuclei to form one larger nucleus with the release of energy and neutrons.

### DEFINITIONS. Linear Motion. Conservation of Momentum. Vectors and Scalars. Circular Motion. Newton s Laws of Motion

DEFINITIONS Linear Motion Mass: The mass of a body is the amount of matter in it. Displacement: The displacement of a body from a point is its distance from a point in a given direction. Velocity: The

### GLOSSARY OF PHYSICS TERMS. v-u t. a =

GLOSSARY OF PHYSICS TERMS Scalar: A quantity that has magnitude only. Vector: A quantity that has magnitude and direction. Speed is the distance travelled per unit time. OR the rate of change of distance.

### PRE-LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2014 PHYSICS ORDINARY LEVEL

L.35 PRE-LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2014 PHYSICS ORDINARY LEVEL TIME 3 HOURS Answer three questions from Section A and five questions from Section B. N.B. Relevant data are listed in the Formulae

### 1.4 recall and use the relationship between acceleration, velocity and time: 1.6 determine acceleration from the gradient of a velocity-time graph

Physics Section 1: Forces and motion b) Movement and position c) Forces, movement and shape d) Astronomy 1.1 use the following units: kilogram (kg), metre (m), metre/second (m/s), metre/second 2 (m/s 2

### GCSE PHYSICS REVISION LIST

GCSE PHYSICS REVISION LIST OCR Gateway Physics (J249) from 2016 Topic P1: Matter P1.1 Describe how and why the atomic model has changed over time Describe the structure of the atom and discuss the charges

### Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

M 36 Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2005 PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL MONDAY, 20 JUNE MORNING 9.30 to 12.30 Answer three questions from section A and

### 100 Physics Facts. 1. The standard international unit (SI unit) for mass (m) is. kg (kilograms) s (seconds)

100 Physics Facts 1. The standard international unit (SI unit) for mass (m) is. kg (kilograms) 2. The standard international unit (SI unit) for time (t) is. s (seconds) 3. The standard international unit

### battery bond capacitance

abrupt battery absolute temperature beats [heard when when two notes are slightly off pitch] absorption biochemical acceleration boil accelerator bond accuracy boundary acoustic wave brain algebraically

### Science Curriculum Matrix

Science Curriculum Matrix Physics Version 1.0 beta June 2, 2008 This curriculum (core matrix) document will eventually become part of the Science Curriculum Matrix. We envision the Science Curriculum Matrix

### Physics Important Terms and their Definitions

Physics Important Terms and their S.No Word Meaning 1 Acceleration The rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time 2 Angular Momentum A measure of the momentum of a body in rotational

### N5 Physics. Key Definitions. Name:

N5 Physics Key s Name: Contents Page 3 Key s Electricity Equations Electricity Page 4 Key s Dynamics and Space Equations Dynamics and Space Page 5 Key s Properties of Matter Equations Properties of Matter

### Dynamics inertia, mass, force. Including centripetal acceleration

For the Singapore Junior Physics Olympiad, no question set will require the use of calculus. However, solutions of questions involving calculus are acceptable. 1. Mechanics Kinematics position, displacement,

### Introduction. Introduction. Forces An. Forces An. Forces in Action. Forces in Action. Pressure and Pressure. Pressure and Pressure.

Forces An Introduction A force is a vector quantity. What does this mean? Forces An Introduction A vector quantity, such as force, has a direction as well as a magnitude. 1 1 Forces in Action The moment

### Study Guide for Physics 1100 Final Exam

Study Guide for Physics 1100 Final Exam Dr. Fazzini s Physics 1100 Final Exam will take place on Wednesday, May 16 th, 2018 from 9:00AM-10:50AM in Room BIC-3535. Click on the Detailed Class Information

### Selected "Phacts" for the Physics Regents Exam You Should Know

Selected "Phacts" for the Physics Regents Exam You Should Know I. Mechanics Study Hard! 1. Mass and inertia are the same thing. (Mass actually measures inertia in kilograms Much as monetary resources measures

### Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

2014. M35 Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2014 PHYSICS ORDINARY LEVEL MONDAY, 16 JUNE MORNING, 9:30 TO 12:30 Answer three questions from Section

### TEACHER CERTIFICATION STUDY GUIDE

Table of Contents Pg. Domain I. Mechanics Vectors (properties; addition and subtraction)... 129H1 Vector multiplication (dot and cross product)... 130H3 Motion along a straight line (displacement, velocity,

### Unified School District of De Pere Physics Benchmarks

Content Standards: A. Students will understand that among the science disciplines, there are unifying themes: systems, order, organization, and interactions; evidence, models, and explanations; constancy,

### Centerville Senior High School Curriculum Mapping Physics, 1 st Nine Weeks Damon Anderson

Centerville Senior High School Curriculum Mapping Physics, 1 st Nine Weeks Damon Anderson 2/1 P.1.1 What is the difference between speed and Finding gravity lab Displacement, velocity? velocity 2/2 P.1.1

### SAMPLE DEB Exams 1065

L.35 PRE-LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2015 TIME 3 HOURS PHYSICS ORDINARY LEVEL Answer three questions from Section A and five questions from Section B. N.B. Relevant data are listed in the Formulae

### AQA Physics Checklist

Topic 1. Energy Video: Energy changes in a system To understand the ways in which energy can be stored in a system and can be transferred from one energy store to another within a system To understand

### ICSE QUESTION PAPER Class X Physics (2016) Solution

ICSE QUESTION PAPER Class X Physics (016) Solution 1. SECTION I (i) The gravitational force is always attractive in nature. (ii) The magnitude of non-contact forces acting on two bodies depends on the

### Prentice Hall. Physics: Principles with Applications, Updated 6th Edition (Giancoli) High School

Prentice Hall Physics: Principles with Applications, Updated 6th Edition (Giancoli) 2009 High School C O R R E L A T E D T O Physics I Students should understand that scientific knowledge is gained from

### GCSE to A-level progression

GCSE to A-level progression AQA A-level Physics should be a natural progression from the GCSE course and there are many familiar topics that are taken a stage further. Some topics, such as electricity,

### 1 P a g e h t t p s : / / w w w. c i e n o t e s. c o m / Physics (A-level)

1 P a g e h t t p s : / / w w w. c i e n o t e s. c o m / Physics (A-level) Electromagnetic induction (Chapter 23): For a straight wire, the induced current or e.m.f. depends on: The magnitude of the magnetic

### Subject Area Competencies and Skills (22nd Edition)

Science Education (Physics) Program Requirements Physics 6-12 "C" below indicates where content is covered through coursework 1. Knowledge of the nature of scientific investigation and instruction in physics

### High School Curriculum Standards: Physics

High School Curriculum Standards: Physics Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical

### All physical quantities understood as consisting of a numerical magnitude and unit. International System of Units (SI).

UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAMINATION PHYSICS SYLLABUS 1. PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS All physical quantities understood as consisting of a numerical magnitude and unit. International System of Units (SI).

### St Olave s Grammar School Physics AS Level and Year 12 End of Year Examination Revision Checklist 2018

St Olave s Grammar School Physics AS Level and Year 12 End of Year Examination 2018 In addition to this revision checklist, Kerboodle Study Guides can be accessed by following this link: https://www.kerboodle.com/app/courses/16816/modules/course%20guides/node/12847/page/1/content/100528,

### Foundation Year Programme

Foundation Year Programme Entrance Tests PHYSICS SPECIFICATION Standard ATS sample material 2 3 Physics 1. Electricity 1.1 Electrostatics: a. charging of insulators by friction b. object gaining electrons

### Prentice Hall: Conceptual Physics 2002 Correlated to: Tennessee Science Curriculum Standards: Physics (Grades 9-12)

Tennessee Science Curriculum Standards: Physics (Grades 9-12) 1.0 Mechanics Standard: The student will investigate the laws and properties of mechanics. The student will: 1.1 investigate fundamental physical

### PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL

PRE-LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2009 PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL Ti m e : 3 h o u r s Answer three questions from section A and five questions from section B. Page 1 of 8 SECTION A (120 marks) Answer three

### High School. Prentice Hall. Conceptual Physics South Carolina Science Academic Standards - Physics High School

Prentice Hall Conceptual Physics 2009 High School C O R R E L A T E D T O High School Scientific Inquiry Standard P-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how scientific inquiry and technological

### St Olave s Grammar School. AS Physics Mock Revision Checklist

St Olave s Grammar School Mock Practical skills.. a Can you design experiments, including ones to solve problems set in a practical context?.. b Can you identify the variables that must be controlled in

### Edexcel Physics Checklist

Topic 1. Key concepts of physics Video: Key concepts of Physics Know the units which will be used throughout the GCSE physics course Remember and use metric prefixes (from nano to giga) Understand and

### GCSE OCR Revision Physics. GCSE OCR Revision Physics. GCSE OCR Revision Physics. GCSE OCR Revision Physics. Journeys. GCSE OCR Revision Physics

Matter, Models and Density What is a typical size of an atom? Choose from the following. 10 15 m 10 12 m 10 10 m Matter, Models and Density The size of an atom is of the order of 10 10 m. 1 1 Temperature

### Chapter Topic Subtopic

Specification of the test on Physics for Unified National Testing and Complex Testing (Approved for use in the Unified National Testing and Complex Testing from 2018) The document was developed in accordance

### Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 2 Course Objectives

correlated to the College Board AP Physics 2 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring Understanding 1.A:

### PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL

*P16* PRE-LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2011 PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL TIME: 3 HOURS Answer three questions from section A and five questions from section B. Page 1 of 9 SECTION A (120 marks) Answer three

### Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

2009. M 35 Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2009 PHYSICS ORDINARY LEVEL MONDAY 15 JUNE MORNING 9:30 TO 12:30 Answer three questions from Section

### PHYSICS PRACTICAL (CBSE) - X

PHYSICS PRACTICAL (CBSE) - X Scientific Terminology / Definitions Absolute refractive index (m) : It is the refractive index of the medium with respect to air or vacuum. Amplitude (A) : It is the maximum

### Physics Curriculum Pacing Guide MONTGOMERY COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS

MONTGOMERY COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Physics Curriculum Pacing Guide 1 st 9 Weeks SOL Objectives Vocabulary 2 Days INTRODUCTION: PH.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations using experimental design

### MR. HOLL S PHYSICS FACTS MECHANICS. 1) Velocity is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction.

MR. HOLL S PHYSICS FACTS MECHANICS 1) Velocity is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction. 2) Speed is a scalar quantity that has ONLY magnitude. 3) Distance is a scalar and represents

### Answer three questions from Section A and five questions from Section B.

L.36 PRE-LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2016 PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL TIME 3 HOURS Answer three questions from Section A and five questions from Section B. Relevant data are listed in the Formulae and Tables

### Unit assessments are composed of multiple choice and free response questions from AP exams.

AP Physics B Text: Serway, Raymond A., and Jerry S. Faugh, College Physics, 7 th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2006. Course evaluation: - Grade determination Final Exam 15% Unit Exams 42.5% Daily

### Physics GCSE (9-1) Energy

Topic Student Checklist R A G Define a system as an object or group of objects and State examples of changes in the way energy is stored in a system Describe how all the energy changes involved in an energy

### Praxis Physics: Content Knowledge (5265) Study Plan Description of content

Page 1 I. Mechanics A. Vectors and Scalars of 1. Vector and scalar quantities in describing motion and forces. a. Scalars (e.g., mass, speed, time, energy) b. Vectors (e.g., displacement, velocity, acceleration,

### Summary of changes. 4.1 Forces Forces and their interactions. Previous GCSE Physics. Section. What s changed. Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3

Summary of changes This resource outlines the main changes that have been made to the assessment and subject content from our previous GCSE Physics (4403) to the new specification (8463). Our new specifications

### igcse Physics Specification Questions 2. State the equation linking average speed, distance moved and time.

igcse Physics Specification Questions Forces and Motion 1. What does the gradient of a distance-time graph represent? 2. State the equation linking average speed, distance moved and time. 3. State the

### History of Physics: History of Physics: - Identify the contributions of key figures in the history of physics.

Texas University Interscholastic League Contest Event: Science (Physics) The contest challenges students to read widely in physics, to understand the significance of experiments rather than to recall obscure

### MOCK cet paper II 2012 (PHYSICS)

MOCK cet paper II 2012 (PHYSICS) 1. The equations of two sound waves are given by Y 1 = 3 sin 100πt and Y 2 = 4 Sin 150 πt. The ratio of the intensities of sound produced in the medium is 1)1:2 2) 1:4

### Student Review Physics Semester B

Test Description Length: 2 hours Items: 50 SR (85%), 2 BCRs (15%) Student Review Unit Approximate Number of Selected Response Items Skills and Processes 8 Thermal Energy 3 Electrostatics 6 Circuits 8 Magnetism

### qq k d Chapter 16 Electric and Magnetic Forces Electric charge Electric charges Negative (electron) Positive (proton)

Chapter 16 Electric and Magnetic Forces Electric charge Electric charges Negative (electron) Positive (proton) Electrons and protons in atoms/molecules Ions: atoms/molecules with excess of charge Ions

### NYS STANDARD/KEY IDEA/PERFORMANCE INDICATOR 5.1 a-e. 5.1a Measured quantities can be classified as either vector or scalar.

INDICATOR 5.1 a-e September Unit 1 Units and Scientific Notation SI System of Units Unit Conversion Scientific Notation Significant Figures Graphical Analysis Unit Kinematics Scalar vs. vector Displacement/dis

### A. Kinematics (including vectors, vector algebra, components of vectors, coordinate systems, displacement, velocity, and acceleration)

I. Newtonian Mechanics A. Kinematics (including vectors, vector algebra, components of vectors, coordinate systems, displacement, velocity, and acceleration) 1. Motion in one dimension a) Students should

### College Physics 10th edition

College Physics 10th edition Raymond A. Serway and Chris Vuille Publisher: Cengage Learning Table of Contents PHY101 covers chapters 1-8 PHY102 covers chapters 9-25 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1: Standards

### (d) None 11. The unit for moment of inertia is (a) kg m 2 (b) kg m (c) kg m 2 (d) kg m The unit for pressure is

1. A man is standing between two parallel cliffs and fires a gun. If he hears first and second echos after 1.5s and 3.5s respectively, the distance between the cliffs is (velocity of sound in air = 340ms

### Wave Motion and Sound

Wave Motion and Sound 1. A back and forth motion that repeats itself is a a. Spring b. Vibration c. Wave d. Pulse 2. The number of vibrations that occur in 1 second is called a. A Period b. Frequency c.

### St Olave s Physics Department. Year 11 IGCSE Revision Checklist

St Olave s Physics Department Year 11 IGCSE Revision Checklist The following checklists include all the topics that will be included in the Year 11 IGCSE exam. Students should use the tickboxes to check

### Physics Higher level Paper 1

Physics Higher level Paper 1 Tuesday 31 October 17 (afternoon) 1 hour Instructions to candidates Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. Answer all the questions. For each question,

### Energy - the ability to do work or cause change. 1 point

Energy and Waves Energy - the ability to do work or cause change Work - the transfer of energy Work = Force X Distance Power - the rate at which work is done Power = Work Time Kinetic Energy - the energy

### Subject: PHYSICS Level: ADVANCED Time: 3 hrs

SIR MICHELANGELO REFALO CENTRE FOR FURTHER STUDIES VICTORIA GOZO Annual Exam 2013 Subject: PHYSICS Level: ADVANCED Time: 3 hrs Take the acceleration due to gravity g = 10m/s 2 Section A Answer all questions

### St Olave s Physics Department. Year 11 Mock Revision Checklist

St Olave s Physics Department Year 11 Mock Revision Checklist The following checklists include all the topics that will be included in the Year 11 Mock exam. Students should use the tickboxes to check

### Norton City Schools Standards-Based Science Course of Study 2003

HIGH SCHOOL ELECTIVE PHYSICS (USED AS A YEAR-LONG OR BLOCK-SCHEDULED COURSE) Physical Sciences Standard (PS) 11-12 Benchmarks By the end of the 11-12 program, the student will, Physical Sciences Recognize

### PHYSICS Course Structure Units Topics Marks Electrostatics Current Electricity III Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism

PHYSICS Course Structure Units Topics Marks I Chapter 1 Chapter 2 II Chapter 3 III Chapter 4 Chapter 5 IV Chapter 6 Chapter 7 V Chapter 8 VI Chapter 9 Electrostatics Electric Charges and Fields Electrostatic

### AP Goal 1. Physics knowledge

Physics 2 AP-B This course s curriculum is aligned with College Board s Advanced Placement Program (AP) Physics B Course Description, which supports and encourages the following broad instructional goals:

### An ion follows a circular path in a uniform magnetic field. Which single change decreases the radius of the path?

T5-1 [237 marks] 1. A circuit is formed by connecting a resistor between the terminals of a battery of electromotive force (emf) 6 V. The battery has internal resistance. Which statement is correct when

### Personalised Learning Checklists AQA Physics Paper 2

4.5.1 Forces and their interactions 4.5.2 Work done and energy transfer AQA Physics (8463) from 2016 Topics P4.5. Forces Topic Student Checklist R A G Identify and describe scalar quantities and vector

### Chemistry Terms. atomic number The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom.

Chemistry Terms atomic number The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom. chemical reaction A process in which atoms and molecules interact, resulting in the alteration

### Student Review Sheet. Physics Semester B Examination

Test Description Length: 2 hours Items: 50 SR (~85%), 2 BCRs (~15%) Physics Semester B Examination Unit Approximate Number of Selected Response Items Skills and Processes 8 Thermal Energy 3 Electrostatics

### PHYSICS ORDINARY LEVEL

*B16* PRE-LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2011 PHYSICS ORDINARY LEVEL TIME: 3 HOURS Answer three questions from section A and five questions from section B. Page 1 of 10 SECTION A (120 marks) Answer three

### Foundation Year Programme. Entrance Tests PHYSICS SPECIFICATION. For NUFYP SET 2018

Foundation Year Programme Entrance Tests PHYSICS SPECIFICATION For NUFYP SET 2018 V1.0 October 2017 2 Standard AT Sample Material Physics 1. Electricity 1.1 Electrostatics: a. charging of insulators by

### IB PHYSICS SL DEFINITIONS

IB PHYSICS SL DEFINITIONS Topic 1: Physics and Physical Measurement 1.2.6b) systematic error Error that is identical for each reading / error caused by zero error in instrument / OWTTE; Topic 2: Mechanics

### ICSE QUESTION PAPER Class X Physics (2017)

ICSE QUESTION PAPER Class X Physics (2017) Time: 2 hours Maximum Marks: 80 General Instructions: Answers to this paper must be written on the paper provided separately. You will not be allowed to write

### ICSE QUESTION PAPER Class X Physics (2015)

ICSE QUESTION PAPER Class X Physics (2015) Time: 2 hour Maximum Marks: 80 General Instructions: 1. Answers to this paper must be written on the paper provided separately. 2. You will not be allowed to

### Waves Final Review. Name: Date: 1. On which one of the following graphs is the wavelength λ and the amplitude a of a wave correctly represented?

Name: Date: Waves Final Review 1. On which one of the following graphs is the wavelength λ and the amplitude a of a wave correctly represented? A. Displacement λ a Distance along wave B. Displacement λ

### Personalised Learning Checklists AQA Physics Paper 2

4.5.1 Forces and their interactions 4.5.2 Work done and energy AQA Physics (8463) from 2016 Topics P4.5. Forces Topic Student Checklist R A G Identify and describe scalar quantities and vector quantities

### There are three units of study within the Physics Specialisation. ATPPHY001 - Unit 1:

The Physics Specialisation applies to those who require foundation Physics knowledge and skills for entrance to tertiary study in a relevant discipline or field. There are three units of study within the

### MODEL TEST - 1 PHYSICS

MODEL TEST - 1 PHYSICS [Time: 3 Hrs] [Max. Marks: 70] Note: 1. All questions are compulsory. 2. Neat diagrams must be drawn wherever necessary. 3. Figures to the right indicate full marks. 4. Use of only

### PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL

WARNING: You must return this section with your answer book otherwise marks will be lost. M 36 Write your examination number here. AN ROINN OIDEACHAIS AGUS EOLAÍOCHTA LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2001

### Units (Different systems of units, SI units, fundamental and derived units)

Physics: Units & Measurement: Units (Different systems of units, SI units, fundamental and derived units) Dimensional Analysis Precision and significant figures Fundamental measurements in Physics (Vernier

### Answer three questions from Section A and five questions from Section B.

L.35 PRE-LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2016 PHYSICS ORDINARY LEVEL TIME 3 HOURS Answer three questions from Section A and five questions from Section B. Relevant data are listed in the Formulae and

### IB Physics SL Definitions

IB Physics SL Definitions Study online at quizlet.com/_edmqk 1. 1MeV the KE an electron would gain if it was accelerated through a potential difference of 1 000 000 V 2. The 3 types of Sensors 1) LDR (Light

### Switching to OCR from AQA

Switching to OCR from AQA The content within the OCR Physics A specification covers the Big Ideas of physics and will be very familiar. We ve laid it out in a logical progression to support co-teaching

### 2. A proton is traveling with velocity v, to the right, through a magnetic field pointing into the page as indicated in the figure below.

1. An electron has a mass of 9.11 x 10-31 kg and its charge is -1.6 x 10-19 C. The electron is released from rest in a vacuum between two flat, parallel metal plates that are 10 cm apart. The potential

### Pearson Interactive Science: Physical Science 2013 CPO Science Link Correlation

Pearson Interactive Science: Physical Science 2013 CPO Science Link Correlation Interactive Science: Physical Science Chapter 1 - Introduction to Matter Lesson 1 - Describing Matter matter, substance,

### K.P.2 Understand how objects are described based on their physical properties and how they are used.

Grade 2 Grade 1 Kindergarten K.P.1 Understand the positions and motions of objects and organisms observed in the environment. K.P.2 Understand how objects are described based on their physical properties

### Chapter 1: Electrostatics

1.1 Coulomb s law a) State Coulomb s law, Chapter 1: Electrostatics b) Sketch the electric force diagram and apply Coulomb s law for a system of point charges. 1.2 Electric field a) Define and use electric

### OKLAHOMA SUBJECT AREA TESTS (OSAT )

CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS FOR OKLAHOMA EDUCATORS (CEOE ) OKLAHOMA SUBJECT AREA TESTS (OSAT ) FIELD 014: PHYSICS September 2011 Subarea Range of Competencies I. Scientific and Engineering Processes 0001

### Science. Circular Motion. Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry. Kinematics; Motion in One and Two Dimensions

Inquiry -P-1.1 -P-1.2 -P-1.3 -P-1.4 -P-1.5 -P-1.6 -P-1.7 -P-1.8 -P-1.9 -P-2.1 -P-1.1 -P-2.1 -P-2.2 -P-2.3 Circular Motion Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations. Use appropriate

### ELECTRIC FORCE, FIELD AND POTENTIAL

AP PHYSICS 2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND TOPICS ELECTRIC FORCE, FIELD AND POTENTIAL Static Electricity; Electric Charge and its Conservation Insulators and Conductors Charging Processes: Friction, Conduction

### Topic Student Checklist R A G

Personalised Learning Checklist AQA TRILOGY Physics (8464) from 2016 Topics T6.1. Energy Topic Student Checklist R A G 6.1.1 Energy changes in a system, and the ways energy is stored before and after such

### PHYSICS. What is Physics? Scope and excitement; Physics in relation to. science, society and technology; Need for measurement of

PHYSICS Unit : 1 Introduction and Measurement What is Physics? Scope and excitement; Physics in relation to science, society and technology; Need for measurement of physical quantities, units for measurement,

### N5 H AH Physical Quantity Symbol Unit Unit Abbrev. 5 absorbed dose D gray Gy

5 absorbed dose D gray Gy 5 absorbed dose rate D gray per second gray per hour gray per year Gys -1 Gyh -1 Gyy -1 5 6 7 acceleration a metre per second per second m s -2 5 6 7 acceleration due to gravity

### Lesson 4: Energy-Work-Power. Lesson 1: Movement. Lesson 2: Vectors. Lesson 5: Circular Motion. Lesson 3: Forces

In Fascinating Physics, you will study the laws of nature governing movement, energy, and sound. You will learn about the forces of electricity, magnetism, gravity, and the atomic nucleus. Finally, you

### Summary of changes (certificate to new GCSE)

Summary of changes (certificate to new GCSE) This resource outlines the main changes that have been made to the assessment and subject content from our current Level 1/2 Certificate in Physics to the new

### PHYSICS. Curriculum Standard One: The student will understand that Newton s laws predict the motion of most objects.

Science Motion and Forces 11-12 Curriculum Standard One: The student will understand that Newton s laws predict the motion of most objects. *1A. The student will demonstrate an problems involving constant

### 1. If the mass of a simple pendulum is doubled but its length remains constant, its period is multiplied by a factor of

1. If the mass of a simple pendulum is doubled but its length remains constant, its period is multiplied by a factor of 1 1 (A) 2 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 2 (E) 2 2. A railroad flatcar of mass 2,000 kilograms rolls